Publications by authors named "Eliana A Varanda"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Non-mutagenic Ru(ii) complexes: cytotoxicity, topoisomerase IB inhibition, DNA and HSA binding.

Dalton Trans 2019 Oct;48(39):14885-14897

Dipartimentodi Biologia, UniversitàTorVergatadi Roma, 00133 Rome, Italy.

Herein we discuss five ruthenium(ii) complexes with good cytotoxicity against cancer cells. These complexes are named [Ru(tzdt)(bipy)(dppb)]PF6 (1), [Ru(mmi)(bipy)(dppb)]PF6 (2), [Ru(dmp)(bipy)(dppb)]PF6 (3), [Ru(mpca)(bipy)(dppb)]PF6 (4) and [Ru(2mq)(bipy)(dppb)]PF6 (5), where tzdt = 1,3-thiazolidine-2-thione, mmi = mercapto-1-methyl-imidazole, dmp = 4,6-diamino-2-mercaptopyrimidine, mpca = 6-mercaptopyridine-3-carboxylic acid, 2mq = 2-mercapto-4(3H)-quinazolinone, bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine and dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane. In vitro cell culture experiments revealed significant cytotoxic activity for 1-5 against MDA-MB-231, MCF-7, A549, DU-145 and HepG2 tumor cells, higher than that for the standard anticancer drug cisplatin. Compound/DNA interaction studies were carried out showing that 1-5 interact with DNA by electrostatic force of attraction or by hydrogen bonding. Moreover, the complexes interact, moderately and spontaneously, with human serum albumin (HSA) through the hydrophobic region. The five complexes are able to inhibit the DNA supercoiled relaxation mediated by human topoisomerase IB (TopIB), and complex 1 is found to be the most efficient TopIB inhibitor among the five compounds. The inhibitory effect and analysis of different steps of the TopIB catalytic cycle indicate that complex 1 inhibits the cleavage reaction impeding the binding of the enzyme to DNA and has no effect on the religation step. Complexes 1, 2 and 3 did not show mutagenic activity when they were evaluated by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay in HepG2 cells and the Ames test in the presence and absence of mouse liver S9 metabolic activation. Therefore, it is necessary to perform further in-depth analysis of the therapeutic potential of these promising ruthenium complexes as anticancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9dt01905gDOI Listing
October 2019

Human topoisomerase inhibition and DNA/BSA binding of Ru(II)-SCAR complexes as potential anticancer candidates for oral application.

Biometals 2017 06 16;30(3):321-334. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, 14800-903, Brazil.

Three ruthenium(II) phosphine/diimine/picolinate complexes were selected aimed at investigating anticancer activity against several cancer cell lines and the capacity of inhibiting the supercoiled DNA relaxation mediated by human topoisomerase IB (Top 1). The structure-lipophilicity relationship in membrane permeability using the Caco-2 cells have also been evaluated in this study. SCAR 5 was found to present 45 times more cytotoxicity against breast cancer cell when compared to cisplatin. SCAR 4 and 5 were both found to be capable of inhibiting the supercoiled DNA relaxation mediated by Top 1. Interaction studies showed that SCAR 4 and 5 can bind to DNA through electrostatic interactions while SCAR 6 is able to bind covalently to DNA. The complexes SCAR were found to interact differently with bovine serum albumin (BSA) suggesting hydrophobic interactions with albumin. The permeability of all complexes was seen to be dependent on their lipophilicity. SCAR 4 and 5 exhibited high membrane permeability (P  > 10 × 10 cm·s) in the presence of BSA. The complexes may pass through Caco-2 monolayer via passive diffusion mechanism and our results suggest that lipophilicity and interaction with BSA may influence the complexes permeation. In conclusion, we demonstrated that complexes have powerful pharmacological activity, with different results for each complex depending on the combination of their ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-017-0008-zDOI Listing
June 2017

LDH, proliferation curves and cell cycle analysis are the most suitable assays to identify and characterize new phytotherapeutic compounds.

Cytotechnology 2016 Dec 25;68(6):2729-2744. Epub 2016 Jun 25.

Department of General Biology, State University of Londrina, PR 445 Km 380, s/n - Campus Universitário, Londrina, PR, CEP 86057-970, Brazil.

Brazilian flora biodiversity has been widely investigated to identify effective and safe phytotherapeutic compounds. Among the investigated plant species, the Byrsonima genus exhibits promising biological activities. This study aimed at evaluating the cytotoxicity of B. correifolia, B. verbascifolia, B. fagifolia and B. intermedia extracts using different assays in two cell lines (primary gastric and HepG2 cells). The different extract concentrations effects on cell viability were assayed using the MTT, aquabluer, neutral red and LDH assays. Non-cytotoxic concentrations were selected to generate cell proliferation curves and to assess cell cycle kinetics by flow cytometry. Byrsonima extracts differentially affected cell viability depending on the metabolic cellular state and the biological parameter evaluated. B. fagifolia and B. intermedia extracts exhibited lower cytotoxic effects than B. correifolia and B. verbascifolia in all assays. The results obtained with LDH and flow cytometry assays were more reliable, suggesting that they can be useful in the screening for herbal medicine and to further characterize these extracts as phytotherapeutic compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10616-016-9998-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101344PMC
December 2016

Molecular design, synthesis and evaluation of 2,3-diarylquinoxalines as estrogen receptor ligands.

Med Chem 2015 ;11(8):736-46

Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos - SP, Brazil.

Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs) are characteristically capable of being antagonist and agonist of estrogen receptors and, therefore, they can inhibit or stimulate estrogen production in different tissues. Aiming to contribute to the identification of new synthetic SERMs candidates, the basic skeletons of raloxifene and tamoxifene were used as model. Here of, a set of 2,3-diaryl-quinoxalines having 2-(piperidin-1- yl)ethanol in the side chain have been synthesized and evaluated against human mammary carcinoma cells estrogen dependent (MCF-7), as well as in recombinant yeast assays (RYA) expressing estrogen receptor. Compound LSPN332 showed 40% inhibition of MCF-7 and EC50=290.6 µM in RYA. The efficient synthesis of 2,3-diarylquinoxalines represents an excellent opportunity to identify new SERMs, and should therefore be of interest to the medicinal chemistry community.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573406411666150513093039DOI Listing
August 2016

Flavonoid detection in hydroethanolic extract of Pouteria torta (Sapotaceae) leaves by HPLC-DAD and the determination of its mutagenic activity.

J Med Food 2014 Oct 23;17(10):1103-12. Epub 2014 Jul 23.

1 Organic Chemistry Department, Institute of Chemistry, UNESP, São Paulo State University , Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil .

It is well known that phytotherapy has grown in popularity in recent years. Because a drug cannot be administered without ensuring its effectiveness and safety, the standardization and regulation of phytotherapeutic drugs are required by the global market and governmental authorities. This article describes a simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis method for the simultaneous detection of myricetin-3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside, myricetin-3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, and myricetin-3-O-α-L-rhaminopyranoside present in the hydroethanolic extract (ethanol/H2O, 7:3, v/v) of Pouteria torta. The mutagenic activity of the extract was evaluated on Salmonella typhimurium and by an in vivo micronucleus test on the peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice. The linearity, sensitivity, selectivity, repeatability, accuracy, and precision of the assay were evaluated. The analytical curves were linear and exhibited good repeatability (with a deviation of less than 5%) and demonstrated good recovery (within the 83-107% range). The results demonstrate that the hydroethanolic extract exhibited a mutagenic activity in both assays, suggesting caution in the use of this plant in folk medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2013.0116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4185986PMC
October 2014

An isoflavone from Dipteryx alata Vogel is active against the in vitro neuromuscular paralysis of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom and bothropstoxin I, and prevents venom-induced myonecrosis.

Molecules 2014 May 6;19(5):5790-805. Epub 2014 May 6.

Post-Graduate Program in Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sorocaba (UNISO), Rodovia Raposo Tavares, Km 92.5, 18023-000 Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.

Snakebite is a neglected disease and serious health problem in Brazil, with most bites being caused by snakes of the genus Bothrops. Although serum therapy is the primary treatment for systemic envenomation, it is generally ineffective in neutralizing the local effects of these venoms. In this work, we examined the ability of 7,8,3'-trihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (TM), an isoflavone from Dipteryx alata, to neutralize the neurotoxicity (in mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparations) and myotoxicity (assessed by light microscopy) of Bothrops jararacussu snake venom in vitro. The toxicity of TM was assessed using the Salmonella microsome assay (Ames test). Incubation with TM alone (200 μg/mL) did not alter the muscle twitch tension whereas incubation with venom (40 μg/mL) caused irreversible paralysis. Preincubation of TM (200 μg/mL) with venom attenuated the venom-induced neuromuscular blockade by 84% ± 5% (mean ± SEM; n = 4). The neuromuscular blockade caused by bothropstoxin-I (BthTX-I), the major myotoxic PLA2 of this venom, was also attenuated by TM. Histological analysis of diaphragm muscle incubated with TM showed that most fibers were preserved (only 9.2% ± 1.7% were damaged; n = 4) compared to venom alone (50.3% ± 5.4% of fibers damaged; n = 3), and preincubation of TM with venom significantly attenuated the venom-induced damage (only 17% ± 3.4% of fibers damaged; n = 3; p < 0.05 compared to venom alone). TM showed no mutagenicity in the Ames test using Salmonella strains TA98 and TA97a with (+S9) and without (-S9) metabolic activation. These findings indicate that TM is a potentially useful compound for antagonizing the neuromuscular effects (neurotoxicity and myotoxicity) of B. jararacussu venom.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules19055790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6271625PMC
May 2014

Differences in the hydroxylation pattern of flavonoids alter their chemoprotective effect against direct- and indirect-acting mutagens.

Food Chem 2014 Jul 30;155:251-5. Epub 2014 Jan 30.

UNESP-São Paulo State University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Araraquara, Department of Biological Sciences, CEP 14801-902 Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

The antimutagenicity of ten flavonoids, differing in their hydroxylation patterns against direct-acting and indirect-acting mutagens, namely 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, sodium azide, mitomycin C, benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B1 and 2-aminofluorene, were compared with the aim of investigating how the hydroxyl groups in their structures govern the biological activity of flavonoids, by the Ames test, with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100 and TA102. The flavonoids tested were: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone. In these tests, all compounds were shown to be antimutagenic in more than one strain and various mechanisms of action were demonstrated. The results suggested that the number and position of hydroxyl groups may increase or decrease the protective effect, depending on the type and concentration of flavonoids and mutagen used. These studies contribute to clarifying the mechanisms by which these flavonoids act in protecting DNA from damage. This is required before they can be widely used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.01.071DOI Listing
July 2014

Evaluation of estrogenic potential of flavonoids using a recombinant yeast strain and MCF7/BUS cell proliferation assay.

PLoS One 2013 1;8(10):e74881. Epub 2013 Oct 1.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Phytoestrogens are of interest because of their reported beneficial effects on many human maladies including cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Furthermore, there is a search for compounds with estrogenic activity that can replace estrogen in hormone replacement therapy during menopause, without the undesirable effects of estrogen, such as the elevation of breast cancer occurrence. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to assess the estrogenic activity of flavonoids with different hydroxylation patterns: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, fisetin, chrysin, galangin, flavone, 3-hydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxyflavone and 7-hydroxyflavone via two different in vitro assays, the recombinant yeast assay (RYA) and the MCF-7 proliferation assay (E-screen), since the most potent phytoestrogens are members of the flavonoid family. In these assays, kaempferol was the only compound that showed ERα-dependent transcriptional activation activity by RYA, showing 6.74±1.7 nM EEQ, besides acting as a full agonist for the stimulation of proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells. The other compounds did not show detectable levels of interaction with ER under the conditions used in the RYA. However, in the E-screen assay, compounds such as galangin, luteolin and fisetin also stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7/BUS cells, acting as partial agonists. In the evaluation of antiestrogenicity, the compounds quercetin, chrysin and 3-hydroxyflavone significantly inhibited the cell proliferation induced by 17-β-estradiol in the E-screen assay, indicating that these compounds may act as estrogen receptor antagonists. Overall, it became clear in the assay results that the estrogenic activity of flavonoids was affected by small structural differences such as the number of hydroxyl groups, especially those on the B ring of the flavonoid.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0074881PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3788058PMC
June 2014

Antitumour and anti-inflammatory effects of palladium(II) complexes on Ehrlich tumour.

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2013 Jul-Aug;68(7-8):293-301

UNESP - São Paulo State University, Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty, C. Postal 502, 14801-902 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Palladium(II) complexes are an important class of cyclopalladated compounds that play a pivotal role in various pharmaceutical applications. Here, we investigated the antitumour, anti-inflammatory, and mutagenic effects of two complexes: [Pd(dmba)(Cl)tu] (1) and [Pd(dmba)(N3)tu] (2) (dmba = N,N-dimethylbenzylamine and tu = thiourea), on Ehrlich ascites tumour (EAT) cells and peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) from mice bearing solid Ehrlich tumour. The cytotoxic effects of the complexes on EAT cells and PECs were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-3-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The effects of the complexes on the immune system were assessed based on the production of nitric oxide (NO) (Griess assay) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-12 (IL-12), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) (ELISA). Finally the mutagenic activity was assessed by the Ames test using the Salmonella typhimurium strain TA 98. Cisplatin was used as a standard. The IC50 ranges for the growth inhibition of EAT cells and PECs were found to be (72.8 +/- 3.23) microM and (137.65 +/- 0.22) microM for 1 and (39.7 +/- 0.30) microM and (146.51 +/- 2.67) microM for 2, respectively. The production of NO, IL-12, and TNF-alpha, but not IL-10, was induced by both complexes and cisplatin. The complexes showed no mutagenicity in vitro, unlike cisplatin, which was mutagenic in the strain. These results indicate that the complexes are not mutagenic and have potential immunological and antitumour activities. These properties make them promising alternatives to cisplatin.
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October 2013

Evaluation of estrogenic, antiestrogenic and genotoxic activity of nemorosone, the major compound found in brown Cuban propolis.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2013 Jul 31;13:201. Epub 2013 Jul 31.

UNESP-University Estadual Paulista, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciencies of Araraquara-Department of Biological Sciences, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Brown propolis is the major type of propolis found in Cuba; its principal component is nemorosone, the major constituent of Clusia rosea floral resins. Nemorosone has received increasing attention due to its strong in vitro anti-cancer action. The citotoxicity of nemorosone in several human cancer cell lines has been reported and correlated to the direct action it has on the estrogen receptor (ER). Breast cancer can be treated with agents that target estrogen-mediated signaling, such as antiestrogens. Phytoestrogen can mimic or modulate the actions of endogenous estrogens and the treatment of breast cancer with phytoestrogens may be a valid strategy, since they have shown anti-cancer activity.

Methods: The aim of the present investigation was to assess the capacity of nemorosone to interact with ERs, by Recombinant Yeast Assay (RYA) and E-screen assays, and to determine by comet assay, if the compound causes DNA-damaging in tumoral and non-tumoral breast cells.

Results: Nemorosone did not present estrogenic activity, however, it inhibited the 17-β-estradiol (E2) action when either of both methods was used, showing their antiestrogenicity. The DNA damage induced by the benzophenone in cancer and normal breast cells presented negative results.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that nemorosone may have therapeutic application in the treatment of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-13-201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3733937PMC
July 2013

In vitro and in vivo activities of ruthenium(II) phosphine/diimine/picolinate complexes (SCAR) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

PLoS One 2013 28;8(5):e64242. Epub 2013 May 28.

Department of Biological Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Rifampicin, discovered more than 50 years ago, represents the last novel class of antibiotics introduced for the first-line treatment of tuberculosis. Drugs in this class form part of a 6-month regimen that is ineffective against MDR and XDR TB, and incompatible with many antiretroviral drugs. Investments in R&D strategies have increased substantially in the last decades. However, the number of new drugs approved by drug regulatory agencies worldwide does not increase correspondingly. Ruthenium complexes (SCAR) have been tested in our laboratory and showed promising activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. These complexes showed up to 150 times higher activity against MTB than its organic molecule without the metal (free ligand), with low cytotoxicity and high selectivity. In this study, promising results inspired us to seek a better understanding of the biological activity of these complexes. The in vitro biological results obtained with the SCAR compounds were extremely promising, comparable to or better than those for first-line drugs and drugs in development. Moreover, SCAR 1 and 4, which presented low acute toxicity, were assessed by Ames test, and results demonstrated absence of mutagenicity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0064242PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3665843PMC
January 2014

Mutagenic and genotoxic effect of hydroxyurea.

Int J Biomed Sci 2011 Dec;7(4):263-7

Lapdesf - Laboratório de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Fármacos. Departamento de Fármacos e Medicamentos - Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas - Universidade Estadual Paulista "Júlio de Mesquita Filho" (UNESP) Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú Km.01 s/n, 14801-902, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brasil;

The hydroxyurea, a cytotoxic drug, is the mainly available therapeutical strategy for the treatment of sickle cell disease. This study aimed to evaluate the mutagenic and genotoxic potential of the hydroxyurea through the Salmonella/Microsome assay and micronucleus test in peripheral blood of mice. The doses were evaluated at 29.25-468 μmol/plate in Salmonella/Microsome assay in presence and absence of metabolic activation the drug. In the micronucleus test the doses were evaluated at 12.5; 25; 50; 75 and 100 mg/kg. The results show that hydroxyurea present mutagenic activity in TA98 and TA100 in doses above 117 μmol/plate and 234 μmol/plate respectively. The drug induced a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in reticulocytes of mice at concentrations of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg, compared to negative control (water). These results demonstrated the mutagenic and genotoxic potential of hydroxyurea.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3614842PMC
December 2011

Genotoxicity of polar and apolar extracts obtained from Qualea multiflora and Qualea grandiflora.

J Ethnopharmacol 2011 Oct 3;138(1):105-10. Epub 2011 Sep 3.

Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Araraquara, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Araraquara, SP Brazil. santos

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: The species Qualea grandiflora and Qualea multiflora, which belong to the Vochysiaceae family, are common in the Brazilian savannah (Cerrado biome), and the local inhabitants use these species to treat external ulcers and gastric diseases and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Studies have demonstrated that these plants contain compounds that exhibit pharmacological activities; however, the risks associated with their consumption are not known.

Material And Methods: In the present study, the mutagenicity of polar and apolar extracts from Qualea grandiflora and Qualea multiflora were assessed by employing the Ames assay with and without metabolic activation. Additionally, phytochemical analyses (HPLC-ESI-IT-MS, HPLC-UV-PDA and GC-IT-MS) were performed to identify the chemical constituents present in these species, including the evaluation of physico-chemical properties, such as polarity or apolarity of the organic compounds, which are related to each fraction obtained. These studies provide important information regarding the biochemical behaviour of these compounds.

Results: All extracts exhibited mutagenicity, inducing frameshift mutations and base substitutions in DNA. Phytochemical analysis identified terpenes, ellagic acid derivatives and phytosteroids.

Conclusions: The mutagenicity observed might be due to the presence of pentacyclic triterpenes and polyphenols, which are able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and result in the potential to cause DNA damage. The genetic risk identified in this present work shows that special attention should be considered for the use of compounds obtained from these plant species in medicinal treatments. Further studies must be conducted to identify safe therapeutic doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.08.062DOI Listing
October 2011

Phenolic compounds in leaves of Alchornea triplinervia: anatomical localization, mutagenicity, and antibacterial activity.

Nat Prod Commun 2010 Aug;5(8):1225-32

UNESP - São Paulo State University, Instituto de Química de Araraquara, Departamento de Química Orgânica, c.p. 355, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Phenolic compounds are produced by secretory idioblasts and hypodermis, and by specialized cells of the epidermis and chlorenchyma of leaves of Alchornea triplinervia. Phytochemical investigation of these leaves led to the isolation of the known substances quercetin, quercetin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-galactopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, amentoflavone, brevifolin carboxylic acid, gallic acid, and methyl gallate from the methanolic extract, and stigmasterol, campesterol, sitosterol, lupeol, friedelan-3-ol, and friedelan-3-one from the chloroform extract. In studies of antibacterial activity and mutagenicity, the methanolic extract showed promising activity against Staphylococcus aureus (MIC = 62.5 microg/mL) and was slightly mutagenic in vitro and in vivo at the highest concentrations tested (1335 mg/kg b.w.).
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August 2010

Mutagenicity of new lead compounds to treat sickle cell disease symptoms in a Salmonella/microsome assay.

Int J Mol Sci 2010 Feb 25;11(2):779-88. Epub 2010 Feb 25.

Departamento de Fármacos e Medicamentos, Univ Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

A series of phthalimide derivatives planned as drugs candidates to treat the symptoms of sickle cell anemia were evaluated in a mutagenicity test using strains of Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA102, without and with addition of S9 mixture, with the aim to identify the best structural requirements for a drug candidate without genotoxic activity. The compounds (1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)methyl nitrate (1); (1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)ethyl nitrate (2); 3-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-iso-indol-2-yl)benzyl nitrate (3); 4-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)-N-hydroxy-benzenesulfonamide (4); 4-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)benzyl nitrate (5) and 2-[4-(1,3-dioxo-1,3-dihydro-2H-isoindol-2-yl)phenyl]ethyl nitrate (6) presented mutagenic potency ranging between 0-4,803 revertants/micromol. These results allowed us to propose that a methyl spacer linked to a nitrate ester subunit associated to meta aromatic substitution decreases mutagenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms11020779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2852868PMC
February 2010

In vivo assessment of DNA damage and protective effects of extracts from Miconia species using the comet assay and micronucleus test.

Mutagenesis 2008 Nov 2;23(6):501-7. Epub 2008 Sep 2.

Department of General Biology, Biological Sciences Center, Londrina State University, Londrina, Parana, Brazil.

The genus Miconia comprises approximately 1000 species belonging to the Melastomataceae family. Several crude plant extracts from Miconia and their isolated compounds have shown biological activities, such as analgesic and anti-neoplastic action; however, no studies concerning their effects on DNA are available. The present study aimed to evaluate, in vivo, the genotoxic and mutagenic effects of four species of plants from Miconia genus using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Their possible protective effects were also evaluated in experiments associating the plant extracts with cyclophosphamide (CPA). The methanolic extracts of Miconia albicans, Miconia cabucu, Miconia rubiginosa, Miconia stenostachya and the chloroformic extract of M. albicans were investigated. For genotoxic and mutagenic evaluations, three concentrations were tested, 200, 400 and 540 mg/kg body weight (bw), based on the solubility limit of the extract in distilled water. For the protective effects, only the highest dose was evaluated against 40 mg/kg bw of CPA. Blood was removed from mice tails pre- (T0) and post-treatment (T1-30 h) for the micronucleus test and 24 h post-treatment for the comet assay. The Student's t-test was used to compare data obtained at T0 and T1, the analysis of variance-Tukey test was used to compare between groups in the micronucleus test and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test were used to compare different groups in the comet assay. All the extracts induced alterations in DNA migration (comet assay); however, no mutagenic effect was observed in the micronucleus assay. All extracts showed a protective effect against CPA in both assays. Our study showed that the use of crude extracts could be more advantageous than the use of isolated compounds. The interaction between phytochemicals in the extracts showed efficacy in reducing mutagenicity and improving the protective effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mutage/gen043DOI Listing
November 2008

Urinary mutagenicity in chemical laboratory workers exposed to solvents.

J Occup Health 2008 19;50(5):415-22. Epub 2008 Aug 19.

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Araraquara, State University of São Paulo, Brazil.

Solvents represent an important group of environmental pollutants to which people are exposed daily in the workplace. The physico chemical properties of solvents may result in disturbances to cellular structures, including damage to DNA. However, the effects of mixtures of solvents are not well known. Mutations caused by environmental agents are related to cancer development and other degenerative diseases. The work in a research laboratory that uses several types of solvents is equally predisposed to these hazards. In this study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of urine from 29 subjects exposed occupationally to solvents in a chemistry research laboratory and 29 subjects without occupational exposure (controls). Urine samples were collected in polyethylene containers at the end of the work shift. For the concentration and extraction of urine samples the XAD-2 resin was used with acetone as an eluting agent. Several strains of Salmonella typhimurium (TA100, TA98, TA97a, TA1535, YG1024) should be used to assess mutagenic susceptibilities among workers exposed to organic solvents. Different doses of extract (1.5; 3.0; 6.0 and 12.0 ml equivalents of urine per plate) were tested on S. typhimurium strains TA100 and YG1024, with and without metabolic activation. The mutagenic activity, measured in Salmonella typhimurium YG1024 with S9 mix, was significantly greater in urine from workers than from controls (p
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1539/joh.l7151DOI Listing
December 2008

Mutagenic evaluation and chemical investigation of Byrsonima intermedia A. Juss. leaf extracts.

J Ethnopharmacol 2007 Jun 14;112(2):319-26. Epub 2007 Mar 14.

Araraquara Institute of Chemistry, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Byrsonima intermedia is a native species of the cerrado formation (tropical American savannah). In Brazil, this plant has been used for the treatment of fever, in ulcers, as a diuretic, as antiasthmatics and in skin infections. Members of the genus Byrsonima (Malpighiaceae) are employed not only in the folk medicine but also as food to make juice, jellies and liquor. The aim of this work was to evaluate the mutagenic effects of Byrsonima intermedia, common name 'murici'. Phytochemical analysis of methanol extract furnished (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, quercetin-3-O-beta-d-galactopyranoside, methyl gallate, gallic acid, quercetin-3-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside, amentoflavone, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-(2''-O-galloyl)-beta-galactopyranoside and quercetin-3-O-(2''-O-galloyl)-alpha-arabinopyranoside. Methanol, hydromethanol and chloroform extracts were evaluated in mutagenic assay with Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test) and mice (Micronucleus test). The methanolic extract presented signs of mutagenic activity for the strains TA98 and TA100 in the Ames assay. Mutagenicity was not observed in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.03.014DOI Listing
June 2007

In vitro cytotoxicity of some natural and semi-synthetic isocoumarins from Paepalanthus bromelioides.

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2002 Jan-Feb;57(1-2):85-8

Instituto de Química de Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Numerous natural compounds have a potential for therapeutic applications, but may have to be chemically modified to alter toxic side effects. We investigated structural parameters that could affect the cytotoxicity of isocoumarins similar to 9,10-dihydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-1H-naphtho(2,3c)pyran-1-one (paepalantine 1). Paepalantine 1 has antimicrobial activity, as well as significant in vitro cytotoxic effects in the McCoy cell line. Two other natural and two semi-synthetic isocoumarins with similar structures obtained from the capitula of Paepalanthus bromelioides were tested on the same cell line by the neutral red assay. Substitution of the 9 and/or 10-OH group made these compounds less cytotoxic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/znc-2002-1-215DOI Listing
May 2002
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