Publications by authors named "Elhanan Nahum"

43 Publications

Persistent pulmonary air leak in the pediatric intensive care unit: Characteristics and outcomes.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Persistent air leak (PAL) complicates various lung pathologies in children. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of children hospitalized in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with PAL are not well described. We aimed to elucidate the course of disease among PICU hospitalized children with PAL.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of all PICU-admitted children aged 0-18 years diagnosed with pneumothorax complicated by PAL, between January 2005 and February 2020 was conducted at a tertiary center. PAL was defined as a continuous air leak of more than 48 h.

Results: PAL complicated the course of 4.8% (38/788) of children hospitalized in the PICU with pneumothorax. Two were excluded due to missing data. Of 36 children included, PAL was secondary to bacterial pneumonia in 56%, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in 31%, lung surgery in 11%, and spontaneous pneumothorax in 3%. Compared to non-ARDS causes, children with ARDS required more drains (median, range: 4, 3-11 vs. 2, 1-7; p < .001) and mechanical ventilation (100% vs. 12%; p < .001), and had a higher mortality (64% vs. 0%; p < .001). All children with bacterial pneumonia survived to discharge, with a median air leak duration of 14 days (range 3-72 days). Most of which (90%) were managed conservatively, by continuous chest drainage.

Conclusion: Bacterial pneumonia was the leading cause of PAL in this cohort. PAL secondary to ARDS was associated with a worse outcome. In contrast, non-ARDS PAL was successfully managed conservatively, in most cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.25509DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical Features and Comparison of Kingella and Non-Kingella Endocarditis in Children, Israel.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Mar;27(3):703-709

Kingella spp. have emerged as an important cause of invasive pediatric diseases. Data on Kingella infective endocarditis (KIE) in children are scarce. We compared the clinical features of pediatric KIE cases with those of Streptococcus species IE (StIE) and Staphylococcus aureus IE (SaIE). A total of 60 patients were included in the study. Throughout the study period, a rise in incidence of KIE was noted. KIE patients were significantly younger than those with StIE and SaIE, were predominately boys, and had higher temperature at admission, history of oral aphthae before IE diagnosis, and higher lymphocyte count (p<0.05). Pediatric KIE exhibits unique features compared with StIE and SaIE. Therefore, in young healthy children <36 months of age, especially boys, with or without a congenital heart defect, with a recent history of oral aphthae, and experiencing signs and symptoms compatible with endocarditis, Kingella should be suspected as the causative pathogen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2703.203022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7920667PMC
March 2021

Fluid overload and renal function in children after living-donor renal transplantation: a single-center retrospective analysis.

Pediatr Res 2021 Jan 11. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: We aimed to compare renal function after kidney transplantation in children who were treated with higher vs. lower fluid volumes.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 81 living-donor renal transplantation pediatric patients was performed between the years 2007 and 2018. We analyzed associations of the decrease in serum creatinine (delta creatinine) with fluid balance, central venous pressure (CVP), pulmonary congestion, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and MAP-CVP percentiles in the first 3 postoperative days. After correcting creatinine for fluid overload, we also assessed associations of these variables with the above parameters. Finally, we evaluated the association between delta creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at 3 months follow-up.

Results: Both delta creatinine and delta-corrected creatinine were found to be associated with pulmonary congestion on the second and third postoperative days (p < 0.02). In addition, trends for positive correlations were found of delta creatinine with fluid balance/kg (p = 0.07), and of delta-corrected creatinine with fluid balance/kg and CVP (p = 0.06-0.07) on the second postoperative day. An association was also demonstrated between the accumulated fluid balance of the first 2 days and eGFR at 3 months after transplantation (p = 0.03).

Conclusions: An association was demonstrated between indices of fluid overload, >80 ml/kg, and greater improvement in renal function.

Impact: There is no consensus regarding the optimal fluid treatment after pediatric renal transplantation. In our cohort, indices of fluid overload were associated with better renal function immediately after the transplantation and 3 months thereafter. Fluid overload after living-donor renal transplantation in children may have short- and long-term benefits on renal function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-01330-4DOI Listing
January 2021

Ultrasound Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM™) Measurements Prove Unreliable Compared to Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Adolescents with Cardiac Disease.

Pediatr Cardiol 2021 Mar 4;42(3):692-699. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, 4920235, Petach Tikva, Israel.

The purpose of this stuy is to prospectively assess the reliability of the ultrasound cardiac output monitor (USCOM™) for measuring stroke volume index and predicting left ventricular outflow tract diameter in adolescents with heart disease. Sixty consecutive adolescents with heart disease attending a tertiary medical center underwent USCOM™ assessment immediately after cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. USCOM™ measured stroke volume index and predicted left ventricular outflow tract diameter were compared to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging-derived values using Bland-Altman analysis. Ten patients with an abnormal left ventricular outflow tract were excluded from the analysis. An adequate USCOM™ signal was obtained in 49/50 patients. Mean stroke volume index was 46.1 ml/m by the USCOM™ (range 22-66.9 ml/m) and 42.9 ml/m by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (range 24.7-59.9 ml/m). The bias (mean difference) was 3.2 ml/m; precision (± 2SD of differences), 17 ml/m; and mean percentage error, 38%. The mean (± 2SD) left ventricular outflow tract diameter was 0.445 ± 0.536 cm smaller by the USCOM™ algorithm prediction than by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Attempted adjustment of USCOM™ stroke volume index using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging left ventricular outflow tract diameter failed to improve agreement between the two modalities (bias 28.4 ml/m, precision 44.1 ml/m, percentage error 77.3%). Our study raises concerns regarding the reliability of USCOM™ for stroke volume index measurement in adolescents with cardiac disease, which did not improve even after adjusting for its inaccurate left ventricular outflow tract diameter prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-020-02531-8DOI Listing
March 2021

Routine chest X-ray following ultrasound-guided internal jugular vein catheterization in critically ill children: A prospective observational Study.

Paediatr Anaesth 2020 12 15;30(12):1378-1383. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Background: Recent studies in adults have shown that routine chest X-ray following ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion through the internal jugular vein is unnecessary due to a low rate of complications.

Aims: To assess the usefulness of routine chest X-ray following ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion through the internal jugular veins in critically ill children.

Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted at a pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary, university-affiliated pediatric medical center. All children under the age of 18 who underwent ultrasound-guided central venous catheter insertion through the right or left internal jugular vein between May 2018 and November 2019 were evaluated for eligibility. Procedures were prospectively documented, and chest X-ray was screened for pneumothorax, hemothorax, central venous catheter tip position, and resultant corrective interventions.

Results: Of 105 central venous catheter insertion attempts, 99 central venous catheters (94.3%) were inserted. All were located within the venous system. None were diagnosed with pneumo/hemothorax on chest X-ray. Twenty (20.2%; 95% CI 12.8%-29.5%) were defined as malpositioned by strict criteria; however, only one (1%) was judged significantly misplaced by the clinical team leading to its repositioning.

Conclusions: In this critically ill pediatric cohort, all central venous catheters inserted under ultrasound guidance could have been used with safety prior to acquiring chest X-ray. Overall chest X-ray impacted patient management in only 1% of cases. Our results do not support delaying urgent central venous catheter use pending chest X-ray completion in critically ill children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.14030DOI Listing
December 2020

Risk Factors for Electronic Prescription Errors in Pediatric Intensive Care Patients.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2020 06;21(6):557-562

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Schneider Children's Medical Center in Israel, Tel Aviv University, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Objectives: To assess risk factors for electronic prescription errors in a PICU.

Design: A database of electronic prescriptions issued by a computerized physician order entry with clinical decision support system was analyzed to identify risk factors for prescription errors.

Measurements And Main Results: Of 6,250 prescriptions, 101 were associated with errors (1.6%). The error rate was twice as high in patients older than 12 years than in patients children 6-12 and 0-6 years old (2.4% vs 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively, p < 0.05). Compared with patients without errors, patients with errors had a significantly higher score on the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 (-3.7 vs -4.5; p = 0.05), longer PICU stay (6 vs 3.1 d; p < 0.0001), and higher number of prescriptions per patient (40.8 vs. 15.7; p < 0.0001). In addition, patients with errors were more likely to have a neurologic main admission diagnosis (p = 0.008) and less likely to have a cardiologic diagnosis (p = 0.03) than patients without errors.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that older patient age and greater disease severity are risk factors for electronic prescription errors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000002303DOI Listing
June 2020

Variability of Care of Infants With Severe Respiratory Syncytial Virus Bronchiolitis: A Multicenter Study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 09;39(9):808-813

The Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv, Israel.

Background: Viral bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a common childhood disease accounting for many hospitalizations worldwide. Some infants may clinically deteriorate, requiring admission to an intensive care unit. We aimed to describe diagnostic and therapeutic measures of bronchiolitis in Israeli pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and evaluate intercenter variability of care.

Methods: Medical records of all RSV-infected infants admitted to 5 Israeli PICUs over 4 RSV seasons were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: Data on 276 infants with RSV-positive bronchiolitis, admitted to the participating PICUs were analyzed. Most of the infants were males with a mean admission age of 4.7 months. Approximately half of the infants had pre-existing conditions such as prematurity, cardiac disease or chronic lung disease. Respiratory distress was the most common symptom at presentation followed by hypoxemia and fever. There was significant variation in the methods used for RSV diagnosis, medical management and respiratory support of the infants. Furthermore, utilization of inhalational therapy and transfusion of blood products differed significantly between the centers. Although a bacterial pathogen was isolated in only 13.4% of the infants, 82.6% of the cohort was treated with antibiotics.

Conclusions: Significant variation was found between the different PICUs regarding RSV bronchiolitis diagnosis, medical management and respiratory support, which may not be accounted for by the differences in baseline and clinical characteristics of the infants. Some of these differences may be explained by uneven resource allocations. This diversity and the documented routine use of medications with weak evidence of efficacy calls for national guidelines for bronchiolitis management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002707DOI Listing
September 2020

Isavuconazole As Successful Salvage Therapy for Mucormycosis in Pediatric Patients.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2020 08;39(8):718-724

From the Day Hospitalization Department, Infectious Diseases Unit, Hemato-Oncology Department, Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva.

Background: Mucormycosis is a rare but emerging life-threatening fungal disease with limited treatment options. Isavuconazole is a new triazole that has shown efficacy in adults for primary and salvage treatment of mucormycosis. However, data in children are scarce.

Methods: The demographic and clinical data of pediatric patients with proven mucormycosis who were treated with isavuconazole in 2015 to 2019 at 2 centers were collected.

Results: Four children of median age 10.5 years (range 7-14) met the study criteria. Three had underlying hematologic malignancies, and 1 had sustained major trauma. Isavuconazole was used as salvage therapy in all: in 3 patients for refractory disease, and in 1 after intolerance to another antifungal drug. Isavuconazole was administered alone or combined with other antifungal agents. Following treatment and surgical intervention, complete clinical, radiologic and mycologic responses were documented in all patients. A literature review identified 8 children with mucormycosis who were successfully treated with isavuconazole, as salvage therapy in the majority.

Conclusion: Our limited experience supports the use of isavuconazole as salvage therapy in pediatric mucormycosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002671DOI Listing
August 2020

Hemodynamic effects of intravenous paracetamol in critically ill children with septic shock on inotropic support.

J Intensive Care 2020 29;8:14. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

1Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, 14 Kaplan St., 4920235 Petach Tikva, Israel.

Background: Treatment with intravenous paracetamol may impair hemodynamics in critically ill adults. Few data are available in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, extent, and risk factors of hypotension following intravenous paracetamol administration in children with septic shock on inotropic support.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical charts of all children aged 1 month to 18 years with septic shock who were treated with intravenous paracetamol while on inotropic support at the critical care unit of a tertiary pediatric medical center in 2013-2018. Data were collected on patient demographics, underlying disease, Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction (PELOD) score, hemodynamic parameters before and up to 120 min after paracetamol administration, and need for inotropic support or intravenous fluid bolus. The main outcome measures were a change in blood pressure, hypotension, and hypotension requiring intervention.

Results: The cohort included 45 children of mean age 8.9 ± 5.1 years. The mean inotropic support score was 12.1 ± 9.5. A total of 105 doses of paracetamol were administered. The lowest mean systolic pressure (108 ± 15 mmHg) was recorded at 60 min ( = 0.002). Systolic blood pressure decreased at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after delivery of 50, 67, 61, and 59 drug doses, respectively. There were 5 events of systolic hypotension (decrease of 1 to 16 mmHg below systolic blood pressure hypotensive value). Mean arterial pressure decreased by ≥ 15% in 8 drug doses at 30 min (7.6%, mean - 19 ± 4 mmHg), 18 doses at 60 min (17.1%, mean - 20 ± 7 mmHg), 16 doses at 90 min (15.2%, mean - 20 ± 5 mmHg), and 17 doses at 120 min (16.2%, mean - 19 ± 5 mmHg). Mean arterial hypotension occurred at the respective time points in 2, 13, 10, and 9 drug doses. After 12 drug doses (11.4%), patients required an inotropic dose increment or fluid bolus.

Conclusions: Hypotensive events are not uncommon in critically ill children on inotropic support treated with intravenous paracetamol, and physicians should be alert to their occurrence and the need for intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40560-020-0430-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6988254PMC
January 2020

Emergency or urgent splenectomy in children for non-traumatic reasons.

Eur J Pediatr 2019 Sep 16;178(9):1363-1367. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Head of Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel.

Emergency splenectomy is rarely performed since a widespread consensus exists towards conservative management of splenic injury. However, in selected conditions, mainly hematological, there is a role for emergency or urgent splenectomy. This study aims to retrospectively review these cases and discuss outcome in relation to the pre-existing splenic pathologies. Between 2000 and 2015, 12 patients, five girls, and seven boys, with a median age of six years (3 months-13.11 years), underwent emergency or urgent splenectomy for non-traumatic conditions. All patients had major associated disorders; mainly hematological (11 cases) including hemolytic anemia with pancytopenia (1), sickle cell anemia (1), AML (1), ALL (2), CML (1), T cell lymphoma (1), Burkitt lymphoma (1), and ITP (3). One patient had a microvillous inclusion disease. Indications for splenectomy included diffuse resistant splenic abscesses (4), intracranial hemorrhage (4) or hypersplenism (3) with refractory thrombocytopenia, and spontaneous splenic rapture (1). Nine patients improved following surgery but three died, owing to massive intracranial hemorrhage (1) and severe respiratory failure (2) despite aggressive management.Conclusions: Rarely, an emergency splenectomy is required in complex settings, mostly refractory hematological conditions, in a deteriorating patient when all other measurements have failed. A multidisciplinary team approach is mandatory in the treatment of these complex cases. What is known • Conservative treatment is advised for splenic injury. • Many hematological disorders are responsible of splenic pathology. What is new • Emergency splenectomy in children for reasons other than trauma is a treatment of last resort that should be performed in a multidisciplinary context. • The outcome of emergency splenectomy in children for reasons other than trauma depends on the underlying medical condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-019-03424-6DOI Listing
September 2019

Triclofos Sodium for Pediatric Sedation in Non-Painful Neurodiagnostic Studies.

Paediatr Drugs 2019 Oct;21(5):371-378

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, 4920235, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Aim: Triclofos sodium (TFS) has been used for many years in children as a sedative for painless medical procedures. It is physiologically and pharmacologically similar to chloral hydrate, which has been censured for use in children with neurocognitive disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of TFS sedation in a pediatric population with a high rate of neurocognitive disability.

Methods: The database of the neurodiagnostic institute of a tertiary academic pediatric medical center was retrospectively reviewed for all children who underwent sedation with TFS in 2014. Data were collected on demographics, comorbidities, neurologic symptoms, sedation-related variables, and outcome.

Results: The study population consisted of 869 children (58.2% male) of median age 25 months (range 5-200 months); 364 (41.2%) had neurocognitive diagnoses, mainly seizures/epilepsy, hypotonia, or developmental delay. TFS was used for routine electroencephalography in 486 (53.8%) patients and audiometry in 401 (46.2%). Mean (± SD) dose of TFS was 50.2 ± 4.9 mg/kg. Median time to sedation was 45 min (range 5-245), and median duration of sedation was 35 min (range 5-190). Adequate sedation depth was achieved in 769 cases (88.5%). Rates of sedation-related adverse events were low: apnea, 0; desaturation ≤ 90%, 0.2% (two patients); and emesis, 0.35% (three patients). None of the children had hemodynamic instability or signs of poor perfusion. There was no association between desaturations and the presence of hypotonia or developmental delay.

Conclusion: TFS, when administered in a controlled and monitored environment, may be safe for use in children, including those with underlying neurocognitive disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40272-019-00346-6DOI Listing
October 2019

The Hemodynamic Effect of Intravenous Paracetamol in Children: A Retrospective Chart Review.

Paediatr Drugs 2019 Jun;21(3):177-183

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center in Israel, 14 Kaplan Street, 4920235, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Aim: Studies in adults have reported frequent episodes of blood pressure drops following intravenous paracetamol administration. We aimed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of intravenous paracetamol in critically ill children.

Methods: The charts of 100 pediatric intensive care patients (age range 0.1-18 years) who were treated with intravenous paracetamol between March and September 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. A hemodynamic event was defined as a drop of > 15% in systolic or mean arterial blood pressure within 120 min after drug administration. Hypotension was defined as either a drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) below the 5th percentile for age or a hemodynamic event associated with tachycardia, increased lactate level, or treatment with a fluid bolus or vasopressors.

Results: A hemodynamic event was observed in 39 patients (39%). In these patients, SBP was in the pre-hypertension or hypertension values in 36/39 patients before paracetamol administration, median (IQR) SBP decreased from the 99th (95-99) percentile for age before to the 50th (50-95) percentile after paracetamol (p < 0.001) and mean heart rate was 137 bpm before treatment and 115 bpm after (p = 0.002). SBP values did not drop below the 5th percentile in any patient. In 15 patients diagnosed with shock on admission, paracetamol treatment did not cause an increase in vasopressor treatment after drug administration.

Conclusions: In the present study of critically ill pediatric patients, intravenous paracetamol administration was associated with a drop in SBP from high to normal values for age, possibly due to pain relief, with no evidence for a negative hemodynamic event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40272-019-00336-8DOI Listing
June 2019

Treatment Outcomes of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Bacteremia in Critically Ill Children: A Multicenter Experience.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2019 05;20(5):e231-e239

Pediatric Intensive Care Department, The Edmond and Lily Safra Children's Hospital, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Ramat-Gan, Israel.

Objectives: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a gram-negative opportunistic bacterium that may cause a myriad of clinical diseases in immunocompromised individuals. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, risk factors, mortality, and treatment of S. maltophilia bacteremia in critically ill children, a topic on which data are sparse.

Design: A multicenter observational retrospective study in which medical charts of critically ill children with S. maltophilia bacteremia were reviewed between 2012 and 2017.

Setting: Data were collected from each of the four largest PICUs nationwide, allocated in tertiary medical centers to which children with complex conditions are referred regularly.

Patients: A total of 68 suitable cases of S. maltophilia bacteremia were retrieved and reviewed.

Measurements And Main Results: The total occurrence rate of S. maltophilia isolation had increased significantly during the study period (r = 0.65; p = 0.02). The crude mortality was 42%, and the attributed mortality was 18%. Significant risk factors for mortality were a longer length of hospital stay prior to infection (33 d in nonsurvivors vs 28 in survivors; p = 0.03), a nosocomial source of infection (p = 0.02), presentation with septic shock (p < 0.001), and treatment with chemotherapy (p = 0.007) or carbapenem antibiotics (p = 0.05) prior to culture retrieval. On multivariate analysis, septic shock (odds ratio, 14.6; 95% CI, 1.45-147.05; p = 0.023) and being treated with chemotherapy prior to infection (odds ratio, 5.2; 95% CI, 1.59-17.19; p = 0.006)] were associated with mortality. The combination of ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and minocycline resulted in the longest survival time (p < 0.01).

Conclusions: The significant attributed mortality associated with S. maltophilia bacteremia in critically ill children calls for an aggressive therapeutic approach. The findings of this investigation favor a combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, and minocycline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000001919DOI Listing
May 2019

Prevalence of acute kidney injury after liver transplantation in children: Comparison of the pRIFLE, AKIN, and KDIGO criteria using corrected serum creatinine.

J Crit Care 2019 04 14;50:275-279. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Affiliated With Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel. Electronic address:

Purpose: To compare the application of three standardized definitions of acute kidney injury (AKI), using corrected serum creatinine values, in children immediately after liver transplantation.

Methods: Retrospective search of a tertiary pediatric hospital database yielded 77 patients (age < 18 years) who underwent liver transplantation in 2007-2017. Serum creatinine levels during the 24 h before and after surgery were corrected to daily fluid balance, and the prevalence of AKI was calculated using the Pediatric RIFLE (pRIFLE), AKI Network (AKIN), and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria.

Results: AKI occurred in 44 children (57%) according to the pRIFLE criteria (stage I, 34%; stage II, 10%, stage III, 13%) and 33 children (43%) according to the AKIN and KDIGO criteria (stage I, 20%; stage II, 10%; stage III, 13%). There was a good correlation (kappa = 0.78) among the three criteria. AKI was associated with longer duration of mechanical ventilation (5.5 ± 6.2 vs 3.6 ± 4.0 days, p < .05) and longer ICU stay (15.2 ± 8.8 vs 12.1 ± 7.5 days, p < .05). Serum creatinine normalized in all patients (mean, 0.43 ± 0.17 mg/dl) by one year.

Conclusions: There is a good correlation among the three criteria defining AKI in pediatric liver transplant recipients. AKI is highly prevalent in this patient group and confers a worse ICU course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2019.01.010DOI Listing
April 2019

Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Children Admitted to the PICU for Diabetic Ketoacidosis. A Retrospective Study.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2019 01;20(1):e10-e14

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Objectives: Acute kidney injury in the critically ill pediatric population is associated with worse outcome. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, associated clinical variables, and outcomes of acute kidney injury in children admitted to the PICU with diabetic ketoacidosis.

Design: Retrospective cohort.

Setting: PICU of a tertiary, university affiliated, pediatric medical center.

Patients: All children less than age 18 years with a primary diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis admitted to the PICU between November 2004 and October 2017.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Acute kidney injury was categorized into three stages using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes scale. Of the 82 children who met the inclusion criteria, 24 (30%) had acute kidney injury: 18 (75%) stage 1, five (21%) stage 2, and one (4%) stage 3. None needed renal replacement therapy. Compared with the patients without acute kidney injury, the acute kidney injury group was characterized by higher mean admission serum levels of sodium (143.25 ± 9 vs 138.6 ± 4.9 mmol/L; p = 0.0035), lactate (29.4 ± 17.1 vs 24.1 ± 10.8 mg/dL; p = 0.005), and glucose (652 ± 223 vs 542 ± 151 mg/dL; p = 0.01). There was no between-group difference in length of PICU stay (1.38 ± 0.7 vs 1.4 ± 0.7 d; p = 0.95) or hospitalization (6.1 ± 2.1 vs 5.8 ± 5.6 d; p = 0.45). Kidney injury was documented at discharge in four patients with acute kidney injury (16.7%), all stage 1; all had normal creatinine levels at the first clinical outpatient follow-up. All 82 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis survived.

Conclusions: In this study, acute kidney injury was not uncommon in children with diabetic ketoacidosis hospitalized in the PICU. However, it was usually mild and not associated with longer hospitalization or residual kidney injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000001758DOI Listing
January 2019

Risk factors for early invasive fungal infections in paediatric liver transplant recipients.

Mycoses 2018 Sep 20;61(9):639-645. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv, Israel.

Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) postliver transplantation are a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality; however, studies reporting on these infections in the paediatric population are scarce. To investigate the incidence and risk factors of IFIs in paediatric liver transplant recipients during the early posttransplantation period (≤3 months). Data were collected for all paediatric liver transplant recipients registered in a national transplantation center from 2004 to 2014. Using a stepwise logistic regression to identify independent risk factors for IFIs, a predictive model was formulated. Ten IFIs were identified in 81 liver transplant recipients (12.3%) all occurring during the first month posttransplantation. Candida species were responsible for nine cases (90%), of which four were non-albicans Candida (44%). Significant risk factors were identified; recipient of multiple blood product transfusions during transplantation, prolonged use of indwelling intravenous catheter, prolonged IV antibiotic treatment, surgical complications, pulse steroid treatment and living donor liver transplantation. The predictive model used two clinical parameters to define high-risk patients: a living donor transplantation and duration of IV antibiotic treatment (area under the ROC curve 0.918). IFIs are a significant complication occurring in the first month posttransplantation. Future studies are required to assess efficacy of targeted antifungal prophylaxis in high risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.12784DOI Listing
September 2018

Blood Cultures Drawn From Arterial Catheters Are Reliable for the Detection of Bloodstream Infection in Critically Ill Children.

Pediatr Crit Care Med 2018 05;19(5):e213-e218

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objectives: Arterial catheters may serve as an additional source for blood cultures in children when peripheral venipuncture is challenging. The aim of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of cultures obtained through indwelling arterial catheters for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections in critically ill pediatric patients.

Design: Observational and comparative.

Setting: General and cardiac ICUs of a tertiary, university-affiliated pediatric medical center.

Patients: The study group consisted of 138 patients admitted to the general or cardiac PICU in 2014-2015 who met the following criteria: presence of an indwelling arterial catheter and indication for blood culture.

Interventions: Blood was drawn by peripheral venipuncture and through the arterial catheter for each patient and sent for culture (total 276 culture pairs).

Measurements And Main Results: Two specialists blinded to the blood source evaluated each positive culture to determine if the result represented true bloodstream infection or contamination. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the arterial catheter and peripheral cultures for the diagnosis of bloodstream infection were calculated. Of the 56 positive cultures, 41 (15% of total samples) were considered diagnostic of true bloodstream infection. In the other 15 (5%), the results were attributed to contamination. The rate of false-positive results was higher for arterial catheter than for peripheral venipuncture cultures (4% vs 1.5%) but did not lead to prolonged unnecessary antibiotic treatment. On statistical analysis, arterial catheter blood cultures had high sensitivity (85%) and specificity (95%) for the diagnosis of true bloodstream infection, with comparable performance to peripheral blood cultures.

Conclusion: Cultures of arterial catheter-drawn blood are reliable for the detection of bloodstream infection in PICUs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PCC.0000000000001462DOI Listing
May 2018

Case Not Closed: Prescription Errors 12 Years after Computerized Physician Order Entry Implementation.

J Pediatr 2017 11;190:236-240.e2

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center in Israel, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Objective: To assess the prolonged impact of computerized physician order entry (CPOE) on medication prescription errors in pediatric intensive care patients.

Study Design: This observational study was conducted at a pediatric intensive care unit in which a CPOE (Metavision, iMDsoft, Israel) with a limited clinical decision support system was implemented between 2004 and 2007. Since then, no changes were made to the systems. We analyzed 2500 electronic prescriptions (1250 prescriptions from 2015 and 1250 prescriptions from 2016). Prescription errors were identified by a pediatric intensive care physician and classified as potential adverse drug events, medication prescription errors, or rule violations. Their prevalence was compared with the rate in 2007, reported in a previous study from the same unit. A randomly selected 10% of the prescriptions were also analyzed by the pediatric intensive care unit pharmacist, and the level of agreement was determined.

Results: The rate of prescription errors increased from 1.4% in 2007 to 3.2% in 2015 (P = .03). Following revision of the clinical decision support system tools, prescription errors decreased to 1% in 2016 (P < .0001). The potential adverse drug event rate dropped from 2% in 2015 to 0.7% in 2016 (P = .006), and the medication prescription error rate, from 1% to 0.2% (P = .01). The agreement between the 2 reviewers was excellent (k = 0.96).

Conclusions: The rate of prescription errors may increase with time from implementation of a CPOE. Repeated surveillance of prescription errors is highly advised to plan strategies to reduce them. This approach should be considered in quality improvement of computerized information systems in general.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.08.013DOI Listing
November 2017

Apnea induced by respiratory syncytial virus infection is not associated with viral invasion of the central nervous system.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2014 Aug;33(8):880-1

From the *Departments of Pediatrics C; †Departments of Pediatrics A, Schneider Children's Medical Center, Petach Tikva; ‡Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv; §Central Virology Laboratory, Public Health Services, Israel Ministry of Health, Tel Hashomer; ¶Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, Felsenstein Medical Research Center; and ‖Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center, Petach Tikva, Israel.

We aimed to study whether direct central nervous system invasion is responsible for the neurologic manifestations seen in hospitalized infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Cerebrospinal fluid from infants with RSV infection was tested for the detection of the following respiratory RNA viruses: RSV, influenza A and B, pandemic influenza H1N1, Parainfluenza-3, human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, parechovirus and enterovirus. All children tested negative for the presence of viral material in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our results support the notion that the mechanism of RSV-induced neurologic manifestations, including apnea, is not direct central nervous system invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000311DOI Listing
August 2014

Compartment syndrome because of acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy: a case report and literature review.

J Pediatr Orthop B 2014 Sep;23(5):419-21

Departments of aPediatrics C bPediatric Intensive Care cPediatric Orthopedic Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva dSackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Unlabelled: Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy (AHEI) is a benign, self-limiting vasculitis that usually resolves completely without any sequelae or a need for active therapy. To our knowledge, compartment syndrome because of AHEI has not been reported. Chart data for a single case were reviewed and reported in a retrospective study. A 19-month-old male presented with petechial rash and swelling of the left lower leg. AHEI was diagnosed clinically and confirmed by skin biopsy. On the basis of the clinical appearance, compartment syndrome of the foot was suspected. Measurements of compartmental pressures in the foot were well above the commonly cited ranges and a fasciotomy was performed. Following the operation, there was a marked clinical improvement in the limb perfusion. The child was discharged on the 20th day with marked clinical improvement; both active and passive leg movements were intact. We suggest that pediatric orthopedic surgeons should be familiar with this entity and its rare complication.

Level Of Evidence: V - case report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPB.0000000000000060DOI Listing
September 2014

Predictive value of B-type natriuretic peptide level on the postoperative course of infants with congenital heart disease.

Isr Med Assoc J 2013 May;15(5):216-20

Department of Pediatric Intensive Care, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) has been shown to have prognostic value for morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Less is known about its prognostic value in infants.

Objectives: To investigate the predictive value of BNP levels regarding the severity of the postoperative course in infants undergoing surgical repair of congenital heart disease.

Methods: We conducted a prospective comparative study. Plasma BNP levels in infants aged 1-12 months with congenital heart disease undergoing complete repair were measured preoperatively and 8, 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. Demographic and clinical data included postoperative inotropic support and lactate level, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospitalization stay.

Results: Cardiac surgery was performed in 19 infants aged 1-12 months. Preoperative BNP level above 170 pg/ml had a positive predictive value of 100% for inotropic score > or = 7.5 at 24 hours (specificity 100%, sensitivity 57%) and 48 hours (specificity 100%, sensitivity 100%), and was associated with longer ICU stay (P = 0.05) and a trend for longer mechanical ventilation (P = 0.12). Similar findings were found for 8 hours postoperative BNP above 1720 pg/ml. BNP level did not correlate with measured fractional shortening.

Conclusions: In infants undergoing heart surgery, preoperative and 8 hour BNP levels were predictive of inotropic support and longer ICU stay. These findings may have implications for preplanning ICU loads in clinical practice. Further studies with larger samples are needed.
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May 2013

Adrenal insufficiency in children undergoing heart surgery does not correlate with more complex postoperative course.

Pediatr Cardiol 2013 23;34(8):1860-7. Epub 2013 Jun 23.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, 14 Kaplan Street, 49202, Petach Tikva, Israel,

Although some evidence suggests benefit of steroid supplementation after pediatric cardiac surgery, data correlating adrenal function with the postoperative course is scarce. This study sought to determine if adrenal insufficiency (AI) after cardiac surgery is associated with a more complicated postoperative course in children. A prospective study was performed during a 6-month period at a pediatric medical center. Included were 119 children, 3 months and older, who underwent heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Cortisol levels were measured before and 18 h after surgery. Patients were divided into two groups by procedure complexity (low or high), and clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between patients with and without AI within each complexity group. In the low-complexity group, 45 of the 65 patients had AI. The normal adrenal function (NAF) subgroup had greater inotropic support at 12, 24, and 36 h after surgery and a higher lactate level at 12 and 24 h after surgery. There were no significant differences between subgroups in duration of ventilation, sedation, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, or urine output. In the high-complexity group, 27 patients had AI, and 27 did not. There were no significant differences between subgroups in inotropic support or urine output during the first 36 h or in mechanical ventilation, sedation, or ICU stay duration. Children with AI after heart surgery do not have a more complex postoperative course than children with NAF. The adrenal response of individual patients seems to be appropriate for their cardiovascular status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-013-0728-yDOI Listing
July 2014

Hypogammaglobulinemia in the early period after liver transplantation in children.

Clin Transplant 2013 May-Jun;27(3):E289-94. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

Institute of Gastroenterology, Nutrition and Liver Diseases, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Data, on the kinetic and serum levels of immunoglobulins in the immediate post-liver transplantation (LTx) period, are sparse with existing studies limited to adults or case reports of children. The aim of this study is to describe the phenomenon of hypogammaglobulinemia (HGG) in the immediate post-transplantation period among children undergoing LTx. A retrospective 10-yr chart review was conducted of all children who underwent LTx at a fourth-level pediatric medical center. Fifty-seven, of the 76 children who underwent LTx, were included in the study. Seventeen (29.8%) (mean age, 6.8 ± 5.2 yr) had HGG (11-IgG, 1-IgG+IgA, 1-IgG+IgM, 4-IgG+IgA+IgM), detected at 2 to 25 d after transplantation. Abdominal fluid was drained for 5 to 42 d; the amount drained until detection of HGG measured 27-668 mL/kg. HGG was associated with increased infection rate 0.9 episodes/patient vs. 0.17 episodes/patient (p < 0.01) in children without detected HGG. In conclusion, HGG is not rare in the immediate post-LTx period in children, and it may place patients at increased risk of infection. Further studies are needed to delineate the rate of occurrence, risk factors, and clinical implications of hypogammaglobulinemia in this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ctr.12116DOI Listing
January 2014

Polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnosis of viral pulmonary infections in immunocompromised children.

Acta Paediatr 2013 Jun 28;102(6):e263-8. Epub 2013 Mar 28.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Aim: Viral pneumonia is a serious complication in immunocompromised children. Its aetiology is difficult to identify owing to the limitations of conventional microbiological tests. The aim of this study was to determine whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for respiratory viruses increase the diagnostic yield of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) in immunocompromised children.

Methods: BAL samples obtained from immunocompromised children hospitalized with pneumonia were processed for respiratory viruses by viral culture, rapid antigen test and PCR (for CMV, adenovirus, influenza, parainfluenza, herpesvirus, RSV and hMPV).

Results: The study group included 42 patients (mean age 7.2 ± 5.1 years) with 50 episodes of clinical pneumonia (50 BAL samples). Forty viral pathogens were identified in 30 episodes (60%). PCR increased the diagnostic rate by fourfold (75% identified by PCR alone, p < 0.0001). When viral culture and rapid antigen test were used as the gold standard, PCR was found to have high sensitivity (86-100% when assessed) and specificity (80-96%). The PCR results prompted the initiation of specific antiviral therapy and the avoidance of unnecessary antibiotic treatment in 17 (34%) episodes.

Conclusion: PCR-based diagnosis from BAL may increase the rate of pathogen detection in immunocompromised children, decrease the time to diagnosis and spare patients unnecessary antimicrobial treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apa.12207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7159754PMC
June 2013

Severe abdominal pain as a presenting symptom of probable catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome.

Pediatrics 2012 Jul 18;130(1):e230-5. Epub 2012 Jun 18.

Department of Pediatrics C, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah-Tikva, Israel.

Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in pediatric medicine is rare. We report 3 adolescents who presented with acute onset of severe abdominal pain as the first manifestation of probable catastrophic APS. The 3 patients, 2 male patients and 1 female patient were 14 to 18 years old. One had been diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus in the past, but the other 2 had no previous relevant medical history. All presented with excruciating abdominal pain without additional symptoms. Physical examination was noncontributory. Laboratory results were remarkable for high inflammatory markers. Abdominal ultrasonography was normal, and abdominal computed tomography scan showed nonspecific findings of liver infiltration. Only computed tomography angiography revealed evidence of extensive multiorgan thrombosis. All patients had elevated titers of antiphospholipid antibodies. The patients were treated with full heparinization, high-dose steroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin with a resolution of symptoms. One patient was resistant to the treatment and was treated with rituximab. In conclusion, severe acute abdominal pain can be the first manifestation of a thromboembolic event owing to catastrophic APS even in previously healthy adolescents. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion with prompt evaluation and treatment to prevent severe morbidity and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-1694DOI Listing
July 2012

Polymerase-chain-reaction-based diagnosis of invasive fungal pulmonary infections in immunocompromised children.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2012 Oct 10;47(10):994-1000. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Objective: Fungal pneumonia is a serious complication in immunocompromised children. It is difficult to diagnose because of the low sensitivity of clinical and standard laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic impact of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for fungal pathogens in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid.

Study Design: BAL samples obtained from hospitalized immunocompromised patients with clinical pneumonia between January 2007 and June 2009 were processed for microscopy and cultures in addition to PCR-based fungal assays. The results were compared between the standard and PCR methods.

Results: Seventy-seven children with 100 episodes of pneumonia were included in the study. Fungal pathogens were detected by standard microbiological investigations in 10 episodes (10%) and by PCR-based assays alone in 20 episodes (20%). There was no significant difference in clinical improvement or mortality rate between patients diagnosed by the different methods. In 61 episodes, no fungal pathogen was identified by either method. Prolonged antifungal therapy was avoided in 43 episodes.

Conclusion: PCR-based assay for the diagnosis of fungal pulmonary infections may be a useful adjunct to clinical and standard microbiological techniques. The use of PCR may decrease the time to diagnosis, increase the rate of detection of fungal pathogens, and spare patients unnecessary antifungal treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.22523DOI Listing
October 2012

Procalcitonin level as an aid for the diagnosis of bacterial infections following pediatric cardiac surgery.

J Crit Care 2012 Apr 29;27(2):220.e11-6. Epub 2011 Sep 29.

Pediatric Critical Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 49202, Israel.

Purpose: The aim of the present study was to determine if blood procalcitonin can serve as an aid to differentiate between bacterial and nonbacterial cause of fever in children after cardiac surgery.

Materials And Methods: A nested case-control study of children who underwent open cardiac surgery in critical care units of fourth-level pediatric hospital was performed. Blood samples for procalcitonin level were collected 1 day before operation; 1 hour postoperation; on postoperative days 1, 2, and 5; and on the day of fever, when it occurred.

Results: Of 665 children who underwent cardiac bypass surgery, 126 had a febrile episode postoperatively, 47 children with a proven bacterial infection and 79 without bacterial infection. Among the 68 children in whom fever developed within the first 5 postoperative days, procalcitonin level at fever day was significantly higher in those with bacterial infection (n = 16) than in those without infection (n = 52). Similarly, among the 58 children in whom fever developed after day 5 postoperation, a significant difference was found in procalcitonin level at fever day between those with (n = 31) and without (n = 27) bacterial infection.

Conclusion: During the critical early and late periods after cardiac surgery in children, procalcitonin level may help to differentiate patients with bacterial infection from patients in whom the fever is secondary to nonbacterial infectious causes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2011.07.076DOI Listing
April 2012

Role of C-reactive protein velocity in the diagnosis of early bacterial infections in children after cardiac surgery.

J Intensive Care Med 2012 May-Jun;27(3):191-6. Epub 2011 May 11.

Pediatric Critical Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva, Israel.

Fever after cardiac surgery in children may be due to bacterial infection or noninfectious origin like systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) secondary to bypass procedure. A marker to distinguish bacterial from nonbacterial fever in these conditions is clinically important. The purpose of our study was to evaluate, in the early postcardiac surgery period, whether serial measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) and its change over time (CRP velocity) can assist in detecting bacterial infection. A series of consecutive children who underwent cardiac surgery with bypass were tested for serum levels of CRP at several points up to 5 days postoperatively and during febrile episodes (>38.0°C). Findings were compared among febrile patients with proven bacterial infection (FWI group; sepsis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, deep wound infection), febrile patients without bacterial infection (FNI group), and patients without fever (NF group). In all, 121 children were enrolled in the study, 31 in the FWI group, 42 in the FNI group, and 48 patients in the NF group. Ages ranged from 4 days to 17.8 years (median 19.0, mean 46 ± 56 months). There was no significant difference among the groups in mean CRP level before surgery, 1 hour, and 18 hours after. A highly significant interaction was found in the change in CRP over time by FWI group compared with FNI group (P < .001). Mean CRP velocity ([fCRP - 18hCRP]/[fever time (days) - 0.75 day]) was significantly higher in the infectious group (4.0 ± 4.2 mg/dL per d) than in the fever-only group (0.60 ± 1.6 mg/dL per d; P < .001). A CRP velocity of 4 mg/dL per d had a positive predictive value (PPV) of 85.7% for bacterial infection with 95.2% specificity. Serial measurements of CRP/CRP velocity after cardiac surgery in children may assist clinicians in differentiating postoperative fever due to bacterial infection from fever due to noninfectious origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0885066610396642DOI Listing
October 2012

Postoperative thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in an infant: case report and literature review.

J Pediatr Surg 2011 Apr;46(4):764-766

Institute of Pediatric Nephrology, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva 49202, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura is caused by an imbalance of von Willebrand factor and its cleaving protease, which leads to the formation of microthrombi in end-organs. It rarely occurs in the pediatric population. Plasma exchange can significantly reduce mortality and morbidity. We present a 14-month-old infant in whom clinical and laboratory abnormalities compatible with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura were noted several days after resection of a large pelvic tumor. Treatment with double volume plasma exchange on postoperative day 5 led to complete resolution of the renal failure, thrombocytopenia, anemia, and neurological manifestations. ADAMTS13 inhibitors were negative and no mutations were found in factor H, factor I, membrane cofactor protein, and thrombomodulin to account for genetic predisposition to thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura or atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome. Postoperative anemia, thrombocytopenia, fever, and neurological deficits in children should raise the suspicion of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Early diagnosis is important because the disorder is readily and efficiently treated with plasma exchange.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2011.01.009DOI Listing
April 2011

Central apnoeas in infants with bronchiolitis admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit.

Acta Paediatr 2011 Feb 29;100(2):216-9. Epub 2010 Sep 29.

Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqwa, Israel.

Aim: To further characterize apnoea(s) complicating bronchiolitis because of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), to describe the incidence of this complication and identify possible risk factors for apnoea(s) and its development.

Methods: The files of infants admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) for RSV bronchiolitis during three bronchiolitis seasons (2004-2007) were reviewed for demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters. Parameters were compared between patients with and without apnoeas.

Results: Seventy-nine patients met the study criteria: 43 were admitted to the PICU for central apnoeas and the remainder for respiratory distress or failure. The percentage of infants admitted for apnoea increased during the study period (28.6 to 77.1%, p = 0.004). The overall prevalence of apnoea in this population was 4.3%. Possible risk factors for apnoea(s) were younger age (1.3 vs. 4.3 months, p = 0.002), lower admission weight (3.3 vs. 5 kg, p < 0.001), lower gestational age (35.8 vs. 37.8 weeks, p = 0.01), admission from the emergency room (50% vs. 9.1%, p < 0.001) and lack of hyperthermia (p < 0.001). Respiratory acidosis was found to be a protective factor on logistic regression analysis.

Conclusion: The prevalence of apnoea in infants admitted to the PICU for RSV bronchiolitis in our centre may be increasing. Preterm, younger infants with no fever are at relatively high risk of apnoea at presentation, while older infants with fever are at lower risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1651-2227.2010.02004.xDOI Listing
February 2011