Publications by authors named "Elham Moghaddas"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Spatio-temporal epidemiology of the tuberculosis incidence rate in Iran 2008 to 2018.

BMC Public Health 2021 06 7;21(1):1093. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Department of Geography and Urban Planning, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran.

Background: Effective reduction of tuberculosis (TB) requires information on the distribution of TB incidence rate across time and location. This study aims to identify the spatio-temporal pattern of TB incidence rate in Iran between 2008 and 2018.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on aggregated TB data (50,500 patients) at the provincial level provided by the Ministry of Health in Iran between 2008 and 2018. The Anselin Local Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* were performed to identify the spatial variations of the disease. Furthermore, spatial scan statistic was employed for purely temporal and spatio-temporal analyses. In all instances, the null hypothesis of no clusters was rejected at p ≤ 0.05.

Results: The overall incidence rate of TB decreased from 13.46 per 100,000 (95% CI: 13.19-13.73) in 2008 to 10.88 per 100,000 (95% CI: 10.65-11.11) in 2018. The highest incidence rate of TB was observed in southeast and northeast of Iran for the whole study period. Additionally, spatial cluster analysis discovered Khuzestan Province, in the West of the country, having significantly higher rates than neighbouring provinces in terms of both total TB and smear-positive pulmonary TB (SPPTB). Purely temporal analysis showed that high-rate and low-rate clusters were predominantly distributed in the time periods 2010-2014 and 2017-2018. Spatio-temporal results showed that the statistically significant clusters were mainly distributed from centre to the east during the study period. Some high-trend TB and SPPTB statistically significant clusters were found.

Conclusion: The results provided an overview of the latest TB spatio-temporal status In Iran and identified decreasing trends of TB in the 2008-2018 period. Despite the decreasing incidence rate, there is still need for screening, and targeting of preventive interventions, especially in high-risk areas. Knowledge of the spatio-temporal pattern of TB can be useful for policy development as the information regarding the high-risk areas would contribute to the selection of areas needed to be targeted for the expansion of health facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-11157-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8186231PMC
June 2021

Evaluation of zoonotic platyhelminthe infections identified in slaughtered livestock in Iran, 2015-2019.

BMC Vet Res 2021 May 5;17(1):185. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Platyhelminth infections of livestock can result in considerable economic losses. This study aims to evaluate the spatial frequency of cystic echinococcosis (CE), dicrocoeliasis, and fascioliasis in livestock slaughtered in Iran during the years 2015-2019 and estimate direct costs associated with organ condemnation due to these parasites.

Methods: Abattoir data from 413 abattoirs representing all 31 Iranian provinces were collected from the Iran Veterinary Organization. Infection prevalence was calculated per year at the province level. The Local Moran's I statistic was performed to evaluate spatial autocorrelation of animals positive at slaughter for the years 2015-2019. Direct costs associated with condemned livers were calculated for each parasitic condition, with costs associated with condemned lungs also included for CE.

Results: Overall prevalence values for the study timeframe were as follows: sheep and goat fascioliasis 1.56% (95% CI: 1.56-1.56%), cattle fascioliasis 3.86% (95% CI: 3.85-3.88%), sheep and goat dicrocoeliasis 4.63% (95% CI: 4.62-4.63%), cattle dicrocoeliasis 3.08% (95% CI: 3.07-3.09%), sheep and goat CE 5.32% (95% CI: 5.32-5.33%), and cattle CE 7.26% (95% CI: 7.24-7.28%). Northwest Iran had the highest prevalence of CE and fascioliasis. High infection areas for Dicrocoelium spp. included the provinces of Zanjan, Gilan, Qazvin, and Tehran, which are located in northern Iran. Direct economic losses for sheep and goat fascioliasis, dicrocoeliasis, and CE for the study period were US$13,842,759, US$41,771,377, and US$22,801,054, respectively. Direct economic losses for cattle fascioliasis, dicrocoeliasis, and CE for the study period were US$1,989,200, US$1,668,986, and US$2,656,568, respectively.

Conclusion: Our findings provide valuable data for future monitoring of these important parasitic diseases in Iranian livestock. Disease control strategies are required to reduce the economic and public health impact of these platyhelminths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-021-02888-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097913PMC
May 2021

Clinical and Laboratory Findings of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Children Hospitalized in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran: A Twenty-Year Retrospective Study.

Iran J Parasitol 2020 Oct-Dec;15(4):495-499

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Over the last decade, a few cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) have been reported in some provinces of northeastern Iran. We aimed to investigate clinical and laboratory findings of VL among children who admitted to the pediatric ward in a referral hospital in Mashhad, northeastern Iran.

Methods: A retrospective study, between 1997 and 2017, was performed on the data sheet registered for children with confirmed VL at the referral Emam Reza Hospital in Mashhad. Hematological and biochemical profiles of the patients were analyzed.

Results: A total of 35 children with VL, confirmed by the presence of amastigotes of in Giemsa stained smears of the bone marrow, had been recorded through 20 yr. The mean age of patients was 3.7±4 yr. The majority of the patients suffered from hepatosplenomegaly (100%, n=35/35), followed by prolonged fever and pallor (91%, n=32/35), weight loss (85%, n=30/35). The main laboratory findings were anemia (94.1%), leukopenia (52.9%) and thrombocytopenia (70.5%). Almost one-third (37.1%; 13/35) of VL patients inhabited in rural areas of the Bojnoord district as a known VL endemic focus in northeastern Iran.

Conclusion: Our preliminary data showed that the origin of VL is still in some districts other than Mashhad, where VL just will be diagnosed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijpa.v15i4.4854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8039489PMC
April 2021

Diagnosis of keratitis in Mashhad, Northeastern Iran: A Gene-Based PCR Assay.

Iran J Parasitol 2021 Jan-Mar;16(1):111-121

Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: The genus is a free-living opportunistic protozoan parasite, which widely distributed in soil and fresh water. keratitis, which causes a sight-threating infection of the cornea, is going to rise in Iran and worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare direct microscopy, culture and PCR for detection of spp in clinical samples and to determine the genotypes of spp by sequencing 18SrRNA gene.

Methods: Among patients clinically suspected to AK referred to a tertiary ophthalmology center at Mashhad, northeastern Iran. During 2017-18, twenty corneal scrapes specimens obtained. The samples were divided into three parts, subjected to direct microscopic examination, culture onto non-nutrient agar and PCR technique. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood ratio were evaluated.

Results: Among 20 persons clinically suspected to amoebic keratitis, 13(69.2%) patients definitely diagnosed as keratitis. Wearing contact lens, eye trauma due to foreign particle and swimming in fresh water were the main predisposing factors. Most of patients suffered from pain and photophobia. Corneal ring infiltration and epithelial defect were common clinical sings. Direct examination had the lowest sensitivity and sensitivity of both Nelson-PCR and JDP-PCR methods were equal and highest. In addition, the results of sequencing identified that all strains belonged to T4 genotype.

Conclusion: Amoebic keratitis is a sporadic parasitic keratitis, which is mainly seen in contact lens user in Mashhad. PCR based on 18S ribosomal DNA with JDP primers is a reliable and highly sensitive method for diagnosis of keratitis in clinically suspected cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijpa.v16i1.5530DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988675PMC
March 2021

Anisakis allergy: unjustified social alarm versus healthy diet; commentary to the "Letter to the Editor" of Drs Daschner, Levsen, Cipriani, and del Hoyo, referencing to "World-wide prevalence of Anisakis larvae in fish and its relationship to human allergic anisakiasis: a systematic review".

Parasitol Res 2021 05 2;120(5):1921-1923. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovations, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia.

Anisakiasis is an underrecognized condition globally, and accurate diagnosis remains problematic even in countries where the condition is well known. Our "systematic review" was conducted according to Prisma guidelines. The stated basis of our study was "syndromic surveillance." Both methods are recognized in published literature as valid to identify or predict disease and to make accessible large amounts of evidence from published literature. Our study identified Anisakis allergy "hot spots" and other geographical areas where fish are highly infected with Anisakis without commensurate studies of human allergy. Results of our study will open up new lines of enquiry. Norway, used as an example to discredit the scientific integrity of our article, has a cuisine thriving with raw fish dishes and many sushi restaurants. The peer reviewed data sets, confirmed A. simplex sensitization among the Norwegian population, although this has been overlooked by the authors of the "Letter to the Editor." The identification of hot spots in our study may be influential in many ways not the least in raising diagnostic suspicion to expedite accurate diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07083-1DOI Listing
May 2021

Correction to: World-wide prevalence of Anisakis larvae in fish and its relationship to human allergic anisakiasis: a systematic review.

Parasitol Res 2021 May 1;120(5):1925-1926. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovations, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07096-wDOI Listing
May 2021

World-wide prevalence of Anisakis larvae in fish and its relationship to human allergic anisakiasis: a systematic review.

Parasitol Res 2020 Nov 6;119(11):3585-3594. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovations, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, Australia.

The infective stage of Anisakidae nematodes responsible for allergic reactions in humans is found in a variety of edible fish and cephalopods. The identification of geographical regions that are high risk for infected seafood may help prevent allergic reactions in humans. Despite an abundance of published literature which has identified anisakid larvae in an array of edible seafood as well as scattered reports of human allergic anisakiasis, the relationship between the two has not been fully explored. Therefore, a systematic spatio-temporal study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Anisakis spp. in fish from January 2000 to August 2020 firstly to explore the relationship between fish infection and cases of allergic anisakiasis and secondly to use fish infection data to map potential allergic anisakiasis 'hot spots'. A systematic literature search for original English text articles was conducted through search engines, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar. Out of 3228 articles which describe anisakid infection in fish, 264 were used for data extraction. Of 904 articles describing allergic anisakiasis, 37 were used for data extraction. A qualitative summary of the extracted data was performed using equal interval method (ArcMap software) in order to compare the global distribution of Anisakis-infected fish. Of the 152-identified fish hosts, five families were most commonly infected with Anisakis spp. These included Lophiidae (86.9%), Trichiuridae (77.05%), Zeidae (70.9%), Merlucciidae (67.8%) and Gadidae (56.8%). The hot spot areas for allergic anisakiasis were North and northeast of Atlantic Ocean, southwest of USA, west of Mexico, south of Chile, east of Argentina, Norway, UK and west of Iceland (confidence 99%). The highest rate of allergic anisakiasis was in Portugal and Norway with the prevalence rate of 18.45-22.50%. Allergologists should consider allergic anisakiasis as a public health issue particularly in high-risk countries where high prevalences in fish have been demonstrated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06892-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Effect of Low-level Laser Therapy With Different Locations of Irradiation on Postoperative Endodontic Pain in Patients With Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Lasers Med Sci 2020 21;11(3):249-254. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Students' Research Committee, School of Dentistry, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial aimed to investigate the analgesic efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) with two different locations, and their comparison, in postoperative endodontic pain (PEP) levels in molars diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Seventy-five patients with a molar tooth, diagnosed with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis, were divided into three groups of placebo, buccal only irradiation (BI), and buccal and lingual irradiation (BLI), with 25 cases being in each group. The participants received similar single-visit nonsurgical endodontic treatments. Then, a sham laser was used in the control group instead of LLLT. Individuals in BI and BLI groups received 80-second irradiation on the buccal surface and 80-second irradiation on each of the buccal and lingual surfaces respectively. A laser with an 808 nm wavelength, power of 100 mW, and a fiber diameter of 600 μm was used. PEP was assessed using a 0-100 mm VAS 4, 8, 24, and 48 hours after the treatment. BLI showed a significantly higher reduction of PEP compared to placebo in all time intervals of this study. BLI was significantly more effective than BI 8 hours after the treatment. However, intragroup differences between BLI and BI groups at other time intervals and between BI and placebo groups in all time intervals were not significant. The number of taken analgesics in the BLI group was significantly lower than the placebo group and was on a statistical borderline compared to the BI group. LLLT with BLI was an effective measure as a supplement to oral analgesics in the reduction of PEP compared to the placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jlms.2020.42DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7369547PMC
June 2019

Comparing spatio-temporal distribution of the most common human parasitic infections in Iran over two periods 2007 to 2012 and 2013 to 2018: A systematic quantitative literature review.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2020 Sep 22;35(5):1023-1040. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

This study analyses the spatio-temporal trend of the prevalence of the four most prevalent parasitic diseases in Iran over two periods, 2007 to 2012 and 2013 to 2018, indicating high-risk and low-risk areas. Out of 19 126 articles, we selected 220 articles for data extraction and calculated the pooled prevalence for cutaneous leishmaniasis, human toxoplasmosis, giardiasis and blastocystosis for all 31 provinces in the country. Anselin local Moran's I was used to identify clusters and outliers in the prevalence rates. The mean prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients was found 35.12 per 100 000 in 2007 to 2012 but fell to 19.12 per 100 000 in the 2013 to 2018 period. The mean prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis was 2.36% and 32.5%, respectively, in 2007 to 2012, which changed to 2.28% and 31.14% in 2013 to 2018. The total prevalence of giardiasis declined from 9.8% in 2007 to 2012 to 4.8% in 2013 to 2018, while the mean prevalence of blastocystosis declined from 8.9% in 2007 to 2012 to 6.76% in the 2013 to 2018 period. There was only one high-high cluster in 2007 to 2012 and that was due to giardiasis, while there were two in 2013 to 2018, one for blastocystosis and one for chronic toxoplasmosis. The total prevalence of blastocystosis, giardiasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran has continually declined since 2007. In contrast, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant Iranian women has not been changed. Iran's Midwest has more parasitic infections compared to the Mideast, which may be explained by the existence of vast deserts and consequently dry and hot climate in the latter part of the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpm.3010DOI Listing
September 2020

Urinary Canthariasis Due to Larva in a Ten-Year-Old Boy.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2019 Dec 31;13(4):416-419. Epub 2019 Dec 31.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Canthariasis is a human disease caused by infestation of beetle larvae. We report here an unusual cause of urogenital infection due to in a 10-year-old boy suffering from severe and intermittent suprapubic pain from Nehbandan City, Northeastern Iran in 2018. After 9 months, three larvae were excreted. Keratinization of bladder wall was observed in histopathology. All laboratory evaluations were normal except for presence of microscopic hematuria. This report implicated that could infest bladder accidentally and cause canthariasis and clinical symptoms that may lead to severe pain and bladder inflammation and hyperemia.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188764PMC
December 2019

Changes in the Epidemiology of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Northeastern Iran

Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2020 Mar;44(1):52-57

Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Sciences University, Tehran, Iran

The province of Khorasan-Razavi in the North East of Iran is an endemic area for anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL caused mainly by ) and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL caused mainly by ). Based on clinical signs, some cities were considered as ACL foci while others were considered to be endemic for ZCL. This paper reviews studies performed on patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) via the use of direct slide examination, ELISA, electrophoresis isoenzyme, RAPD PCR and PCR in Mashhad; the study also includes cases of CL in other cities of the Khorasan-Razavi province where only PCR used as a diagnostic tool. The data show that both and caused CL in most of the cities investigated. Our review shows that was found in areas where ACL is prevalent and was observed in areas with high incidence of ZCL. This distribution represents a major change in the epidemiological pattern of Leishmania in the Khorasan-Razavi province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tpd.galenos.2019.6137DOI Listing
March 2020

IgG Avidity Test for Ocular Toxoplasmosis Diagnosis at a Tertiary Center, Northeast of Iran.

Iran J Immunol 2019 Sep;16(3):258-264

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: The diagnostic methods which are used for acute ocular toxoplasmosis are very important; if the treatment is delayed, it sometimes leads to loss of vision. Few studies have been performed to evaluate serological tests used in the diagnosis of acute ocular toxoplasmosis.

Objectives: To evaluate the immunoglobulin (Ig) M, G and IgG avidity tests for diagnosis of acute ocular toxoplasmosis in the northeast of Iran.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from January 2014 to December 2016. After an opthalmic examination was conducted by a retina specialist, 16 typical acute and 34 typical chronic ocular toxoplasmosis cases were included in this study. Information on clinical manifestations, age and occupation was recorded. Anti-Toxoplasma IgG, IgM and IgG avidity tests were administered on serum samples using the ELISA method.

Results: Blurring of vision in all patients was the most clinical presentation. The IgG avidity test could diagnose all acute and recent cases. However, three false positive and one false negative result occurred using the IgM test by ELISA. The false negative result in all likelihood occurred because the patient was at the beginning stage of the infection.

Conclusion: The result of this study showed that IgM is not a reliable marker of acute disease. Repetition of the serology tests was proposed in cases with clinical manifestations without detectable antibody titer after approximately two weeks. IgG avidity testing results coincided with clinical diagnosis and it could therefore considered to be a reliable method to differentiate between recently acquired and chronic ocular toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/IJI.2019.80276DOI Listing
September 2019

Fish tank granuloma: An emerging skin disease in Iran mimicking Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

PLoS One 2019 19;14(9):e0221367. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Khorasan-e-Razavi, Iran.

Objective: Mycobacterium marinum causes a rare cutaneous disease known as fish tank granuloma (FTG). The disease manifestations resemble those associated with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL). The aim of this study was to determine whether FTG was the cause of cutaneous lesions in patients who were referred to the Parasitology laboratory of Imam Reza Hospital in Mashhad to be investigated for CL.

Materials/methods: One hundered patients, clinically diagnosed with CL between April 2014 and March 2015, were included in this study. Ziehl-Neelsen staining was performed to identify acid-fast Mycobacterium in addition to bacterial cultures using Löwenstein-Jensen medium. Skin lesion samples were also collected and kept on DNA banking cards for PCR testing.

Results: Twenty-nine of the 100 individuals with skin lesions, and therefore suspected of suffering from CL, tested positive for Mycobacterium marinum by PCR. Of these, 21 (72.4%) were male and 8(27.6%) were female. In 97% of these cases the lesions were located on hands and fingers. These patients had a history of manipulating fish and had been in contact with aquarium water. A sporotrichoid appearance was observed in 58.6% of the patients with mycobacterial lesions; 67% of patients had multiple head appearance.

Conclusion: Patients suspected to have CL and who test negative for CL could be affected by FTG. Therefore, after obtaining an accurate case history, molecular diagnosis is recommended for cases that give a negative result by conventional methods.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221367PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752854PMC
March 2020

Diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis by IgG avidity method in pregnant women referred to health centers in south-eastern Iran.

J Parasit Dis 2019 Sep 3;43(3):517-521. Epub 2019 May 3.

5Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common parasitic infections, can cause abortions in human. The purpose of this study was to determine seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and acute form of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. 208 pregnant women who referred to health centers in south-eastern Iran were taken under study after signing the informed consent forms and filling out the checklists. For those with high levels of IgG or IgM antibody titers, IgG Avidity test was performed to determine the acute infection. High level of IgG anti-body were found in sera of 81 pregnant women and 7 persons had borderline titer. IgM antibody results were positive in 33 and borderline in 4 cases. Then, the samples with positive and borderline results for IgM and IgG were evaluated by IgG avidity test. In this study, approximately 60% of pregnant women were not immune to risks posed by Toxoplasma gondii. Therefore, this group are at risk of acquiring primary infection of toxoplasmosis during gestation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-019-01120-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6667513PMC
September 2019

In Vitro and In Vivo Effectiveness of Carvacrol, Thymol and Linalool against .

Molecules 2019 May 30;24(11). Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro, Italy.

Background: One of the most important causative agents of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is , which is mainly spread by and sandflies in the Old and New World, respectively. Novel and effective drugs to manage this neglected vector-borne disease are urgently required. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of carvacrol, thymol and linalool, three common essential oil constituents, on amastigotes and promastigotes of . : in vitro experiments were performed by 24 h MTT assay. Carvacrol, thymol and linalool at concentrations ranging from 1.3 to 10 μg/mL were tested on promastigotes of . For in vivo test, two groups of hamsters () received 100 mg/kg of body weight/day of carvacrol and thymol as intraperitoneal injection on day 7 post-infection, followed by a 48 h later injection. The third group was treated with the glucantime as standard drug (500 mg/kg) and the last group (control) just received normal saline. On the 16th day, the number of parasites and histopathological changes in liver and spleen were investigated.

Results: 24 h MTT assay showed promising antileishmanial activity of thymol and carvacrol, with IC values of 7.2 (48 μM) and 9.8 μg/mL (65 μM), respectively. Linalool at all concentrations did not affect promastigote viability. In vivo toxicity data of carvacrol and thymol showed that the former at 100 mg/kg was the safest and most effective treatment with little side effects on the liver.

Conclusions: Overall, thymol and carvacrol are highly promising candidates for the development of effective and safe drugs in the fight against VL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6600403PMC
May 2019

Genotyping of Isolates from Human in Khorasan Province, North-Eastern Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2019 Jan-Mar;14(1):52-58

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Human hydatidosis is endemic in northeastern Iran. The present study aimed to investigate molecular diversity of isolates collected from human surgically.

Methods: Sixty human hydatid cysts (58 lung cysts and 2 liver cysts) were collected through surgery from Ghaem and Emam Reza hospitals in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences during 2015-2016. Cysts were characterized using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCRRFLP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene and sequencing fragments of the genes coding for mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 () and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I ().

Results: Overall, 55 out of 60 cysts (91.6%) were determined as the G1 strain, 4 cases (6.6%) were determined as the G6 strain and 1 sample was not identified.

Conclusion: Although sheep strain (G1) is dominated in human patients in Great Khorasan, the prevention of camel-dog cycle should pay attention in this region.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511601PMC
May 2019

Evaluation of the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Susceptibility to λ-Cyhalothrin, Malathion, and Diazinon in Northeastern Iran.

J Med Entomol 2019 06;56(4):903-906

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (Linnaeus 1758), is a nocturnal blood-sucking ectoparasite of humans that is highly prevalent in the northeast of Iran. In recent years, the efficacy of those insecticides that have been frequently used to control bed bugs in Iran has not been studied. Due to frequent complaints about bed bug treatment failures in Mashhad city (northeastern Iran), this study assessed the susceptibility of C. lectularius collected from a student residence hall to Diazinon, Malathion, and λ-cyhalothrin. The desired concentrations of each insecticide were prepared in acetone, and bioassays were performed using insecticide-impregnated filter paper method. The concentration-response data were subjected to POLO-PC software and data were analyzed by the log-probit procedure. The LC50 values of Diazinon and λ-cyhalothrin for examined bed bugs were 1,337.40 and 2,022.36 ppm, respectively. Malathion at the highest concentration (10,000 ppm) did not exhibit any toxicity to examined C. lectularius. Comparing these results to the same previous studies showed that susceptibility of examined bed bugs to these insecticides has been highly decreased. This study revealed an occurrence of insecticide resistance in bed bug populations in northeastern Iran. It also suggests that Malathion, Diazinon, and λ-cyhalothrin are ineffective against bed bugs in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz011DOI Listing
June 2019

Prevalence of Toxoplasma and Echinococcus IgG antibodies in slaughterhouse workers, a serosurvey in Northeast Iran

Ann Parasitol 2018;64(4):391–397

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Azadi Square, 9177948564 Mashhad, Iran

Cystic echinococcosis and toxoplasmosis are two human parasitic diseases. Butchers and slaughterhouse workers are in close contact with body fluids and tissues of ruminants. To investigate the prevalence of Toxoplasma and Echinococcus IgG antibodies in slaughterhouse workers in Northeast of Iran, Mashhad, 2016. This cross-sectional study was performed on all personnel working at the largest industrial slaughterhouse of Khorasan Province. Serum samples were taken and kept frozen until used. IgG against Echinococcus and Toxoplasma were quantified using commercial ELISA kits. A questionnaire addressing possible risk factors of infection acquisition was filled by participants. Out of 91 male participants, 58.2% were positive for toxoplasmosis, 5.5% were positive for cystic echinococcosis and 3.3% were positive for both. Except using gloves, and gown and boots, other personal protective equipment (PPE) were not completely used by all personnel; mask 38%, tool disinfectants: 12%, face and hand disinfection: 14.3%. There was a high risk of Toxoplasma in slaughterhouse workers, however, such finding was not observed in Echinococcus parasite. Importance of PPE and tool disinfectants to reduce the risk of zoonotic infections in the workplace should be emphasised.
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April 2019

Investigation of Visceral Leishmaniasis among 192 Dog Carcasses Killed by Road Accidents in Khorasan Razavi, Northeastern Iran during 2014-2016.

Iran J Public Health 2018 Nov;47(11):1742-1748

Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), so-called Kala-azar is a life threating parasitic infectious disease caused by spp. is the main causative agent for Mediterranean form of Kala-azar which is endemic in northeastern Iran. This study attempted to investigate existence of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Khorasan Razavi.

Methods: Between 2014 and 2016, tissue samples collected from spleen and liver of 192 stray dogs were examined to investigate existence of . Kinetoplast DNA (k-DNA) PCR was performed to identify the species of parasites. The positive PCR products were sequenced in both directions to confirm the kDNA PCR results.

Results: Among samples obtained from 192 dogs, kinetoplast DNA of was detected in two female dogs. was confirmed by sequence analysis of PCR products.

Conclusion: Our data confirm stray dogs play as potential reservoirs for VL in this province. Further investigation will be necessary to clear role of stray dogs in the transmission of to human and domestic dogs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6294871PMC
November 2018

Correction to: Assessment of ocular toxoplasmosis patients reported at a tertiary center in the northeast of Iran.

Int Ophthalmol 2018 12;38(6):2535

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Unfortunately, in the original publication of the article, given name and family name of the first and fourth author names were mentioned incorrectly. The exact given name and family name of those author names have been provided in the erratum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-018-0888-0DOI Listing
December 2018

The Golden jackal (Canis aureus) as an indicator animal for Trichinella britovi in Iran.

Parasite 2018 10;25:28. Epub 2018 May 10.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Nematodes of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites causing trichinellosis. In Iran, these parasites occur in several animal species and rare cases have been recorded in humans. To monitor the epidemiological pattern of these parasites in the Khorasan-e-Razavi province, Northeastern Iran, muscle tissues were collected from the tongues of roadkill animals between 2016 and 2017: 295 stray dogs, one red fox (Vulpes vulpes), 12 golden jackals (Canis aureus), and one wild boar (Sus scrofa). Trichinella spp. larvae were retrieved using the artificial digestion method and identified to the species level by multiplex PCR. Larvae identified as Trichinella britovi were detected in five stray dogs (1.7%) and one golden jackal (8.3%). The results confirm the circulation of T. britovi in animals of the Khorasan-e-Razavi province, as previously documented. A review of the literature on Trichinella spp. in animals in Iran showed that these parasites were previously detected in 20.02% and 0.04% of carnivore and omnivore mammals, respectively, and that golden jackals can be screened as indicator animals for these zoonotic nematodes. Convenient sampling of Trichinella susceptible roadkill animals may provide a suitable method of monitoring the circulation of these parasites within any given region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2018030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5944338PMC
January 2019

Assessment of ocular toxoplasmosis patients reported at a tertiary center in the northeast of Iran.

Int Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 15;38(6):2527-2533. Epub 2018 Jan 15.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Purpose: Ocular toxoplasmosis, which is caused by the single-cell parasite Toxoplasma gondii, is currently the most significant cause of posterior uveitis in the world. No previous studies have described the prevalence and clinical features of ocular toxoplasmosis in the northeast of Iran. The purpose of the current study was to address this gap.

Methods: In this retrospective study, the medical records of 488 uveitis patients who presented to the Khatam-al-Anbia Eye Hospital of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, a tertiary ophthalmology center in the northeast of Iran, between January 2013 and December 2015 were evaluated. The clinical features and risk factors of 99 (20%) consecutive patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were extracted.

Results: Ninety-nine including 53 (53.5%) female and 46 (46.5%) male patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were included in the analysis. Reduced vision (77%) and floaters (15.2%) were the most common presenting symptoms. The age category that was most affected by ocular toxoplasmosis was 20-40 years (range: 11-65 years) with a mean age of 27.2. All patients had retinochoroiditis, but just two had anterior uveitis. All of the extracted patients, with the exception of three patients, had unilateral involvement. None of the patients had any other medical disorders with the exception of one woman, who had diabetes. Only four recurring ocular toxoplasmosis patients were referred to the education hospital during the study. Serology data were available for just 32 patients, of which 31 (96.8%) were IgG positive, and 1 (3.2%) was IgM positive.

Conclusion: Toxoplasma gondii was responsible for 20% of the patients of uveitis that presented to the largest ophthalmology center in the northeast of Iran. There is a high incidence of patients of ocular toxoplasmosis in the northeast of Iran, and it is a significant cause of uveitis and visual impairment in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-017-0764-3DOI Listing
December 2018

Iranian Native Plants on Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniosis: A Narrative Review.

Iran J Parasitol 2017 Jul-Sep;12(3):312-322

Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Chemotherapy still relies on the use of pentavalent antimonials, amphotericin B, paromomycin, miltefosin, and allopurinol. In this study, we explained about the native plant that grows in different regions of Iran and used as anti-leishmanial in Iran and even many other countries.

Methods: This narrative review covers all information about local herbal medicine in Iran that used in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in all the worlds, published in local and international journals from 1996 to 2015 using various databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Science Direct.

Results: Overall, 150 articles in databases were identified. Many local plants grown in some places of Iran were used to treat this endemic disease.

Conclusion: The cutaneous leishmaniasis is also a major health problem in Iran, especially in Mashhad (Northeast of Iran). Therefore, many patients seek for herbal therapy that is cheaper and readily available. This review provides information regarding plant that exists in Iran and exhibiting effects on anti- activity. Among the anti-leishmanial mentioned in this review, most have never been tested for cytotoxicity and very few have been tested for in vivo activity.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5623910PMC
October 2017

Prevalence of tick infestation in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir, Iran.

J Parasit Dis 2015 Sep 26;39(3):452-5. Epub 2013 Oct 26.

Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of tick infestation and identify tick species that parasitize dromedary camels. Since April 2012 through March 2013, a total of 400 camels that brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir were examined for tick infestation. Out of the total 400 camels examined, 237 were infested and annual prevalence of tick infestation 59.25 % (95 % CI 54-64) was calculated. The higher prevalence rates were found in the summer and spring, especially the summer that prevalence rate was the highest. A total of 1,122 ticks were collected from the infested camels and identified by stereomicroscopy. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick species and comprised 70.76 % of the collected ticks. The frequency of other species was as follows: H. excavatum (19.25 %), H. anatolicum (4.81 %), H. asiaticum (4.72 %), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.17 %), H. detritum (0.09 %), H. impeltatum (0.09 %) and H. schulzei (0.09 %). Based on the results of present study, it is concluded that camels mostly harbor Hyalomma spp. The species of this genus are the most notorious ticks for transmission of human and animal diseases. Therefore, appropriate tick control measures need to be employed and pour-on method for acaricide application is suggested because this method is fast, easy and suitable for use by camel owners in deserts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12639-013-0367-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4554562PMC
September 2015

Epidemiological study of hydatidosis in the dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) of different regions of Iran.

Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014 May;4(Suppl 1):S148-51

Department of Parasitology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Teharn University, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To determine the prevalence of hydatidosis in dromedaries.

Methods: 438 dromedaries were examined in five regions of Iran from 20 March, 2010 to 19 March, 2011. The relationship between host age and the mean number of hydatid cysts, and prevalence and fertility rates was analyzed using chi-square test.

Results: One hundred and thirty five out of 438 (30.82%) camels harboured hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Number of cysts was 700 with 72.5% lung cyst. The highest rate of infection was that 54 (40%) of camels was found in the Khorasan Razavi region (in the north-east part of Iran) while the lowest 6 (4.4%) of camels was found in Semnan province. Infection was higher in >15 years age group. The most commonly infected organs were lungs (72.5%) followed by liver (12.6%). Both liver and lungs together constituted 14.8% of infection. A comparison found that hydatid cysts of liver had a higher fertility rate (32.57%) than that of lung (19%); while most of cysts of lung were calcified (24.42%). The mean number of protoscoleces per mL in the lung fertile cysts was higher than that of liver cysts. Fertile or sterile might be due to the different species or genotypes. The mean number of cysts in infected liver and lungs was 1-5 cysts. The intensity of infection increased with age.

Conclusions: The results of current study can make a background data for implementing hydatid control programs and warrant the importance of camel in public health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12980/APJTB.4.2014C725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4025301PMC
May 2014