Publications by authors named "Eleonora Fiocchi"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Carp edema virus-related mortality in wild adult common carp (cyprinus carpio) in Italy.

J Fish Dis 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), Legnaro, Italy.

Mortality in wild fish populations represents a challenging issue for public fish health inspectors. When a single fish species is involved, an infective aetiology is frequently suspected, with focus on viral notifiable diseases. However, other viral agents not subjected to regulation and causing mortality in common carp have been reported such as carp edema virus (CEV). In mid-June 2020, a severe common carp mortality was observed in an artificial lake in north-east of Italy. Sleepy fish were noted some days before the beginning of the mortality itself, which lasted several days and involved over 340 adult specimens. During the outbreak, water temperature was around 15°C, water quality was normal, and no adverse meteorological events were reported in the area. Four specimens, which showed severe cutaneous hyperaemia and increased mucus production on skin and gills, were tested by bacteriological methods and virological analysis targeting the main carp pathogens. Molecular analysis performed on gills, kidney and brains from all the fish analysed resulted positive for CEV, which, based on anamnestic information and laboratory findings, was considered the responsible for the mortality event herein described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfd.13353DOI Listing
February 2021

Development of molecular and histological methods to evaluate stress oxidative biomarkers in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

Fish Physiol Biochem 2020 Aug 9;46(4):1577-1588. Epub 2020 May 9.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, National Reference Laboratory for Fish, Mollusc and Crustacean Diseases, Viale Università, 10, 35020, Legnaro, Italy.

In aquaculture, fish species may experience stressful episodes caused by poor farming conditions. The exponential increase of global aquaculture has raised the number of research studies aimed at demonstrating the sensitivity of aquatic animals in confined environments. The development of a real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry methods were investigated to evaluate the presence, localization, and quantity of biomarkers of oxidative stress in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In particular, stress tests such as manipulation and temperature changes were conducted through molecular methods to identify the expression level of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in stressed animals compared with a control group. The immunohistochemical technique was also applied to locate and study the trends-levels of nitrotyrosine (NT), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) in different tissues from stressed animals and control group. The presence of the rodlet cell (RCs) was evaluated by histology in both a control and stressed group. Our results show that the real-time PCR method developed is specific for the evaluated target gene and that manipulation and temperature increase are strong stressors for animals. Relative quantification data revealed a gene expression increase of HSP70 in the stressed group of animals compared to the control group. The antibodies used for the immunohistochemical staining were efficient, and it was possible to appreciate the increase of immunoprecipitates in European sea bass either manipulated or stressed by temperature increase. The present study can be a starting point to allow the quantification of HSP70 and the identification of other stress biomarkers in D. labrax.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10695-020-00811-xDOI Listing
August 2020

Behavioral and physiological responses to stocking density in sea bream (Sparus aurata): Do coping styles matter?

Physiol Behav 2019 12 15;212:112698. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

COISPA Tecnologia & Ricerca, Bari, Italy.

Stocking density is considered a stress factor for fish and is therefore one of the numerous concerns about fish welfare in an aquaculture context. Stress coping styles (SCS) are defined as a coherent set of individual physiological and behavioral differences in stress responses that are consistent across time and context and appear to be promising for improving fish welfare in aquaculture. The aim of the present study was to describe the physiological and zootechnical performances of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) at different stocking densities (low density, LD: 15 kg/m and high density, HD: 30 kg/m), depending on individual SCS. To do so, the fish SCS were first screened by measuring boldness (prior to the experiment). Three consecutive samplings were performed over the experiment to measure several blood parameters, including hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBCC), hemoglobin (Hb), cortisol, adrenalin, noradrenalin, glucose, lactate, and lysozyme, to infer the consequence of the SCS profile on the welfare condition in response to stocking density. Finally, swimming activity was recorded in a subsample of individuals (9 BOLD and 9 SHY individuals per density), and BOLD individuals displayed higher swimming activity than SHY ones at HD, while the opposite pattern was observed at LD. According to principal component analysis, physiological parameters are linked to the SCS profile, mostly at the beginning of the experiment, while density effects on physiology remain during the entire experiment duration. In conclusion, regarding all the variables observed, fish SCS appeared to be promising criteria to select the most adaptive individuals relating to rearing conditions and therefore improve welfare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2019.112698DOI Listing
December 2019

Preliminary study on the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern related to the genotype of strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area.

Ital J Food Saf 2017 Oct 20;6(4):6843. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Department of Veterinary Medical Science, Alma Mater Studiorum- University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

is a Gram-negative bacterium, commonly found in estuarine and coastal habitats, that can infect humans through seafood consumption or wound exposure. This study represents the first attempt to correlate the genotype of strains isolated in the north-western Adriatic Sea coastal area, with their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. On the whole, 40 strains, isolated from shellfish (n=20), different coastal water bodies (n=19), and the blood of a turtle (n=1), were utilized. All strains were positive for the species-specific genes A and , with high variability for other markers: 55% (22 out of 40) resulted of the environmental (E) genotype (E, 16S rRNA type A, CPS2 or CPS0), 10% (4 out of 40) of the clinical (C) genotype (C, 16S rRNA type B, CPS1), and 35% (14 out of 40) of the mixed (M) genotype, possessing both E and C markers. The antimicrobial susceptibility was assayed by the diffusion method on agar, according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), utilizing the following commercial disks (Oxoid): ampicillin (AMP), ampicillin- sulbactam (SAM), piperacillin (PRL), cefazolin (KZ), cefotaxime(CTX), ceftazidime (CAZ), imipenem (IPM), meropenem (MEM), amikacin (AK), gentamicin(CN), tetracycline(TE), ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LEV), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and chloramphenicol (C). 75% of the strains, (n=30) including all C strains, was sensitive to all the tested antibiotics, whereas E strains showed intermediate sensitivity to AK (2 strains), CIP and CAZ (1 strain), TE (1 strain) and resistance to KZ (1 strain), and 4 M strains showed I to AK.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4081/ijfs.2017.6843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5850071PMC
October 2017