Publications by authors named "Eleonora Canioni"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Next-generation sequencing application to investigate skeletal muscle channelopathies in a large cohort of Italian patients.

Neuromuscul Disord 2021 Apr 14;31(4):336-347. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Neurology IV Unit, Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Diseases, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

Non-dystrophic myotonias and periodic paralyses are a heterogeneous group of disabling diseases classified as skeletal muscle channelopathies. Their genetic characterization is essential for prognostic and therapeutic purposes; however, several genes are involved. Sanger-based sequencing of a single gene is time-consuming, often expensive; thus, we designed a next-generation sequencing panel of 56 putative candidate genes for skeletal muscle channelopathies, codifying for proteins involved in excitability, excitation-contraction coupling, and metabolism of muscle fibres. We analyzed a large cohort of 109 Italian patients with a suspect of NDM or PP by next-generation sequencing. We identified 24 patients mutated in CLCN1 gene, 15 in SCN4A, 3 in both CLCN1 and SCN4A, 1 in ATP2A1, 1 in KCNA1 and 1 in CASQ1. Eight were novel mutations: p.G395Cfs*32, p.L843P, p.V829M, p.E258E and c.1471+4delTCAAGAC in CLCN1, p.K1302R in SCN4A, p.L208P in ATP2A1 and c.280-1G>C in CASQ1 genes. This study demonstrated the utility of targeted next generation sequencing approach in molecular diagnosis of skeletal muscle channelopathies and the importance of the collaboration between clinicians and molecular geneticists and additional methods for unclear variants to make a conclusive diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2020.12.003DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical and Molecular Spectrum of Myotonia and Periodic Paralyses Associated With Mutations in in a Large Cohort of Italian Patients.

Front Neurol 2020 29;11:646. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Diseases, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

Four main clinical phenotypes have been traditionally described in patients mutated in SCN4A, including sodium-channel myotonia (SCM), paramyotonia congenita (PMC), Hypokaliemic type II (HypoPP2), and Hyperkaliemic/Normokaliemic periodic paralysis (HyperPP/NormoPP); in addition, rare phenotypes associated with mutations in SCN4A are congenital myasthenic syndrome and congenital myopathy. However, only scarce data have been reported in literature on large patient cohorts including phenotypes characterized by myotonia and episodes of paralysis. We retrospectively investigated clinical and molecular features of 80 patients fulfilling the following criteria: (1) clinical and neurophysiological diagnosis of myotonia, or clinical diagnosis of PP, and (2) presence of a pathogenic SCN4A gene variant. Patients presenting at birth with episodic laryngospasm or congenital myopathy-like phenotype with later onset of myotonia were considered as neonatal SCN4A. PMC was observed in 36 (45%) patients, SCM in 30 (37.5%), Hyper/NormoPP in 7 (8.7%), HypoPP2 in 3 (3.7%), and neonatal SCN4A in 4 (5%). The median age at onset was significantly earlier in PMC than in SCM ( < 0.01) and in Hyper/NormoPP than in HypoPP2 ( = 0.02). Cold-induced myotonia was more frequently observed in PMC ( = 34) than in SCM ( = 23) ( = 0.04). No significant difference was found in age at onset of episodes of paralysis among PMC and PP or in frequency of permanent weakness between PP ( = 4), SCM ( = 5), and PMC ( = 10). PP was more frequently associated with mutations in the S4 region of the NaV1.4 channel protein compared to SCM and PMC ( < 0.01); mutations causing PMC were concentrated in the C-terminal region of the protein, while SCM-associated mutations were detected in all the protein domains. Our data suggest that skeletal muscle channelopathies associated with mutations in SCN4A represent a continuum in the clinical spectrum.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403394PMC
July 2020

Aging-associated genes and microRNAs: a contribution to myogenic program dysregulation in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.

FASEB J 2019 06 12;33(6):7155-7167. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Neurology IV-Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Diseases Unit, Fondazione Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset muscle disease caused by an abnormal (GCN) triplet expansion within the polyadenylate-binding protein nuclear 1 gene and consequent mRNA processing impairment and myogenic defects. Because a reduced cell proliferation potential and the consequent regeneration failure of aging muscle have been shown to be governed by lethal-7 () microRNA-mediated mechanisms, in the present study, we evaluated the role of in the pathogenesis of OPMD. By a multidisciplinary approach, including confocal microscopy, Western blot, and quantitative PCR analyses on muscle biopsies from patients and unaffected individuals, we found a significant increase in expression in OPMD muscles associated with an unusual high percentage of paired box 7-positive satellite cells. Furthermore, IL-6, a cytokine involved in the regulation of satellite cell proliferation and differentiation and a potential target of , was found strongly down-regulated in OPMD compared with control muscles. The decrease in IL-6 transcript levels and protein content was also confirmed during differentiation of patients' and controls' muscle cells. Overall, our data suggest a key role of in the regeneration and degeneration process in OPMD muscle and pointed to IL-6 as a potential target molecule for new therapeutic approaches for this disorder.-Cappelletti, C., Galbardi, B., Bruttini, M., Salerno, F., Canioni, E., Pasanisi, M. B., Rodolico, C., Brizzi, T., Mora, M., Renieri, A., Maggi, L., Bernasconi, P., Mantegazza, R. Aging-associated genes and microRNAs: a contribution to myogenic program dysregulation in oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201801577RRDOI Listing
June 2019

Up-regulation of Toll-like receptors 7 and 9 and its potential implications in the pathogenic mechanisms of LMNA-related myopathies.

Nucleus 2018 ;9(1):398-409

a Neurology IV - Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Diseases Unit , Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico "Carlo Besta" , Milan , Italy.

Laminopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases, caused by mutations in lamin A/C proteins. The most common laminopathy (LMNA-related myopathies, LMNA-RM) affects skeletal and cardiac muscles; muscle histopathology is variable, ranging from mild unspecific changes to dystrophic features, sometimes with inflammatory evidence. Whether the genetic defect might activate innate immune components, leading to chronic inflammation, myofiber necrosis and fibrosis, is still unknown. By qPCR, a significant up-regulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and 9 transcripts was found in LMNA-RM compared to other myopathic and non-myopathic muscles. A marked TLR7/9 staining was observed on LMNA-RM blood vessels and muscle fibers and, when present, on infiltrating cells, mainly macrophages, scattered in the tissue or localized close to degenerated muscle fibers and connective tissue. Our results recognize innate immunity as a player in LMNA-RM pathogenesis. Modulation of TLR7/9 signaling pathways and decrease of macrophage-mediated inflammation might be potential therapeutic strategies in LMNA-RM management.

Abbreviations: DMD, Duchenne muscular dystrophy; EDMD2, Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy type 2; FSHD, facio-scapulo-humeral muscular dystrophy; LGMD1B, limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1B; LMNA-CMD, LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy; LMNA-RM, LMNA-related myopathies; sIBM, sporadic inclusion body myositis; TLR, Toll-like receptor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19491034.2018.1471947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7000140PMC
September 2019

A novel ABCC6 haplotype is associated with azathioprine drug response in myasthenia gravis.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2017 02;27(2):51-56

aNeurology IV - Neuroimmunology and Neuromuscular Diseases Unit bBioinformatics Unit, IRCCS Foundation Neurological Institute 'Carlo Besta' cGenopolis Consortium, Department of Biotechnology and Bioscience, University of Milano-Bicocca, Milan, Italy.

Objective: We investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters (DMETs) with the response to azathioprine (AZA) in patients affected by myasthenia gravis (MG) to determine possible genotype-phenotype correlations.

Patients And Methods: Genomic DNA from 180 AZA-treated MG patients was screened through the Affymetrix DMET platform, which characterizes 1931 SNPs in 225 genes. The significant SNPs, identified to be involved in AZA response, were subsequently validated by allelic discrimination and direct sequencing. SNP analysis was carried out using the SNPassoc R package and the haploblocks were determined using haploview software.

Results: We studied 127 patients in the discovery phase and 53 patients in the validation phase. We showed that two SNPs (rs8058694 and rs8058696) found in ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 6, a subfamily member of ATP-binding cassette genes, constituted a new haplotype associated with AZA response in MG patients in the discovery cohort (P=0.011; odds ratio: 0.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.83) and in the combined cohort (P=0.04; odds ratio: 1.58).

Conclusion: These findings highlight the role that the ATP-binding cassette subfamily C member 6 haplotype may play in AZA drug response. In view of the significant effects and AZA intolerance, these novel SNPs should be taken into consideration in pharmacogenetic profiling for AZA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0000000000000257DOI Listing
February 2017

Imaging alterations in skeletal muscle channelopathies: a study in 15 patients.

Acta Myol 2015 Dec;34(2-3):109-15

Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico "Carlo Besta", Milan, Italy;

Skeletal muscle channelopathies (SMC), including non dystrophic myotonias (NDM) and periodic paralyses (PP), are characterized by considerable clinical overlap and clinical features not always allow addressing molecular diagnosis. Muscle imaging has been shown to be useful for differential diagnosis in neuromuscular disorders, however it has been relatively poorly investigated in SMC. We studied 15 patients affected by genetically confirmed SMC (NDM = 9, PP = 6) through muscle MRI or CT of thighs and legs, including 11 patients mutated in SCN4A gene, 2 in CACNA1S and 2 in CLCN1. Mean age at muscle imaging was 45.2 ± 18 years (range 22-70). Overall, fatty infiltration was found in thigh muscles in 8 (53%) patients and in leg muscles in 10 (60%). All patients mutated in CLCN1 and CACNA1S had abnormal thigh and/or leg muscle MRI, regardless the disease duration. On the contrary normal thigh and leg muscle MRI or CT scans were observed in 4/15 (27%) patients, all mutated in SCN4A. Variable degrees of fatty changes were found in patients mutated in SCN4A, CACNA1S and CLCN1. No differences on overall score of fatty infiltration were detected between NDM and PP (p-value = 0.953) neither between presence or absence of permanent weakness (p-value = 0.951). Our data confirm the presence of muscle fatty changes in the majority of SMC patients, although without any specific pattern of involvement. However muscle MRI may be a useful tool for longitudinal follow-up of SMC patients, in particular to evaluate the occurrence and the progression of fixed myopathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4859077PMC
December 2015

A novel homozygous ISPD gene mutation causing phenotype variability in a consanguineous family.

Neuromuscul Disord 2015 Jan 10;25(1):55-9. Epub 2014 Sep 10.

Neuromuscular Disease and Immunology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico "C. Besta", Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Within the group of muscular dystrophies, dystroglycanopathies represent an important subgroup of recessively inherited disorders. Their severity varies from the relatively mild forms of adult-onset limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD), to the severe congenital muscular dystrophies (CMD) with cerebral and ocular involvement. We describe 2 consanguineous children of Pakistani origin, carrying a new homozygous missense mutation c.367G>A (p.Gly123Arg) in the ISPD gene. Mutations in this gene have been recently reported as a common cause of congenital and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Patient 1 is an 8-year-old female with an intermediate phenotype between CMD and early LGMD; patient 2 is a 20-month-old male and second cousin of patient 1, showing a CMD phenotype. Cognitive development, brain MRI, eye examination, electrocardiogram and echocardiogram were normal in both patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the co-occurrence of both a CMD/early LGMD intermediate phenotype and a CMD within the same family carrying a homozygous ISPD mutation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2014.08.007DOI Listing
January 2015

A large cohort of myotonia congenita probands: novel mutations and a high-frequency mutation region in exons 4 and 5 of the CLCN1 gene.

J Hum Genet 2013 Sep 6;58(9):581-7. Epub 2013 Jun 6.

Neurology IV-Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology Unit, Foundation IRCCS Neurological Institute Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

Myotonia congenita is a genetic disease characterized by impaired muscle relaxation after forceful contraction (myotonia) and caused by mutations in the chloride channel voltage-sensitive 1 (CLCN1) gene, encoding the voltage-gated chloride channel of skeletal muscle (ClC-1). In a large cohort of clinically diagnosed unrelated probands, we identified 75 different CLCN1 mutations in 106 individuals, among which 29 were novel mutations and 46 had already been reported. Despite the newly described mutations being scattered throughout the gene, in our patients, mutations were mostly found in exons 4 and 5. Most of the novel mutations located in the region comprising the intramembrane helices are involved in the ion-conducting pathway and predicted to affect channel function. We report for the first time that two mutations, inherited on the same allele as a heterozygous trait, abrogate disease expression, although when inherited singularly they were pathogenic. Such a mode of inheritance might explain the incomplete penetrance reported for autosomal dominant mutations in particular families.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/jhg.2013.58DOI Listing
September 2013

A new thiopurine s-methyltransferase haplotype associated with intolerance to azathioprine.

J Clin Pharmacol 2013 Jan 24;53(1):67-74. Epub 2013 Jan 24.

Neurology IV, Foundation IRCCS Neurological Institute Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

The authors have analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) gene in the context of efficacy and toxicity of azathioprine (AZA) to determine possible genotype-phenotype correlations between TPMT allelic variants and response to AZA treatment in 76 Italian patients with myasthenia gravis. They confirm known intronic and exonic TPMT polymorphisms that do not correlate with AZA responses and demonstrate a novel intronic polymorphism in a patient intolerant to AZA. Most importantly, they show that of the 22 AZA-intolerant patients, all 5 who carried mutations of the intolerance-linked haplotype TPMT*3A also carried the intronic T140+114A (rs3931660), all 3 mutations being part of a new haplotype designated TMPT*3E. TPMT*3E was not observed in unresponsive or responsive patients. The association of TPMT*3E with AZA intolerance and its frequency must be ascertained in larger, ethnically different cohorts. Nevertheless, in view of the highly significant association (Psim = 0.0026) between TPMT*3E and AZA intolerance in the study, this new haplotype should be taken into consideration in pharmacogenetic profiling for AZA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0091270011435989DOI Listing
January 2013

Sleep breathing disorders in 40 Italian patients with Myotonic dystrophy type 1.

Neuromuscul Disord 2012 Mar 3;22(3):219-24. Epub 2011 Dec 3.

Clinical Epileptology and Experimental Neurophysiology Unit, Neurological Institute Foundation Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and nature of sleep breathing disorders in Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). We wanted to determine whether there is a relationship between sleep breathing disorders and clinical parameters such as pulmonary function, degree of neuromuscular impairment, daytime sleepiness, and fatigue. This will help assess the prevalence of DM1 patients requiring nocturnal ventilatory treatments. We studied a random sample of 40 unrelated patients and found that 22/40 patients had obstructive sleep apnoea. Of these 22 patients, five showed also periodic breathing and four showed sleep hypoventilation. Nine patients were put on nocturnal ventilation following clinical and instrumental evaluations. Our study reveals that obstructive sleep apnoea is very common in these patients, but cannot be predicted on the basis of clinical-neurological features and diurnal functional respiratory tests. Our data emphasize that a periodical evaluation by polysomnography should be mandatory to ascertain, and treat if necessary, the presence of obstructive sleep apnoea, periodic breathing or nocturnal hypoventilation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nmd.2011.08.010DOI Listing
March 2012

Identification of previously unreported mutations in CHRNA1, CHRNE and RAPSN genes in three unrelated Italian patients with congenital myasthenic syndromes.

J Neurol 2010 Jul 16;257(7):1119-23. Epub 2010 Feb 16.

Laboratory NBS Biotech, Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

Congenital myasthenic syndromes are rare genetic disorders compromising neuromuscular transmission. The defects are mainly mutations in the muscle acetylcholine receptor, or associated proteins rapsyn and Dok-7. We analyzed three unrelated Italian patients with typical clinical features of congenital myasthenic syndrome, who all benefitted from cholinesterase inhibitors. We found five mutations: a previously unreported homozygous alphaG378D mutation in the CHRNA1 gene, a previously unreported heterozygous epsilonY8X mutation associated with a known heterozygous epsilonM292del deletion in the CHRNE gene, and the common heterozygous N88K mutation associated with a previously unreported heterozygous IVS1 + 2T > G splice site mutation in the RAPSN gene. All three patients had two mutant alleles; parents or offspring with a single mutated allele were asymptomatic, thus all mutations exerted their effects recessively. The previously unreported mutations are likely to reduce the number of AChRs at the motor endplate, although the alphaG378D mutation might produce a mild fast channel syndrome. The alphaG378D mutation was recessive, but recessive CHRNA1 mutations have rarely been reported previously, so studies on the effect of this mutation at the cellular level would be of interest.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-010-5472-0DOI Listing
July 2010

Decorin and biglycan expression is differentially altered in several muscular dystrophies.

Brain 2005 Nov 23;128(Pt 11):2546-55. Epub 2005 Sep 23.

Division of Neuromuscular Diseases and Neuroimmunology, Istituto Nazionale Neurologico "C. Besta", Milano, Italy.

Biglycan and decorin are small extracellular proteoglycans that interact with cytokines, whose activity they may modulate, and with matrix proteins, particularly collagens. To better understand their role in muscle fibrosis, we investigated expression of decorin and biglycan transcripts and protein in muscle of several forms of muscular dystrophy, and also expression of perlecan, an extracellular proteoglycan unrelated to collagen deposition. In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and LAMA2-mutated congenital muscular dystrophy (MDC1A) we also quantitated transcript levels of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-beta1. We examined muscle biopsies from nine DMD patients, aged 2-8 years; 14 BMD (Becker muscular dystrophy) patients (nine aged 1-5 years; five aged 30-37 years); four MDC1A patients (aged 2-7 years); six dysferlin-deficient patients (aged 19-53 years) with mutation ascertained in two, and normal expression of proteins related to limb girdle muscular dystrophies in the others; 10 sarcoglycan-deficient patients: seven with alpha-sarcoglycan mutation, two with beta-sarcoglycan mutation and one with gamma-sarcoglycan mutation (five aged 8-15 years; five aged 26-43 years); and nine children (aged 1-6 years) and 12 adults (aged 16-61 years) suspected of neuromuscular disease, but who had normal muscle on biopsy. Biglycan mRNA levels varied in DMD and MDC1A depending on the quantitation method, but were upregulated in BMD, sarcoglycanopathies and dysferlinopathy. Decorin mRNA was significantly downregulated in DMD and MDC1A, whereas TGF-beta1 was significantly upregulated. Decorin mRNA was normal in paediatric BMD, but upregulated in adult BMD, sarcoglycanopathies and dysferlinopathy. Perlecan transcript levels were similar to those of age-matched controls in all disease groups. By immunohistochemistry, decorin and biglycan were mainly localized in muscle connective tissue; their presence increased in relation to increased fibrosis in all dystrophic muscle. By visual inspection, decorin bands on immunoblot did not differ from those of age-matched controls in all patient groups. However, when the intensity of the bands was quantitated against vimentin and normalized against sarcomeric actin, in DMD and MDC1A the ratio of band intensities was significantly lower than in age-matched controls. Variations in the transcript and protein levels of these proteoglycans in different muscular dystrophies probably reflect the variable disruption of extracellular matrix organization that occurs in these diseases. The significantly lowered decorin levels in DMD and MDC1A may be related to the increased TGF-beta1 levels, suggesting a therapeutic role of decorin in these severe dystrophies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awh635DOI Listing
November 2005