Publications by authors named "Eleni Pilitsi"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Heel fat pad involvement in rheumatoid arthritis: a review and case series.

Clin Rheumatol 2021 Apr 4. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Department of Rheumatology, Boston University/Boston Medical Center, 725 Albany Street, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease affecting not only the synovial joints but also multiple extra-articular sites, including ankle and foot soft tissue. Hindfoot abnormalities usually follow those in the forefoot, with up to 4 out of 10 patients experiencing talalgia during their disease course. Enthesophytosis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, and plantar fasciitis are among the most common etiologies, while heel fat pad abnormalities like subcalcaneal bursitis are rare. Here, we report two cases of subcalcaneal bursitis, and the first case of heel fat pad and subcalcaneal bursa herniation in patients with established RA, along with a comprehensive literature review of subcalcaneal bursitis and other heel fat pad abnormalities in RA. Subcalcaneal bursitis, also referred to as panniculitis, inflammatory-edematous lesion, or adventitial (adventitious) bursitis has been reported in up to 10% of patients with RA. It appears as a compressible, heterogeneous, and hypoechoic subcalcaneal mass on ultrasound (US), with peripheral vascularization on Doppler US. Patients may present with heel discomfort. Ultrasonographic assessment is usually sufficient to confirm the presence of heel fat pad pathologies. Rest, analgesics, and mechanical aids with or without addition of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are usually employed, while intervention is rarely required.
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April 2021

Circulating levels of gastrointestinal hormones in response to the most common types of bariatric surgery and predictive value for weight loss over one year: Evidence from two independent trials.

Metabolism 2019 12 28;101:153997. Epub 2019 Oct 28.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Section of Endocrinology, Boston VA Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, 150 South Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02130, USA.

Aims: Bariatric surgery leads to profound and sustainable weight loss. Gastrointestinal hormones are involved in energy and glucose homeostasis, thus postoperative changes of their circulating levels may be mediating future weight loss. To investigate how the circulating concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones change in response to the most common types of bariatric operation and whether these changes can predict future weight loss.

Materials And Methods: We measured circulating GLP-1, GLP-2, oxyntomodulin, glicentin, glucagon, major proglucagon fragment (MPGF), ghrelin, GIP, PYY after overnight fasting and/or after a mixed meal test (MMT) in: a) 14 subjects that have undergone either an adjustable gastric banding [AGB] (n = 9) or a Roux-en-Y bypass (RYGB) (n = 5) (Pilot study 1), b) 28 subjects that have undergone either a vertical sleeve gastrectomy (n = 17) or a RYGB (n = 11) before and three, six and twelve months after surgery.

Results: In addition to the expected associations with GLP-1, the most robust increases were observed in postprandial levels of oxyntomodulin and glicentin three months after VSG or RYGB (but not after AGB) and are associated with degree of weight loss. Oxyntomodulin and glicentin levels at the third and sixth month postoperative visit are positively associated with feeling of satiety which may be underlying the observed associations with future weight loss.

Conclusion: Beyond GLP-1, early postprandial changes in circulating oxyntomodulin and glicentin are predictors of weight loss after bariatric surgery, possibly through regulation of satiety. Further studies should focus on underlying mechanisms, and their potential as attractive therapeutic tools against obesity and related comorbidities.
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December 2019

Increased risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (overlap syndrome).

Clin Respir J 2019 Nov 8;13(11):708-715. Epub 2019 Sep 8.

MSc Programme in Sleep Medicine, Medical School, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece.

Introduction: Accumulating evidence suggests that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent among patients with concurrent obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, otherwise known as overlap syndrome (OS).

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the 10-year risk for CVD in OS patients compared with OSAS patients and controls.

Methods: Consecutive patients, referred for symptoms suggestive of OSAS, were evaluated with polysomnography and pulmonary function testing. Cardiovascular risk was assessed using the Framingham risk score (FRS) and systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE).

Results: Overall, 244 participants (184 males) without CVD and diabetes were divided into 3 groups: controls (n = 63), OSAS (n = 139) and OS (n = 42). Both FRS and SCORE were found to be elevated in the OS group compared with the OSAS and control groups (P < .001 for all). In multivariate analysis, age (β = .461, P < .001), forced expiratory volume in first second (β = -.285, P = .036) and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) (β = .234, P = .007) were major determinants for the SCORE, whereas age (β = .308, P < .001) and apnoea-hypopnoea index (β = .252, P = .010) for the FRS.

Conclusion: In our study, an increased risk for CVD was observed in a group of patients with OS at the time of their initial evaluation. Further studies are needed in the field of OS in order to investigate, prevent and manage early CVD in this population.
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November 2019

Of mice and men: incretin actions in the central nervous system.

Metabolism 2019 09 4;98:121-135. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, United States of America; Section of Endocrinology, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, United States of America.

Incretins have risen to the forefront of therapies for obesity and related metabolic complications, primarily because of their efficacy and relatively few side effects. Importantly, their efficacy in altering energy balance and decreasing body weight is apparently through actions in the central nervous system (CNS); the latter may have implications beyond obesity per se, i.e. in other disease states associated with obesity including CNS-related disorders. Here, we first describe the role of the CNS in energy homeostasis and then the current state of knowledge in terms of incretin physiology, pathophysiology and efficacy in preclinical and clinical studies. In the future, more clinical studies are needed to fully map mechanistic pathways underlying incretin actions and outcomes in the human CNS. Additionally, future research will likely lead to the discovery of additional novel incretins and/or more efficacious medications with less side effects through the improvement of current compounds with properties that would allow them to have more favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles and/or by combining known and novel incretins into safe and more efficacious combination therapies leading ultimately to more tangible benefits for our patients.
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September 2019

Circulating levels of the components of the GH/IGF-1/IGFBPs axis total and intact IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) 3 and IGFBP 4 and total IGFBP 5, as well as PAPPA, PAPPA2 and Stanniocalcin-2 levels are not altered in response to energy deprivation and/or metreleptin administration in humans.

Metabolism 2019 08 17;97:32-39. Epub 2019 May 17.

Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA; Section of Endocrinology, VA Boston Healthcare System, Jamaica Plain, MA, USA.

Objective: It remains unclear whether food deprivation induces changes in components of the GH/IGF-1/IGFBPs axis and if yes, which ones are mediated by leptin, an adipocyte secreted hormone regulating neuroendocrine response to energy deprivation in animals and humans. We aimed to investigate components of the axis that have not been studied to date, i.e. IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) and related proteases (total and intact IGFBP 3 and IGFBP 4, total IGFBP 5, PAPPA, PAPPA2 and Stanniocalcin-2), during acute (short-term fasting in healthy subjects) and chronic (women with hypothalamic amenorrhea [HA] due to excessive exercise) energy deprivation and whether metreleptin administration, in replacement, supraphysiologic or pharmacologic levels, may mediate any changes of circulating levels of the above molecules in healthy individuals and in women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

Methods: We studied: 1) 11 healthy men and women during three four day admissions i.e. a baseline admission in the fed isocaloric state and two admissions in the complete food deprivation state for 72-h with either placebo (resulting in a hypoleptinemic state) or metreleptin administration in doses designed to normalize circulating leptin levels for the duration of the study, 2) 15 healthy men and women during three 72-hour long admissions in a complete food deprivation state receiving three escalating doses of metreleptin designed to bring circulating leptin levels to physiologic, supraphysiologic, or pharmacologic levels, and 3) 18 women with HA randomized to either metreleptin treatment in replacement doses or placebo for nine months.

Results: There were no significant changes in the circulating profiles of the above molecules in the fasting vs. fed state and/or with metreleptin administration during acute and chronic energy deprivation.

Conclusions: The studied components of the GH/IGF-1/IGFBPs axis are not affected by energy deprivation, leptin deficiency associated with energy deprivation, or by metreleptin administration in physiologic, supraphysiologic or pharmacologic doses.
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August 2019

Pharmacotherapy of obesity: Available medications and drugs under investigation.

Metabolism 2019 03 1;92:170-192. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Division of Endocrinology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215; Section of Endocrinology, VA Boston Healthcare System, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Obesity is a chronic disease with a continuously rising prevalence that currently affects more than half a billion people worldwide. Energy balance and appetite are highly regulated via central and peripheral mechanisms, and weight loss triggers a homeostatic response leading to weight regain. Lifestyle and behavioral modifications are the cornerstones of obesity management; however, they often fail to achieve or sustain long-term weight loss. Pharmacotherapy added onto lifestyle modifications results in an additional, albeit limited, weight reduction. Regardless, this weight reduction of 5-10% conveys multiple cardiovascular and metabolic benefits. In this review, evidence on the food and drug administration (FDA)-approved medications, i.e., orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate, liraglutide and naltrexone/bupropion, is summarized. Furthermore, anti-obesity agents in the pipeline for potential future therapeutic use are presented.
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March 2019