Publications by authors named "Elena Newman"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Quantitative microcapillary electrophoresis immunoassay (mCE IA) for end-to-end analysis of pertactin within in-process samples and Quadracel® vaccine.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2021 Sep 26;204:114284. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Analytical Sciences Toronto, Sanofi Pasteur Ltd., Toronto, ON, M2R 3T4, Canada. Electronic address:

Protein concentration is an important attribute in the production of subunit or component-based vaccine antigens. Rigorous monitoring of protein concentration is required to identify potential areas for yield improvement. The current GMP method for quantitation is the plate-based ELISA which requires numerous hands-on steps and has low sensitivity in comparison to new microfluidic systems. To address this issue, a sensitive automated microCapillary Electrophoresis ImmunoAssay (mCE IA) method was developed to accurately separate and quantitate pertactin (PRN), an important antigen of the modern acellular Pertussis (aP) vaccine. PRN is reported to be a low-yielding antigen; thus, it is critical to observe its concentration throughout its manufacturing process. First, a primary antibody for PRN was identified to establish suitable immunoprobing conditions for detection of PRN over a wide linear dynamic range that spans 3 orders of magnitude. Next, the pre-adsorbed PRN Drug Substance (DS) was used as a reference standard to quantitate PRN samples against a calibration curve with adequate accuracy and precision. Four representative samples including three in-process steps and final adjuvanted drug product: Quadracel®, were examined to demonstrate the capability of mCE IA to quantitate PRN with high sensitivity and specificity. The matrices of the selected samples contain additional components (e.g. other proteins, growth factors, cell culture media, residual ammonium sulfate, and aluminum adjuvant) often making the quantitation of PRN challenging. The specificity and method linearity were demonstrated by spiking pre-adsorbed PRN DS into the four representative samples. In addition, it was shown that reportable concentrations of PRN for nine downstream process steps as analyzed by our method is comparable to concentrations obtained with ELISA. Most importantly, this study demonstrated that our method's quantitative accuracy is independent of matrix components, as each sample undergoes extensive dilution. This allows for seamless end-to-end analysis of PRN from fermenter harvest, through to complex downstream process samples to adjuvanted drug products. Finally, for the first time the developed and qualified mCE IA method was shown to quantify PRN throughout the entire manufacturing process to provide rapid feedback for process optimizations allowing for accurate yield and step-loss calculations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2021.114284DOI Listing
September 2021

High-precision quantitation of a tuberculosis vaccine antigen with capillary-gel electrophoresis using an injection standard.

Talanta 2017 Dec 15;175:273-279. Epub 2017 Jul 15.

Department of Chemistry and Centre for Research on Biomolecular Interactions, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M3J 1P3. Electronic address:

Analysis of proteinogenic vaccine antigens in a quality control environment requires an accurate, precise, and reliable method for protein separation and quantitation. While having multiple advantages over the classical SDS-PAGE, capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) has not yet become a standard tool in vaccine antigen analysis. Here we report on development of a CGE-based method for quantitative analysis of a tuberculosis vaccine fusion antigen protein, H4, currently in clinical trials. We demonstrate that our method can monitor antigen purity and relative quantity with greater precision and accuracy versus SDS-PAGE. In addition, due to use of direct light-absorbance detection, the CGE method is suitable for absolute quantitation, an application for which SDS-PAGE is limited due to the need for staining and limited dynamic range of detection. To further improve the performance of our quantitation method, we introduced Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) as an injection standard to correct for signal variance associated with the injected sample volume. We found that, for our specific application, BSA was more appropriate as an injection standard versus one provided in a commercial kit, in terms of precision and accuracy for quantitation of H4. In addition to providing better method performance versus SDS-PAGE, CGE is also faster and less resource-intensive. We conclude that CGE should be considered as a replacement for traditional SDS-PAGE methods for vaccine antigen quantitation in a quality-control environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2017.07.047DOI Listing
December 2017

A centrifugation-free high-throughput protein purification system using in-line microfluidization.

Protein Expr Purif 2011 Oct 14;79(2):204-9. Epub 2011 May 14.

Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, 101 College St., Toronto, MaRS South Tower, Suite 700, Ontario, Canada M5G IL7.

The majority of current high-throughput protein purification protocols include rate-limiting centrifugation steps. A column and nozzle assembly was developed that can be used in-line with microfluidization for the purification of bacterially-overexpressed, His-tagged proteins directly from bacterial cultures. Yields and purity are comparable with standard protocols. This large-scale protein purification protocol is easy to use and widely-applicable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pep.2011.05.006DOI Listing
October 2011

A conserved mechanism of autoinhibition for the AMPK kinase domain: ATP-binding site and catalytic loop refolding as a means of regulation.

Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 2010 Feb 27;66(Pt 2):143-51. Epub 2010 Jan 27.

The Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, 101 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L7, Canada.

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved trimeric protein complex that is responsible for energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells. Here, a 1.9 A resolution crystal structure of the isolated kinase domain from the alpha2 subunit of human AMPK, the first from a multicellular organism, is presented. This human form adopts a catalytically inactive state with distorted ATP-binding and substrate-binding sites. The ATP site is affected by changes in the base of the activation loop, which has moved into an inhibited DFG-out conformation. The substrate-binding site is disturbed by changes within the AMPKalpha2 catalytic loop that further distort the enzyme from a catalytically active form. Similar structural rearrangements have been observed in a yeast AMPK homologue in response to the binding of its auto-inhibitory domain; restructuring of the kinase catalytic loop is therefore a conserved feature of the AMPK protein family and is likely to represent an inhibitory mechanism that is utilized during function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1744309109052543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2815679PMC
February 2010

The crystal structure of human WD40 repeat-containing peptidylprolyl isomerase (PPWD1).

FEBS J 2008 May 3;275(9):2283-95. Epub 2008 Apr 3.

Structural Genomics Consortium, Banting Institute, University of Toronto, ON, Canada.

Cyclophilins comprise one of the three classes of peptidylprolyl isomerases found in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, as well as viruses. Many of the 17 annotated human cyclophilins contain the catalytic domain in tandem with other domains, and many of the specific functions of a particular cyclophilin or its associated domains remain unknown. The structure of the isomerase domain from a spliceosome-associated cyclophilin, PPWD1 (peptidylprolyl isomerase containing WD40 repeat), has been solved to 1.65 A. In the crystal, the N-terminus of one isomerase domain is bound in the active site of a neighboring isomerase molecule in a manner analogous to substrate. NMR solution studies show that this sequence binds to the active site of the cyclophilin, but cannot be turned over by the enzyme. A pseudo-substrate immediately N-terminal to the cyclophilin domain in PPWD1 could have wider implications for the function of this cyclophilin in the spliceosome, where it is located in human cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06381.xDOI Listing
May 2008

The crystal structures of human calpains 1 and 9 imply diverse mechanisms of action and auto-inhibition.

J Mol Biol 2007 Feb 14;366(1):216-29. Epub 2006 Nov 14.

Structural Genomics Consortium and the Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5G 1L5.

Calpains are calcium activated cysteine proteases found throughout the animal, plant, and fungi kingdoms; 14 isoforms have been described in the human genome. Calpains have been implicated in multiple models of human disease; for instance, calpain 1 is activated in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease, and the digestive tract specific calpain 9 is down-regulated in gastric cancer cell lines. We have solved the structures of human calpain 1 and calpain 9 protease cores using crystallographic methods; both structures have clear implications for the function of non-catalytic domains of full-length calpains in the calcium-mediated activation of the enzyme. The structure of minicalpain 1 is similar to previously solved structures of the protease core. Auto-inhibition in this system is most likely through rearrangements of a central helical/loop region near the active site cysteine, which occlude the substrate binding site. However, the structure of minicalpain 9 indicates that auto-inhibition in this enzyme is mediated through large intra-domain movements that misalign the catalytic triad. This disruption is reminiscent of the full-length inactive calpain conformation. The structures of the highly conserved, ubiquitously expressed human calpain 1 and the more tissue specific human calpain 9 indicate that although there are high levels of sequence conservation throughout the calpain family, isolated structures of family members are insufficient to explain the molecular mechanism of activation for this group of proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2006.11.037DOI Listing
February 2007

Amino-terminal dimerization, NRDP1-rhodanese interaction, and inhibited catalytic domain conformation of the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8).

J Biol Chem 2006 Dec 11;281(49):38061-70. Epub 2006 Oct 11.

Structural Genomics Consortium and the Department of Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1L5, Canada.

Ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8) hydrolyzes mono and polyubiquitylated targets such as epidermal growth factor receptors and is involved in clathrin-mediated internalization. In 1182 residues, USP8 contains multiple domains, including coiled-coil, rhodanese, and catalytic domains. We report the first high-resolution crystal structures of these domains and discuss their implications for USP8 function. The amino-terminal domain is a homodimer with a novel fold. It is composed of two five-helix bundles, where the first helices are swapped, and carboxyl-terminal helices are extended in an antiparallel fashion. The structure of the rhodanese domain, determined in complex with the E3 ligase NRDP1, reveals the canonical rhodanese fold but with a distorted primordial active site. The USP8 recognition domain of NRDP1 has a novel protein fold that interacts with a conserved peptide loop of the rhodanese domain. A consensus sequence of this loop is found in other NRDP1 targets, suggesting a common mode of interaction. The structure of the carboxyl-terminal catalytic domain of USP8 exhibits the conserved tripartite architecture but shows unique traits. Notably, the active site, including the ubiquitin binding pocket, is in a closed conformation, incompatible with substrate binding. The presence of a zinc ribbon subdomain near the ubiquitin binding site further suggests a polyubiquitin-specific binding site and a mechanism for substrate induced conformational changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M606704200DOI Listing
December 2006

Structure of human protein kinase C eta (PKCeta) C2 domain and identification of phosphorylation sites.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 Nov 5;349(4):1182-9. Epub 2006 Sep 5.

Structural Genomics Consortium, University of Toronto, 100 College Street, Toronto, Ont., Canada M5G 1L5.

Protein kinase C eta (PKCeta) is one of several PKC isoforms found in humans. It is a novel PKC isoform in that it is activated by diacylglycerol and anionic phospholipids but not calcium. The crystal structure of the PKCeta-C2 domain, which is thought to mediate anionic phospholipid sensing in the protein, was determined at 1.75 A resolution. The structure is similar to that of the PKC epsilon C2 domain but with significant variations at the putative lipid-binding site. Two serine residues within PKC eta were identified in vitro as potential autophosphorylation sites. In the unphosphorylated structure both serines line the putative lipid-binding site and may therefore play a role in the lipid-regulation of the kinase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.08.160DOI Listing
November 2006

Binding and activation of nitric oxide synthase isozymes by calmodulin EF hand pairs.

FEBS J 2006 Apr;273(8):1759-71

Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, ON, Canada.

Calmodulin (CaM) is a cytosolic Ca(2+) signal-transducing protein that binds and activates many different cellular enzymes with physiological relevance, including the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isozymes. CaM consists of two globular domains joined by a central linker; each domain contains an EF hand pair. Four different mutant CaM proteins were used to investigate the role of the two CaM EF hand pairs in the binding and activation of the mammalian inducible NOS (iNOS) and the constitutive NOS (cNOS) enzymes, endothelial NOS (eNOS) and neuronal NOS (nNOS). The role of the CaM EF hand pairs in different aspects of NOS enzymatic function was monitored using three assays that monitor electron transfer within a NOS homodimer. Gel filtration studies were used to determine the effect of Ca(2+) on the dimerization of iNOS when coexpressed with CaM and the mutant CaM proteins. Gel mobility shift assays were performed to determine binding stoichiometries of CaM proteins to synthetic NOS CaM-binding domain peptides. Our results show that the N-terminal EF hand pair of CaM contains important binding and activating elements for iNOS, whereas the N-terminal EF hand pair in conjunction with the central linker region is required for cNOS enzyme binding and activation. The iNOS enzyme must be coexpressed with wild-type CaM in vitro because of its propensity to aggregate when residues of the highly hydrophobic CaM-binding domain are exposed to an aqueous environment. A possible role for iNOS aggregation in vivo is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2006.05193.xDOI Listing
April 2006

Differential activation of nitric-oxide synthase isozymes by calmodulin-troponin C chimeras.

J Biol Chem 2004 Aug 11;279(32):33547-57. Epub 2004 May 11.

Department of Chemistry, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1, Canada.

The interactions of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS) with calmodulin (CaM) and mutant forms of CaM, including CaM-troponin C chimeras, have been previously reported, but there has been no comparable investigation of CaM interactions with the other constitutively expressed NOS (cNOS), endothelial NOS (eNOS), or the inducible isoform (iNOS). The present study was designed to evaluate the role of the four CaM EF hands in the activation of eNOS and iNOS. To assess the role of CaM regions on aspects of enzymatic function, three distinct activities associated with NOS were measured: NADPH oxidation, cytochrome c reduction, and nitric oxide (*NO) generation as assessed by the oxyhemoglobin capture assay. CaM activates the cNOS enzymes by a mechanism other than stimulating electron transfer into the oxygenase domain. Interactions with the reductase moiety are dominant in cNOS activation, and EF hand 1 is critical for activation of both nNOS and eNOS. Although the activation patterns for nNOS and eNOS are clearly related, effects of the chimeras on all the reactions are not equivalent. We propose that cytochrome c reduction is a measure of the release of the FMN domain from the reductase complex. In contrast, cytochrome c reduction by iNOS is readily activated by each of the chimeras examined here and may be constitutive. Each of the chimeras were co-expressed with the human iNOS enzyme in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified. Domains 2 and 3 of CaM contain important elements required for the Ca2+/CaM independence of *NO production by the iNOS enzyme. The disparity between cytochrome c reduction and *NO production at low calcium can be attributed to poor association of heme and FMN domains when the bound CaM constructs are depleted of Ca2+. In general cNOSs are much more difficult to activate than iNOS, which can be attributed to their extra sequence elements, which are adjacent to the CaM-binding site and associated with CaM control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M403892200DOI Listing
August 2004

Thermodynamics of oxidation-reduction reactions in mammalian nitric-oxide synthase isoforms.

J Biol Chem 2004 Apr 10;279(18):18759-66. Epub 2004 Jan 10.

Biology Department, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180, USA.

The three mammalian nitric-oxide synthases produce NO from arginine in a reaction requiring 3 electrons per NO, which are supplied to the catalytic center from NADPH through reductase domains incorporating FAD and FMN cofactors. The isoforms share a common reaction mechanism and requirements for reducing equivalents but differ in regulation; the endothelial and neuronal isoforms are controlled by calcium/calmodulin modulation of the electron transfer system, while the inducible isoform binds calmodulin at all physiological Ca(2+) concentrations and is always on. The thermodynamics of electron transfer through the flavin domains in all three isoforms are basically similar. The major flavin states are FMN, FMNH., FMNH(2), FAD, FADH., and FADH(2). The FMN/FMNH. couple is high potential ( approximately 100 mV) in all three isoforms and is unlikely to be catalytically competent; the other three flavin couples form a nearly isopotential group clustered around -250 mV. Reduction of the flavins by the pyridine nucleotide couple at -325 mV is thus moderately thermodynamically favorable. The ferri/ferroheme couple in all three isoforms is approximately -270 mV in the presence of saturating arginine. Ca(2+)/calmodulin has no effect on the potentials of any of the couples in endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) or neuronal nitric-oxide synthase (nNOS). The pH dependence of the flavin couples suggests the presence of ionizable groups coupled to the flavin redox/protonation states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M308936200DOI Listing
April 2004
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