Publications by authors named "Elena Maria Elli"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Among classic myeloproliferative neoplasms, essential thrombocythemia is associated with the greatest risk of venous thromboembolism during COVID-19.

Blood Cancer J 2021 02 4;11(2):21. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Center Research and Innovation of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (CRIMM), Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Careggi, University of Florence, Florence, Italy.

In a multicenter European retrospective study including 162 patients with COVID-19 occurring in essential thrombocythemia (ET, n = 48), polycythemia vera (PV, n = 42), myelofibrosis (MF, n = 56), and prefibrotic myelofibrosis (pre-PMF, n = 16), 15 major thromboses (3 arterial and 12 venous) were registered in 14 patients, of whom all, but one, were receiving LMW-heparin prophylaxis. After adjustment for the competing risk of death, the cumulative incidence of arterial and venous thromboembolic events (VTE) reached 8.5% after 60 days follow-up. Of note, 8 of 12 VTE were seen in ET. Interestingly, at COVID-19 diagnosis, MPN patients had significantly lower platelet count (p < 0.0001) than in the pre-COVID last follow-up.This decline was remarkably higher in ET (-23.3%, p < 0.0001) than in PV (-16.4%, p = 0.1730) and was associated with higher mortality rate (p = 0.0010) for pneumonia. The effects of possible predictors of thrombosis, selected from those clinically relevant and statistically significant in univariate analysis, were examined in a multivariate model. Independent risk factors were transfer to ICU (SHR = 3.73, p = 0.029), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (SHR = 1.1, p = 0.001) and ET phenotype (SHR = 4.37, p = 0.006). The enhanced susceptibility to ET-associated VTE and the associated higher mortality for pneumonia may recognize a common biological plausibility and deserve to be delved to tailor new antithrombotic regimens including antiplatelet drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00417-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7871138PMC
February 2021

Integrated Genomic, Functional, and Prognostic Characterization of Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia.

Hemasphere 2020 Dec 6;4(6):e497. Epub 2020 Nov 6.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano - Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

Atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) is a -negative clonal disorder, which belongs to the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative group. This disease is characterized by recurrent somatic mutations in , and genes, as well as high genetic heterogeneity, thus posing a great therapeutic challenge. To provide a comprehensive genomic characterization of aCML we applied a high-throughput sequencing strategy to 43 aCML samples, including both whole-exome and RNA-sequencing data. Our dataset identifies , , and as the most frequently mutated genes with a total of 43.2%, 29.7 and 16.2%, respectively. We characterized the clonal architecture of 7 aCML patients by means of colony assays and targeted resequencing. The results indicate that variants occur early in the clonal evolution history of aCML, while mutations often represent a late event. The presence of actionable mutations conferred both ex vivo and in vivo sensitivity to specific inhibitors with evidence of strong in vitro synergism in case of multiple targeting. In one patient, a clinical response was obtained. Stratification based on RNA-sequencing identified two different populations in terms of overall survival, and differential gene expression analysis identified 38 significantly overexpressed genes in the worse outcome group. Three genes correctly classified patients for overall survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655091PMC
December 2020

Heterogeneity of the bone marrow niche in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: ActivinA secretion by mesenchymal stromal cells correlates with the degree of marrow fibrosis.

Ann Hematol 2021 Jan 21;100(1):105-116. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Centro Ricerca M. Tettamanti, Department of Pediatrics, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) represent an essential component of the bone marrow (BM) niche and display disease-specific alterations in several myeloid malignancies. The aim of this work was to study possible MSC abnormalities in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in relationship to the degree of BM fibrosis. MSCs were isolated from BM of 6 healthy donors (HD) and of 23 MPN patients, classified in 3 groups according to the diagnosis and the grade of BM fibrosis: polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia (PV/ET), low fibrosis myelofibrosis (LF-MF), and high fibrosis MF (HF-MF). MSC cultures were established from 21 of 23 MPN patients. MPN-derived MSCs did not exhibit any functional impairment in their adipogenic/osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation potential and displayed a phenotype similar to HD-derived MSCs but with a decreased expression of CD146. All MPN-MSC lines were negative for the patient-specific hematopoietic clone mutations (JAK2, MPL, CALR). MSCs derived from HF-MF patients displayed a reduced clonogenic potential and a lower growth kinetic compared to MSCs from HD, LF-MF, and PV/ET patients. mRNA levels of hematopoiesis regulatory molecules were unaffected in MSCs from HF-MF compared to HD. Finally, in vitro ActivinA secretion by MSCs was increased in HF-MF compared to LF-MF patients, in association with a lower hemoglobin value. Increased ActivinA immunolabeling on stromal cells and erythroid precursors was also observed in HF-MF BM biopsies. In conclusion, higher grade of BM fibrosis is associated with functional impairment of MSCs and the increased secretion of ActivinA may represent a suitable target for anemia treatment in MF patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04306-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Cytogenetic study in primary myelofibrosis at diagnosis: Clinical and histological association and impact on survival according to WHO 2017 classification in an Italian multicenter series.

Hematol Oncol 2021 Feb 4;39(1):123-128. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Division of Pathology, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Foundation IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

We analyzed cytogenetic data at diagnosis in 395 primary myelofibrosis (PMF) patients to evaluate any possible association between karyotype and WHO 2017 classification and its impact on prognosis. All the cases were diagnosed and followed at five Italian Hematological Centers between November 1983 and December 2016. An abnormal karyotype (AK) was found in 69 patients and clustered differently according to bone marrow fibrosis grade as it was found in 31 (27.0%) cases with overt fibrotic and 38 (13.6%) with pre-fibrotic PMF (p = 0.001). Sex, anemia, thrombocytopenia, circulating blasts ≥1%, higher lactate dehydrogenase, and International Prognostic Scoring System risk classes were all significantly associated with karyotype. At a median follow-up of >6 years, 101 deaths were recorded. Survival was different between AK and normal karyotype (NK) patients with an estimated median overall survival (OS) of 11.6 and 25.7 years, respectively (p = 0.0148). In conclusion, in our cohort around 20% of patients had an AK, more frequently in subjects with an advanced bone marrow fibrosis grade and clinical-laboratory features indicative of a more aggressive disease. This study shows that an AK confers a more severe clinical phenotype and impacts adversely on OS, thus representing an additional parameter to be considered in the evaluation of PMF prognosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2808DOI Listing
February 2021

Use of generic imatinib as first-line treatment in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML): the GIMS (Glivec to Imatinib Switch) study.

Blood Res 2020 Sep;55(3):139-145

Hematology Division and Bone Marrow Unit, Ospedale San Gerardo, ASST-Monza, Monza, Italy.

Background: Generic formulations of imatinib mesylate have been introduced in Western Europe since 2017 to treat patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, results on the safety and efficacy of generic formulations are contrasting. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of generic imatinib in CML patients treated in 12 Italian institutes.

Methods: This is an observational, retro-prospective analysis of patients with CML for whom the treatment was switched from brand to generic imatinib. We analyzed and compared the variation in quantitative PCR values before and after the switch, and the proportion of patients who maintained molecular response after changing from brand to generic imatinib. Adverse events (AEs) were also evaluated.

Results: Two hundred patients were enrolled. The median PCR value after the switch was reduced by 0.25 compared to the values before the switch. A significant difference was found between median PCR values before and after the switch in favor of generic imatinib (=0.003). Molecular responses remained stable in 69.0%, improved in 25.5%, and worsened in 5.5% of patients. AEs were similar in the pre- and post-switch periods; however, a significant difference was found in favor of generic imatinib for muscular cramps (<0.0001), periorbital edema (=0.0028), edema of the limbs (<0.0001), fatigue (=0.0482), and diarrhea (=0.0027).

Conclusion: Our data indicate that generic imatinib does not have deleterious effects on CML control and present an acceptable safety profile, similar or better than brand imatinib.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5045/br.2020.2020130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7536566PMC
September 2020

A randomized double-blind trial of 3 aspirin regimens to optimize antiplatelet therapy in essential thrombocythemia.

Blood 2020 07;136(2):171-182

Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, Istituto di Ricerca e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Rome, Italy.

Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is characterized by abnormal megakaryopoiesis and enhanced thrombotic risk. Once-daily low-dose aspirin is the recommended antithrombotic regimen, but accelerated platelet generation may reduce the duration of platelet cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) inhibition. We performed a multicenter double-blind trial to investigate the efficacy of 3 aspirin regimens in optimizing platelet COX-1 inhibition while preserving COX-2-dependent vascular thromboresistance. Patients on chronic once-daily low-dose aspirin (n = 245) were randomized (1:1:1) to receive 100 mg of aspirin 1, 2, or 3 times daily for 2 weeks. Serum thromboxane B2 (sTXB2), a validated biomarker of platelet COX-1 activity, and urinary prostacyclin metabolite (PGIM) excretion were measured at randomization and after 2 weeks, as primary surrogate end points of efficacy and safety, respectively. Urinary TX metabolite (TXM) excretion, gastrointestinal tolerance, and ET-related symptoms were also investigated. Evaluable patients assigned to the twice-daily and thrice-daily regimens showed substantially reduced interindividual variability and lower median (interquartile range) values for sTXB2 (ng/mL) compared with the once-daily arm: 4 (2.1-6.7; n = 79), 2.5 (1.4-5.65, n = 79), and 19.3 (9.7-40; n = 85), respectively. Urinary PGIM was comparable in the 3 arms. Urinary TXM was reduced by 35% in both experimental arms. Patients in the thrice-daily arm reported a higher abdominal discomfort score. In conclusion, the currently recommended aspirin regimen of 75 to 100 once daily for cardiovascular prophylaxis appears to be largely inadequate in reducing platelet activation in the vast majority of patients with ET. The antiplatelet response to low-dose aspirin can be markedly improved by shortening the dosing interval to 12 hours, with no improvement with further reductions (EudraCT 2016-002885-30).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019004596DOI Listing
July 2020

Arterial thrombosis in Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms predicts second cancer: a case-control study.

Blood 2020 01;135(5):381-386

FROM Research Foundation, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy.

Patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) are prone to the development of second cancers, but the factors associated with these events have been poorly explored. In an international nested case-control study, we recruited 647 patients with carcinoma, nonmelanoma skin cancer, hematological second cancer, and melanoma diagnosed concurrently or after MPN diagnosis. Up to 3 control patients without a history of cancer and matched with each case for center, sex, age at MPN diagnosis, date of diagnosis, and MPN disease duration were included (n = 1234). Cases were comparable to controls for MPN type, driver mutations and cardiovascular risk factors. The frequency of thrombosis preceding MPN was similar for cases and controls (P = .462). Thrombotic events after MPN and before second cancer were higher in cases than in controls (11.6% vs 8.1%; P = .013), because of a higher proportion of arterial thromboses (6.2% vs 3.7%; P = .015). After adjustment for confounders, the occurrence of arterial thrombosis remained independently associated with the risk of carcinoma (odds ratio, 1.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.14-3.41), suggesting that MPN patients experiencing arterial events after MPN diagnosis deserve careful clinical surveillance for early detection of carcinoma. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03745378.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019002614DOI Listing
January 2020

Tracing the decision-making process for myelofibrosis: diagnosis, stratification, and management of ruxolitinib therapy in real-word practice.

Ann Hematol 2020 Jan 12;99(1):65-72. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Institute of Hematology "L. and A. Seràgnoli", Sant'Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

The management of patients with myelofibrosis (MF) has dramatically changed since the introduction of ruxolitinib as a tailored treatment strategy. However, the perceptions about the use of this drug in clinical practice remain, at times, a matter of discussion. We conducted a survey about the diagnostic evaluation, prognostic assessment, and management of ruxolitinib in real-life clinical practice in 18 Italian hematology centers. At diagnosis, most hematologists do not use genetically or molecularly inspired score systems to assess prognosis, mainly due to scarce availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) methodology, with NGS conversely reserved only for a subset of lower-risk MF patients with the aim of possibly improving the treatment strategy. Some common points in the management of ruxolitinib were 1) clinical triggers for ruxolitinib therapy, regardless of risk category; 2) evaluation of infectious risk before the starting of the drug; and 3) schedule of monitoring during the first 12 weeks with the need, in some instances, of supportive treatment. Further development of international recommendations and insights will allow the achievement of common criteria for the management of ruxolitinib in MF, before and after treatment, and for the definition of response and failure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-019-03847-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6944647PMC
January 2020

Second cancers in MPN: Survival analysis from an international study.

Am J Hematol 2020 03 22;95(3):295-301. Epub 2019 Dec 22.

FROM Research Foundation, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy.

One out of ten patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) develop a second cancer (SC): in such patients we aimed at assessing the survival impact of SC itself and of MPN-specific therapies. Data were therefore extracted from an international nested case-control study, recruiting 798 patients with SC diagnosed concurrently or after the MPN. Overall, 2995 person-years (PYs) were accumulated and mortality rate (MR) since SC diagnosis was 5.9 (5.1-6.9) deaths for every 100 PYs. A "poor prognosis" SC (stomach, esophagus, liver, pancreas, lung, ovary, head-and-neck or nervous system, osteosarcomas, multiple myeloma, aggressive lymphoma, acute leukemia) was reported in 26.3% of the patients and was the cause of death in 65% of them (MR 11.0/100 PYs). In contrast, patients with a "non-poor prognosis" SC (NPPSC) incurred a MR of 4.6/100 PYs: 31% of the deaths were attributed to SC and 15% to MPN evolution. At multivariable analysis, death after SC diagnosis was independently predicted (HR and 95% CI) by patient age greater than 70 years (2.68; 1.88-3.81), the SC prognostic group (2.57; 1.86-3.55), SC relapse (1.53; 10.6-2.21), MPN evolution (2.72; 1.84-4.02), anemia at SC diagnosis (2.32; 1.49-3.59), exposure to hydroxyurea (1.89; 1.26-2.85) and to ruxolitinib (3.63; 1.97-6.71). Aspirin was protective for patients with a NPPSC (0.60; 0.38-0.95). In conclusion, SC is a relevant cause of death competing with MPN evolution. Prospective data are awaited to confirm the role of cytoreductive and anti-platelet drugs in modulating patient survival after the occurrence of a SC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25700DOI Listing
March 2020

Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-inflammatory and Immunosuppressive Activity of Ruxolitinib.

Front Oncol 2019 7;9:1186. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche, Chirurgiche e Tecnologie Avanzate "G.F. Ingrassia", University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

The JAK-STAT signaling pathway plays a central role in signal transduction in hematopoietic cells, as well as in cells of the immune system. The occurrence in most patients affected by myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) of driver mutations resulting in the constitutive activation of JAK2-dependent signaling identified the deregulated JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway as the major pathogenic mechanism of MPNs. It also prompted the development of targeted drugs for MPNs. Ruxolitinib is a potent and selective oral inhibitor of both JAK2 and JAK1 protein kinases. Its use in patients with myelofibrosis is associated with a substantial reduction in spleen volume, attenuation of symptoms and decreased mortality. With growing clinical experience, concerns about infectious complications, and increased risk of B-cell lymphoma, presumably caused by the effects of JAK1/2 inhibition on immune response and immunosurveillance, have been raised. Evidence shows that ruxolitinib exerts potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. Cellular targets of ruxolitinib include various components of both the innate and adaptive immune system, such as natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T helper, and regulatory T cells. On the other hand, immunomodulatory properties have proven beneficial in some instances, as highlighted by the successful use of ruxolitinib in corticosteroid-resistant graft vs. host disease. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of published evidence addressing the key question of the mechanisms underlying ruxolitinib-induced immunosuppression.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.01186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6854013PMC
November 2019

Integrating clinical, morphological, and molecular data to assess prognosis in patients with primary myelofibrosis at diagnosis: A practical approach.

Hematol Oncol 2019 Oct 22;37(4):424-433. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Division of Pathology, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, and Foundation IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Currently available prognostic scoring systems in primary myelofibrosis (PMF) do not integrate clinical, histological, and molecular data, or they also required information on "other" mutations that are available in the clinical practice only in a very limited number of laboratories. In the present multicenter study, including 401 PMF patients, an integrated International Prognostic Scoring System (I-IPSS) was developed by combining IPSS, grade of bone marrow fibrosis (GBMF), and driver mutations molecular status (MS) to define PMF prognosis at diagnosis. Four prognostic categories were identified: I-IPSS-low risk (113 patients), I-IPSS-intermediate-1 risk (56 patients), I-IPSS-intermediate-2 risk (154 patients), and I-IPSS-high risk (78 patients). Median overall survival was 26.7 years in I-IPSS-intermediate-1, 10.8 in I-IPSS-intermediate-2, and 6.4 in I-IPSS-high-risk patients (log-rank test <0.0001); instead, it was not reached in the I-IPSS-low-risk cohort because of the extremely low number of registered deaths. The addition of GBMF and MS to IPSS improved the efficacy for predicting the risk of death. Indeed, the sensitivity of I-IPSS was significantly higher (P < .05) than that of IPSS, considering both total deaths and 5- and 10-year mortality. This comprehensive approach allows clinicians to evaluate mutual interactions between IPSS, GBMF, and MS and identify high-risk patients with poor prognosis who may benefit from aggressive treatments. More importantly, this integrated score can be easily applicable worldwide as it only required information that represent the good clinical practice in the management of PMF patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2658DOI Listing
October 2019

Second cancer in Philadelphia negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN-K). A nested case-control study.

Leukemia 2019 08 29;33(8):1996-2005. Epub 2019 May 29.

Hematology Division, Papa Giovanni XXIII Hospital, Bergamo, Italy.

We conducted a large international nested case-control study including 1881 patients with Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). Cases (n = 647) were patients with second cancer (SC: carcinoma, non-melanoma skin cancer, hematological second cancer, and melanoma) and controls (n = 1234) were patients without SC, matched with cases for sex, age at MPN diagnosis, date of MPN diagnosis, and MPN disease duration. The aim was to evaluate the risk of SC after exposure to cytoreductive drugs. Patients exposed to hydroxyurea (HU) (median: 3 years) had a risk of SC similar to unexposed patients (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.82-1.38). In contrast, in cancer-specific stratified multivariable analysis, HU had two-fold higher risk of non-melanoma (NM) skin cancer (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.15-4.51). A significantly higher risk of NM-skin cancer was also documented for pipobroman (OR = 3.74, 95% CI 1.00-14.01), ruxolitinib (OR = 3.87, 95% CI 1.18-12.75), and for drug combination (OR = 3.47, 95% CI 1.55-7.75). These three drugs did not show excess risk of carcinoma and hematological second cancer compared with unexposed patients. Exposure to interferon, busulfan, and anagrelide did not increase the risk. In summary, while it is reassuring that no excess of carcinoma was documented, a careful dermatologic active surveillance before and during the course of treatments is recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-019-0487-8DOI Listing
August 2019

The Italian Mastocytosis Registry: 6-year experience from a hospital-based registry.

Future Oncol 2018 11 12;14(26):2713-2723. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Immunology & Allergology, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy.

Aim: We collected 'real-life' data on the management of patients with mastocytosis in the Italian Mastocytosis Registry.

Methods: Six hundred patients diagnosed with mastocytosis between 1974 and 2014 were included from 19 centers.

Results: Among adults (n = 401); 156 (38.9%) patients were diagnosed with systemic mastocytosis. In 212 adults, no bone marrow studies were performed resulting in a provisional diagnosis of mastocytosis of the skin. This diagnosis was most frequently established in nonhematologic centers. In total, 182/184 pediatric patients had cutaneous mastocytosis. We confirmed that in the most patients with systemic mastocytosis, serum tryptase levels were >20 ng/ml and KIT D816V was detectable.

Conclusion: The Italian Mastocytosis Registry revealed some center-specific approaches for diagnosis and therapy. Epidemiological evidence on this condition is provided.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2018-0291DOI Listing
November 2018

Benefit-risk profile of cytoreductive drugs along with antiplatelet and antithrombotic therapy after transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke in myeloproliferative neoplasms.

Blood Cancer J 2018 02 28;8(3):25. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

FROM Research Foundation, Papa Giovanni XXIII hospital, Bergamo, Italy.

We analyzed 597 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) who presented transient ischemic attacks (TIA, n = 270) or ischemic stroke (IS, n = 327). Treatment included aspirin, oral anticoagulants, and cytoreductive drugs. The composite incidence of recurrent TIA and IS, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and cardiovascular (CV) death was 4.21 and 19.2%, respectively at one and five years after the index event, an estimate unexpectedly lower than reported in the general population. Patients tended to replicate the first clinical manifestation (hazard ratio, HR: 2.41 and 4.41 for recurrent TIA and IS, respectively); additional factors for recurrent TIA were previous TIA (HR: 3.40) and microvascular disturbances (HR: 2.30); for recurrent IS arterial hypertension (HR: 4.24) and IS occurrence after MPN diagnosis (HR: 4.47). CV mortality was predicted by age over 60 years (HR: 3.98), an index IS (HR: 3.61), and the occurrence of index events after MPN diagnosis (HR: 2.62). Cytoreductive therapy was a strong protective factor (HR: 0.24). The rate of major bleeding was similar to the general population (0.90 per 100 patient-years). In conclusion, the long-term clinical outcome after TIA and IS in MPN appears even more favorable than in the general population, suggesting an advantageous benefit-risk profile of antithrombotic and cytoreductive treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-018-0048-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5849668PMC
February 2018

Life for patients with myelofibrosis: the physical, emotional and financial impact, collected using narrative medicine-Results from the Italian 'Back to Life' project.

Qual Life Res 2018 06 8;27(6):1545-1554. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

ISTUD Foundation, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Myelofibrosis (MF) is a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm characterised by an aggressive clinical course, with disabling symptoms and reduced survival. Patients experience a severely impaired quality of life and their families face the upheaval of daily routines and high disease-related financial costs. The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions of Italian patients and their caregivers about living with MF and the burden of illness associated with MF.

Methods: A quali-quantitative questionnaire and a prompted written narrative survey were administered to patients affected by primary or post-essential thrombocythemia/post-polycythaemia vera MF and their primary caregiver in 35 Italian haematological centres.

Results: In total, 287 questionnaires were returned by patients and 98 by caregivers, with 215 and 62, respectively, including the narrative. At the time of diagnosis, the most commonly expressed emotional states of patients were fear, distress and anger, confirming the difficulty of this phase. A high level of emotional distress was also reported by caregivers. Along the pathway of care, the ability to cope with the disease differed according to the quality of care received. The mean cost to each patient attributable to MF was estimated as €12,466 per year, with an estimated average annual cost of loss of income of €7774 per patient and €4692 per caregiver.

Conclusions: Better understanding of the personal life of MF patients and their families could improve the relationships between health workers and patients, resulting in better focused healthcare pathways and more effective financial support to maintain patients in their social roles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-018-1827-2DOI Listing
June 2018

JAK2-mutated Langerhans cell histiocytosis associated with primary myelofibrosis treated with ruxolitinib.

Hum Pathol 2018 03 28;73:171-175. Epub 2017 Oct 28.

Department of Pathophysiology and Organ Transplantation, University of Milan, 20122 Milan, Italy; Department of Dermatology, Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milan, Italy.

The pathogenesis and cellular origin of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are debated. Recently, mutations on MAPK and PI3K pathways have been linked to disrupted cell proliferation in LCH. Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) mutations play the same role in Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. We describe the case of a patient affected by JAK2-positive primary myelofibrosis (PMF) who developed a clonally related LCH while in treatment with ruxolitinib. JAK inhibitors are well known to affect function and differentiation of different hematological lineages, including mononuclear phagocytes precursors. Nevertheless, the literature describes cases of LCH clonally associated with non-LCH hematological neoplasm, suggesting how multilinear myeloid neoplasms may arise from bone marrow. Hence, we briefly discuss the possible pathogenic roles of genetic mutations and JAK inhibition therapy in the pathogenesis of LCH and associated neoplasms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2017.10.017DOI Listing
March 2018

Clinical presentation and management practice of systemic mastocytosis. A survey on 460 Italian patients.

Am J Hematol 2016 07 2;91(7):692-9. Epub 2016 Jun 2.

Department of Medicine, Haematology Section, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Di Verona, Verona, Italy.

Systemic mastocytosis is a rare heterogeneous myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by abnormal proliferation and activation of mast cells. We describe a large multicentre series of 460 adult patients with systemic mastocytosis, with a diagnosis based on WHO 2008 criteria, in a "real-life" setting of ten Italian centers with dedicated multidisciplinary programs. We included indolent forms with (n = 255) and without (n = 165) skin lesions, smouldering (n = 20), aggressive (n = 28), associated with other hematological diseases mastocytosis (n = 21) and mast cell leukemia (n = 1). This series was uniquely characterized by a substantial proportion of patients with low burden of neoplastic mast cells; notably, 38% of cases were diagnosed using only minor diagnostic criteria according to WHO 2008 classification, underlying the feasibility of early diagnosis where all diagnostic approaches are made available. This has particular clinical relevance for prevention of anaphylaxis manifestations, that were typically associated with indolent forms. In multivariate analysis, the most important features associated with shortened overall survival were disease subtype and age at diagnosis >60 years. Disease progression was correlated with mastocytosis subtype and thrombocytopenia. As many as 32% of patients with aggressive mastocytosis suffered from early evolution into acute leukemia. Overall, this study provides novel information about diagnostic approaches and current presentation of patients with SM and underlines the importance of networks and specialized centers to facilitate early diagnosis and prevent disease-associated manifestations. Am. J. Hematol. 91:692-699, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.24382DOI Listing
July 2016

Neurological symptoms in essential thrombocythemia: impact of JAK2V617F mutation and response to therapy.

Eur J Haematol 2016 Jun 20;96(6):593-601. Epub 2015 Aug 20.

Hematology Division, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

Patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) often suffer from neurological symptoms (NS) not ever resulting from previous thrombotic cerebral events (TCE). We reported NS occurred in 282 patients, in order to identify the factors influencing ET-related NS in the absence of TCE, and the response to therapy. Overall, 116 of 282 patients (41%) presented NS; 101 of them (87%) reported subjective transient and fluctuating NS, without concurrent TCE, which we defined as ET-related NS, by frequency: cephalalgia, chronic paresthesias, dizziness or hypotension, visual disturbances, and tinnitus. In univariate analysis, ET-related NS resulted more frequently in young people (P = 0.017) and in females (P = 0.025). We found a higher prevalence of JAK2V617F mutation in ET-related NS patients (P = 0.021). In multivariate analysis, gender (P = 0.024) and JAK2V617F mutation (P = 0.041) remained significantly associated with the development of ET-related NS, with a risk of about four times higher for JAK2V617F-mutated patients (OR = 3.75). Ninety-seven of 101 patients with ET-related NS received an antiplatelet (AP) agent at the time of NS, whereas only selected high-risk ET-related NS patients were treated with a cytoreductive drug, according to the published guidelines and similarly to patients without NS. We observed that only 32 of 97 (33%) patients with ET-related NS achieved a complete response after AP treatment. Among the 65 non-responder patients, 36 (55.4%) improved NS after the introduction of cytoreductive therapy; therefore, the addition of cytoreductive treatment should be considered in this setting.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.12638DOI Listing
June 2016

Iron chelation therapy with deferasirox in the management of iron overload in primary myelofibrosis.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2014 1;6(1):e2014042. Epub 2014 Jun 1.

Hematology Division, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy.

Deferasirox (DSX) is the principal option currently available for iron-chelation-therapy (ICT), principally in the management of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), while in primary myelofibrosis (PMF) the expertise is limited. We analyzed our experience in 10 PMF with transfusion-dependent anemia, treated with DSX from September 2010 to December 2013. The median dose tolerated of DSX was 750 mg/day (10 mg/kg/day), with 3 transient interruption of treatment for drug-related adverse events (AEs) and 3 definitive discontinuation for grade 3/4 AEs. According to IWG 2006 criteria, erythroid responses with DSX were observed in 4/10 patients (40%), 2 of them (20%) obtaining transfusion independence. Absolute changes in median serum ferritin levels (Delta ferritin) were greater in hematologic responder (HR) compared with non-responder (NR) patients, already at 6 months of ICT respect to baseline. Our preliminary data open new insights regarding the benefit of ICT not only in MDS, but also in PMF with the possibility to obtain an erythroid response, overall in 40 % of patients. HR patients receiving DSX seem to have a better survival and a lower incidence of leukemic transformation (PMF-BP). Delta ferritin evaluation at 6 months could represent a significant predictor for a different survival and PMF-BP. However, the tolerability of the drug seems to be lower compared to MDS, both in terms of lower median tolerated dose and for higher frequency of discontinuation for AEs. The biological mechanism of action of DSX in chronic myeloproliferative setting through an independent NF-κB inhibition could be involved, but further investigations are required.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2014.042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4063602PMC
June 2014