Publications by authors named "Elena Freri"

72 Publications

Neuro-telehealth for fragile patients in a tertiary referral neurological institute during the COVID-19 pandemic in Milan, Lombardy.

Neurol Sci 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

Background: Lombardy was severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic since February 2020 and the Health System underwent rapid reorganization. Outpatient clinics were stopped for non-urgent patients: it became a priority to manage hundreds of fragile neurological patients who suddenly had less reference points. In Italy, before the pandemic, Televisits were neither recognized nor priced.

Methods: At the Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico C. Besta, we reorganized outpatient clinics to deliver Neuro-telemedicine services, including Televisits and Teleneurorehabilitation, since March 2020. A dedicated Working Group prepared the procedure, tested the system, and designed satisfaction questionnaires for adults and children.

Results: After a pilot phase, we prepared a procedure for Telemedicine outpatient clinics which was approved by hospital directions. It included prescription, booking, consenting, privacy and data protection, secure connection with patients (Teams Microsoft 365), electronic report preparation and delivery, reporting, and accountability of the services. During the March-September 2020 period, we delivered 3167 Telemedicine services, including 1618 Televisits, to 1694 patients (972 adults, 722 children) with a wide range of chronic neurological disorders. We successfully administered different clinical assessment and scales. Satisfaction among patients and caregivers was very high.

Conclusions: During the dramatic emergency, we were able to take care of more than 1600 patients by organizing Neuro-telehealth in a few weeks, lessening the impact of the pandemic on fragile patients with chronic neurological disorders; this strategy is now stably embedded in our care pathways. In Italy, Telehealth is at present recognized and priced and is becoming a stable pillar of the health system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-021-05252-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086222PMC
April 2021

Severe epilepsy in CNTNAP2-related Pitt-Hopkins-like syndrome successfully treated with stiripentol.

Seizure 2021 Apr 17;88:143-145. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Department of Pediatric Neuroscience, full member of ERN EpiCARE, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2021.04.012DOI Listing
April 2021

International Consensus Based Review and Recommendations for Minimum Reporting Standards in Research on Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (Version 2020).

Front Hum Neurosci 2020 23;14:568051. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Division of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.

Given its non-invasive nature, there is increasing interest in the use of transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS) across basic, translational and clinical research. Contemporaneously, tVNS can be achieved by stimulating either the auricular branch or the cervical bundle of the vagus nerve, referred to as transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation(VNS) and transcutaneous cervical VNS, respectively. In order to advance the field in a systematic manner, studies using these technologies need to adequately report sufficient methodological detail to enable comparison of results between studies, replication of studies, as well as enhancing study participant safety. We systematically reviewed the existing tVNS literature to evaluate current reporting practices. Based on this review, and consensus among participating authors, we propose a set of minimal reporting items to guide future tVNS studies. The suggested items address specific technical aspects of the device and stimulation parameters. We also cover general recommendations including inclusion and exclusion criteria for participants, outcome parameters and the detailed reporting of side effects. Furthermore, we review strategies used to identify the optimal stimulation parameters for a given research setting and summarize ongoing developments in animal research with potential implications for the application of tVNS in humans. Finally, we discuss the potential of tVNS in future research as well as the associated challenges across several disciplines in research and clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2020.568051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040977PMC
March 2021

Electroclinical features of MEF2C haploinsufficiency-related epilepsy: A multicenter European study.

Seizure 2021 Mar 30;88:60-72. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Maternal and Pediatric Department, Fondazione IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, Poliambulatorio "Giovanni Paolo II", Viale Padre Pio, snc, San Giovanni Rotondo (FG) 71013, Italy.

Purpose: Epilepsy is a main manifestation in the autosomal dominant mental retardation syndrome caused by heterozygous variants in MEF2C. We aimed to delineate the electro-clinical features and refine the genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with MEF2C haploinsufficiency.

Methods: We thoroughly investigated 25 patients with genetically confirmed MEF2C-syndrome across 12 different European Genetics and Epilepsy Centers, focusing on the epileptic phenotype. Clinical features (seizure types, onset, evolution, and response to therapy), EEG recordings during waking/sleep, and neuroimaging findings were analyzed. We also performed a detailed literature review using the terms "MEF2C", "seizures", and "epilepsy".

Results: Epilepsy was diagnosed in 19 out of 25 (~80%) subjects, with age at onset <30 months. Ten individuals (40%) presented with febrile seizures and myoclonic seizures occurred in ~50% of patients. Epileptiform abnormalities were observed in 20/25 patients (80%) and hypoplasia/partial agenesis of the corpus callosum was detected in 12/25 patients (~50%). Nine patients harbored a 5q14.3 deletion encompassing MEF2C and at least one other gene. In 7 out of 10 patients with myoclonic seizures, MIR9-2 and LINC00461 were also deleted, whereas ADGRV1 was involved in 3/4 patients with spasms.

Conclusion: The epileptic phenotype of MEF2C-syndrome is variable. Febrile and myoclonic seizures are the most frequent, usually associated with a slowing of the background activity and irregular diffuse discharges of frontally dominant, symmetric or asymmetric, slow theta waves with interposed spike-and-waves complexes. The haploinsufficiency of ADGRV1, MIR9-2, and LINC00461 likely contributes to myoclonic seizures and spasms in patients with MEF2C syndrome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2021.03.025DOI Listing
March 2021

Italian cohort of Lafora disease: Clinical features, disease evolution, and genotype-phenotype correlations.

J Neurol Sci 2021 May 20;424:117409. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Unit of Medical Genetics, IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy; Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, Università degli Studi di Genova, Genova, Italy.

Background: Lafora disease (LD) is characterized by progressive myoclonus, refractory epilepsy, and cognitive deterioration. This complex neurodegenerative condition is caused by pathogenic variants in EPM2A/EPM2B genes, encoding two essential glycogen metabolism enzymes known as laforin and malin. Long-term follow-up data are lacking. We describe the clinical features and genetic findings of a cohort of 26 Italian patients with a long clinical follow-up.

Methods: Patients with EPM2A/EPM2B pathogenic variants were identified by direct gene sequencing or gene panels with targeted re-sequencing. Disease progression, motor functions, and mental performance were assessed by a simplified disability scale. Spontaneous/action myoclonus severity was scored by the Magaudda Scale.

Results: Age range was 12.2-46.2 years (mean:25.53 ± 9.14). Age at disease onset ranged from 10 to 22 years (mean:14.04 ± 2.62). The mean follow-up period was 11.48 ± 7.8 years. Twelve out of the 26 (46%) patients preserved walking ability and 13 (50%) maintained speech. A slower disease progression with preserved ambulation and speech after ≥4 years of follow-up was observed in 1 (11%) out of the 9 (35%) EPM2A patients and in 6 (35%) out of the 17 (65%) EPM2B patients. Follow-up was >10 years in 7 (41.2%) EPM2B individuals, including two harbouring the homozygous p.(D146N) pathogenic variant.

Conclusions: This study supports an overall worse disease outcome with severe deterioration of ambulation and speech in patients carrying EPM2A mutations. However, the delayed onset of disabling symptoms observed in the EPM2B subjects harbouring the p.(D146N) pathogenic variant suggests that the underlying causative variant may still influence LD severity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117409DOI Listing
May 2021

Genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with de novo pathogenic variants.

Neurol Genet 2020 Dec 30;6(6):e528. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Department of Neurosciences (F. Malerba, G.B., E.A., A. Riva, V.S., L.N., C. Minetti, F.Z., P.S.), Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, Università degli Studi di Genova; Pediatric Neurology and Muscular Diseases Unit (F. Malerba, G.B., F. Marchese, E.A., A. Riva, M.S.V., V.S., C. Minetti, P.S.), IRCCS Istituto G. Gaslini; Center for Synaptic Neuroscience and Technology (NSYN@UniGe) (G.A., L.M., F.B.), Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia; Department of Experimental Medicine (G.A.), Università degli Studi di Genova; Laboratory of Human Genetics (E.G.); Unit of Medical Genetics (F. Madia, F.Z.), IRCCS Istituto G. Gaslini, Genova, Italy; Child Neurology and Neurorehabilitation Unit (M.A.), Department of Pediatrics, Central Hospital of Bolzano, Bolzano; Child Neurology and Psychiatry Unit (L.G., P.A., P.M.), ASST Spedali Civili, Brescia; Neurology Unit (M. Trivisano, N.S.), Department of Neuroscience, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Roma; Child Neurology Unit (A. Russo, G.G.), IRCCS, Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna; Child Neuropsychiatry Unit (F.R.), U.O.N.P.I.A. ASST-Rhodense, Rho, Milano; Neurology Unit and Laboratories (T.P.), A. Meyer Children's Hospital, Firenze; Child Neurology and Psychiatric Unit (C. Marini), Pediatric Hospital G. Salesi, United Hospital of Ancona; Child Neuropsychiatry Unit (M.M.M., L.N.), IRCCS Istituto G. Gaslini, Genova; Department of Pediatric Neuroscience (E.F.), Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta; Unit of Genetics of Neurodegenerative and Metabolic Diseases (B. Castellotti), Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milano; Department of Child Neuropsychiatry (G.C.), Epilepsy Center, C. Poma Hospital, Mantova; Fondazione Poliambulanza Brescia (G.C.); Epilepsy Center (A.C.), Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli; Department of Pediatrics (A.V.), University of Perugia; Section of Pharmacology (F. Miceli, M. Taglialatela), Department of Neuroscience, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli; IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino (L.M., F.B.), Genova, Italy; Division of Pediatric Neurology (M.R.C.), Saint-Luc University Hospital, and Institute of Experimental and Clinical Research (IREC), Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium; Department of Epilepsy Genetics and Personalized Treatment (K.M.J., R.S.M.), The Danish Epilepsy Center Filadelfia, Dianalund, Denmark; Institute for Regional Health Services (K.M.J., R.S.M.), University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; Department of Neurology (B. Ceulemans, S.W.), University Hospital Antwerp; Applied & Translational Neurogenomics Group (S.W.), VIB-Center for Molecular Neurology; Laboratory of Neurogenetics (S.W.), Institute Born-Bunge, University of Antwerp, Belgium; and Department of Life and Environmental Sciences (L.M.), Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona, Italy.

Objective: Early identification of de novo variants in patients with epilepsy raises prognostic issues toward optimal management. We analyzed the clinical and genetic information from a cohort of patients with de novo pathogenic variants to dissect genotype-phenotype correlations.

Methods: Patients with de novo pathogenic variants were identified from Italy, Denmark, and Belgium. Atomic resolution Kv7.2 structures were also generated using homology modeling to map the variants.

Results: We included 34 patients with a mean age of 4.7 years. Median seizure onset was 2 days, mainly with focal seizures with autonomic signs. Twenty-two patients (65%) were seizure free at the mean age of 1.2 years. More than half of the patients (17/32) displayed severe/profound intellectual disability; however, 4 (13%) of them had a normal cognitive outcome.A total of 28 de novo pathogenic variants were identified, most missense (25/28), and clustered in conserved regions of the protein; 6 variants recurred, and 7 were novel. We did not identify a relationship between variant position and seizure offset or cognitive outcome in patients harboring missense variants. Besides, recurrent variants were associated with overlapping epilepsy features but also variable evolution regarding the intellectual outcome.

Conclusions: We highlight the complexity of variant interpretation to assess the impact of a class of de novo mutations. Genetic modifiers could be implicated, but the study paradigms to successfully address the impact of each single mutation need to be developed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/NXG.0000000000000528DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7803337PMC
December 2020

Anakinra usage in febrile infection related epilepsy syndrome: an international cohort.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2020 12 4;7(12):2467-2474. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Baylor College of Medicine/Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Febrile-infection related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a devastating neurological condition characterized by a febrile illness preceding new onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE). Increasing evidence suggests innate immune dysfunction as a potential pathological mechanism. We report an international retrospective cohort of 25 children treated with anakinra, a recombinant interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, as an immunomodulator for FIRES. Anakinra was potentially safe with only one child discontinuing therapy due to infection. Earlier anakinra initiation was associated with shorter duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay. Our retrospective data lay the groundwork for prospective consensus-driven cohort studies of anakinra in FIRES.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.51229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732241PMC
December 2020

Epilepsy and NREM-parasomnia caused by novel hemizygous ARHGEF9 mutation.

Sleep Med 2020 12 7;76:158-159. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Department of Pediatric Neuroscience, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.11.003DOI Listing
December 2020

Neonatal developmental and epileptic encephalopathy due to autosomal recessive variants in SLC13A5 gene.

Epilepsia 2020 11 16;61(11):2474-2485. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Child Neuropsychiatry, Children's Hospital, Ancona, Italy.

Objective: Autosomal recessive pathogenic variants of the SLC13A5 gene are associated with severe neonatal epilepsy, developmental delay, and tooth hypoplasia/hypodontia. We report on 14 additional patients and compare their phenotypic features to previously published patients to identify the clinical hallmarks of this disorder.

Methods: We collected clinical features of 14 patients carrying biallelic variants in SLC13A5 and performed a PubMed search to identify previously published patients.

Results: All patients presented clonic or tonic seizures in the first days of life, evolving into status epilepticus in 57%. Analysis of seizure frequency and developmental milestones divided into five epochs showed an evolutionary trajectory of both items. In the first 3 years of life, 72% of patients had weekly/monthly seizures, often triggered by fever; 14% were seizure-free. Between the ages of 3 and 12 years, 60% become seizure-free; in the following years, up to age 18 years, 57% were seizure-free. After the age of 18 years, all three patients reaching this age were seizure-free. Similarly, 86% of patients at onset presented mild to moderate developmental impairment and diffuse hypotonia. In late childhood, all had developmental delay that was severe in most. Benzodiazepines, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and carbamazepine were the most effective drugs. Eight probands carried heterozygous compound variants, and homozygous pathogenic variants occurred in six. Literature review identified 45 patients carrying SLC13A5 gene pathogenic variants whose clinical features overlapped with our cohort. A peculiar and distinguishing sign is the presence of tooth hypoplasia and/or hypodontia in most patients.

Significance: Autosomal recessive pathogenic variants in SLC13A5 are associated with a distinct neonatal epileptic encephalopathy evolving into severe cognitive and motor impairment, yet with seizures that settle down in late childhood. Tooth hypoplasia or hypodontia remains the peculiar feature. The SLC13A5 gene should be screened in neonatal epileptic encephalopathies; its recessive inheritance has relevance for genetic counseling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16699DOI Listing
November 2020

Gabapentin treatment in a patient with KCNQ2 developmental epileptic encephalopathy.

Pharmacol Res 2020 10 15;160:105200. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Dept. of Neuroscience, University of Naples "Federico II", Naples, Italy. Electronic address:

De novo variants in KCNQ2 encoding for Kv7.2 voltage-dependent neuronal potassium (K) channel subunits are associated with developmental epileptic encephalopathy (DEE). We herein describe the clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG) features of a child with early-onset DEE caused by the novel KCNQ2 p.G310S variant. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the mutation induces loss-of-function effects on the currents produced by channels incorporating mutant subunits; these effects were counteracted by the selective Kv7 opener retigabine and by gabapentin, a recently described Kv7 activator. Given these data, the patient started treatment with gabapentin, showing a rapid and sustained clinical and EEG improvement over the following months. Overall, these results suggest that gabapentin can be regarded as a precision therapy for DEEs due to KCNQ2 loss-of-function mutations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105200DOI Listing
October 2020

Psychiatric autoimmune conditions in children and adolescents: Is catatonia a severity marker?

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 01 1;104:110028. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Sorbonne Université, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, AP-HP, 47-83 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, 75013 Paris, France; GRC 15 PSYDEV. Troubles psychiatriques et développement. Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Objectives: Patients with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) are likely to exhibit an acute onset of severe psychiatric features, including psychosis and/or catatonia. Based on the high prevalence of catatonia in AE and our clinical experience, we hypothesized that catatonia might be a marker of severity requiring more aggressive treatment approaches.

Methods: To reach a sufficient number of cases with brain-autoimmune conditions, we pooled two samples (N = 58): the first from the French National Network of Rare Psychiatric diseases and the second from the largest Italian neuro-pediatrics center for encephalopathies. Autoimmune conditions were diagnosed using a multidisciplinary approach and numerous paraclinical investigations. We retrospectively compared patients with and without catatonia for psychiatric and non-psychiatric clinical features, biological and imaging assessments, type of immunotherapy used and outcomes.

Results: The sample included 25 patients (43%) with catatonia and 33 (57%) without catatonia. Forty-two patients (72.4%) had a definite AE (including 27 anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis) and 16 (27.6%) suspected autoimmune encephalitis. Patients with catatonia showed significantly more psychotic features [18 (72%) vs 9 (27.3%), p < 0.001)] and more movement disorders [25 (100%) vs 20 (60.6%), p < 0.001] than patients without catatonia. First line (corticoids, immunoglobulin and plasma exchanges) and second line (e.g., rituximab) therapies were more effective in patients with catatonia, with 24 (96%) vs 22 (66.7%) (p = 0.006) and 17 (68%) vs 9 (27.3%) (p = 0.002), respectively. However, those with catatonia received more combinations of first and second line treatments and had more relapses during outcomes.

Conclusion: Despite its exploratory design, the study supports the idea that autoimmune catatonia may be a marker of severity and morbidity in terms of initial presentation and relapses, requiring the need for early and aggressive treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.110028DOI Listing
January 2021

Early Parkinsonism in a Senegalese girl with Lafora disease.

Epileptic Disord 2020 Apr;22(2):233-236

Department of Pediatric Neuroscience, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Member of the ERN EpiCARE, Milano.

We report the atypical presentation of Lafora disease in a Senegalese girl carrying the homozygous variant, c.560A>C, in the NHLRC1 gene. At 13 years, the patient developed myoclonic and visual seizures, progressive psychomotor slowing, and cognitive decline. At 14 years, a neurological examination showed severe hypomimia, bradykinesia, rigidity and low-amplitude myoclonic jerks. Flash-visual and somatosensory evoked potentials showed an increased amplitude of the cortical components, while an electroretinogram showed attenuated responses. An EEG showed diffuse polyspikes associated with positive-negative jerks as well as posterior slow waves and irregular spikes. The electroclinical picture suggested the diagnosis of Lafora disease regarding the association of visual seizures, cognitive deterioration, and action myoclonus, together with the EEG and evoked potential findings. Two uncommon findings were the prominence of extrapyramidal signs in the early stage of disease (which are rarely reported) and attenuation of electroretinal responses. We consider that Lafora disease should be included in the diagnostic work-up for juvenile Parkinsonism, when associated with epilepsy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/epd.2020.1150DOI Listing
April 2020

A de novo heterozygous mutation in KCNC2 gene implicated in severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy.

Eur J Med Genet 2020 Apr 20;63(4):103848. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Oasi Research Institute-IRCCS, Troina, Italy. Electronic address:

An increasing number of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies have been correlated with variants of ion channel genes, and in particular of potassium channels genes, such as KCNA1, KCNA2, KCNB1, KCNQ2, KCTD7 and KCNT1. Here we report a child with an early severe developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, spastic tetraplegia, opisthotonos attacks. The whole exome sequencing showed the de novo heterozygous variant c.1411G > C (p.Val471Leu) in the KCNC2 gene. Although this is, to our knowledge, the first case of encephalopathy associated with a KCNC2 gene variant, and further confirmatory studies are needed, previous preclinical and clinical evidence seems to suggest that KCNC2 is a new candidate epilepsy gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2020.103848DOI Listing
April 2020

Trends in pediatric epilepsy surgery in Europe between 2008 and 2015: Country-, center-, and age-specific variation.

Epilepsia 2020 02 26;61(2):216-227. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Claudio Munari Epilepsy Surgery Center, Niguarda Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Objective: To profile European trends in pediatric epilepsy surgery (<16 years of age) between 2008 and 2015.

Methods: We collected information on volumes and types of surgery, pathology, and seizure outcome from 20 recognized epilepsy surgery reference centers in 10 European countries.

Results: We analyzed retrospective aggregate data on 1859 operations. The proportion of surgeries significantly increased over time (P < .0001). Engel class I outcome was achieved in 69.3% of children, with no significant improvement between 2008 and 2015. The proportion of histopathological findings consistent with glial scars significantly increased between the ages of 7 and 16 years (P for trend = .0033), whereas that of the remaining pathologies did not vary across ages. A significant increase in unilobar extratemporal surgeries (P for trend = .0047) and a significant decrease in unilobar temporal surgeries (P for trend = .0030) were observed between 2008 and 2015. Conversely, the proportion of multilobar surgeries and unrevealing magnetic resonance imaging cases remained unchanged. Invasive investigations significantly increased, especially stereo-electroencephalography. We found different trends comparing centers starting their activity in the 1990s to those whose programs were developed in the past decade. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant variability of the proportion of the different pathologies and surgical approaches across countries, centers, and age groups between 2008 and 2015.

Significance: Between 2008 and 2015, we observed a significant increase in the volume of pediatric epilepsy surgeries, stability in the proportion of Engel class I outcomes, and a modest increment in complexity of the procedures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.16414DOI Listing
February 2020

FDG-PET assessment and metabolic patterns in Lafora disease.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2020 06 19;47(6):1576-1584. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: To describe cerebral glucose metabolism pattern as assessed by F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in Lafora disease (LD), a rare, lethal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by biallelic mutations in EPM2A or NHLRC1.

Methods: We retrospectively included patients with genetically confirmed LD who underwent FDG-PET scan referred to three Italian epilepsy centers. FDG-PET images were evaluated both visually and using SPM12 software. Subgroup analysis was performed on the basis of genetic and clinical features employing SPM. Moreover, we performed a systematic literature review of LD cases that underwent FDG-PET assessment.

Results: Eight Italian patients (3M/5F, 3 EPM2A/5 NHLRC1) underwent FDG-PET examination after a mean of 6 years from disease onset (range 1-12 years). All patients showed bilateral hypometabolic areas, more diffuse and pronounced in advanced disease stages. Most frequently, the hypometabolic regions were the temporal (8/8), parietal (7/8), and frontal lobes (7/8), as well as the thalamus (6/8). In three cases, the FDG-PET repeated after a mean of 17 months (range 7-36 months) showed a metabolic worsening compared with the baseline examination. The SPM subgroup analysis found no significant differences based on genetics, whereas it showed a more significant temporoparietal hypometabolism in patients with visual symptoms compared with those without. In nine additional cases identified from eight publications, FDG-PET showed heterogeneous findings, ranging from diffusely decreased cerebral glucose metabolism to unremarkable examinations in two cases.

Conclusions: FDG-PET seems highly sensitive to evaluate LD at any stage and may correlate with disease progression. Areas of decreased glucose metabolism in LD are extensive, often involving multiple cortical and subcortical regions, with thalamus, temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes being the most severely affected. Prospective longitudinal collaborative studies are needed to validate our findings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-019-04647-3DOI Listing
June 2020

An Italian multicentre study of perampanel in progressive myoclonus epilepsies.

Epilepsy Res 2019 10 16;156:106191. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Neurophysiopathology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Perampanel (PER) is a novel anti-seizure medication useful in different types of epilepsy. We intended to assess the effectiveness of PER on cortical myoclonus and seizure frequency in patients with progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME), using quantitative validated scales. Forty-nine patients aged 36.6 ± 15.6 years with PME of various aetiology (18 EPM1, 12 EPM2, five with sialidosis, one with Kufs disease, one with EPM7, and 12 undetermined) were enrolled between January 2017 and June 2018. PER at the dose of 2-12 mg (5.3 ± 2.5) was added to existing therapy. Myoclonus severity was assessed using a minimal myoclonus scale (MMS) in all the patients before and after 4-6 months of steady PER dose, and by means of the Unified Myoclonus Rating Scale (UMRS) in 20 patients. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors potentially predicting treatment efficacy. Four patients dropped out in the first two months due to psychiatric side effects. In the remaining patients, PER reduced myoclonus severity as assessed using MMS (Wilcoxon test: p < 0.001) and UMRS (p < 0.001), with the 'Action myoclonus' section of the UMRS showing the greatest improvement. The patients with EPM1 or EPM1-like phenotype were more likely to improve with PER (p = 0.011). Convulsive seizures which have recurred at least monthly in 17 patients were reduced by >50%. Side effects occurred in 22/49 (44.8%) patients, the most common being irritability followed by drowsiness. PER is effective in treating myoclonus and seizures in PME patients. The frequency of psychiatric side effects suggests the need for careful patient monitoring.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2019.106191DOI Listing
October 2019

Early clinical and EEG findings associated with the outcome in childhood absence epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2019 09 13;98(Pt A):273-278. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Neurofisiopatologia ed Epilettologia Diagnostica, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate several clinical electroencephalogram (EEG) findings possibly predicting the early response to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and the late outcome in children with clinical EEG features fitting the syndromic diagnosis of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE).

Methods: In 117 untreated patients with typical absences, we analyzed clinical EEG features, and resting EEG activity using partial directed coherence to calculate out- and inflow of cortical oscillations in different regions of interest.

Results: Absences began before 4 years in 12.0%, at 4-9.5 years in 71.8%, and at 10-13 years in 16.2% of the cases. Valproate was started in 91 patients and ethosuximide in 27. With one of AEDs, 77.8% reached seizure control, while the remaining patients needed to switch to the alternative AED. Only 5.9% patients remained drug-resistant. Absences with simple automatisms were the only feature associated with a lack of response to the first AED. Connectivity analysis of resting EEGs showed increased frontal outflow in patients compared with controls, which was significantly greater in the nonresponders to the first AED than in responders. Among the 91 patients followed for 61.2 ± 31.7 months, 14.2% relapsed after a seizure-free period, without differences between the responders to the first or second AED.

Conclusions: The assessment of electroclinical features provided only minimal prognostic indices. The enhanced outflow of frontal oscillations suggests a circuitry dysfunction significantly greater in the nonresponder to the early treatment. Seizure relapses were rare and comparable in patients who reached seizure freedom with first or second AED, indicating that the resistance to one AED does not influence the outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2019.06.040DOI Listing
September 2019

Treatment with metformin in twelve patients with Lafora disease.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2019 06 21;14(1):149. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Ospedale Bellaria, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Lafora disease (LD) is a rare, lethal, progressive myoclonus epilepsy for which no targeted therapy is currently available. Studies on a mouse model of LD showed a good response to metformin, a drug with a well known neuroprotective effect. For this reason, in 2016, the European Medicines Agency granted orphan designation to metformin for the treatment of LD. However, no clinical data is available thus far.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data on LD patients treated with metformin referred to three Italian epilepsy centres.

Results: Twelve patients with genetically confirmed LD (6 EPM2A, 6 NHLRC1) at middle/late stages of disease were treated with add-on metformin for a mean period of 18 months (range: 6-36). Metformin was titrated to a mean maintenance dose of 1167 mg/day (range: 500-2000 mg). In four patients dosing was limited by gastrointestinal side-effects. No serious adverse events occurred. Three patients had a clinical response, which was temporary in two, characterized by a reduction of seizure frequency and global clinical improvement.

Conclusions: Metformin was overall safe in our small cohort of LD patients. Even though the clinical outcome was poor, this may be related to the advanced stage of disease in our cases and we cannot exclude a role of metformin in slowing down LD progression. Therefore, on the grounds of the preclinical data, we believe that treatment with metformin may be attempted as early as possible in the course of LD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-019-1132-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6588886PMC
June 2019

Relapse risk factors in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis.

Dev Med Child Neurol 2019 09 7;61(9):1101-1107. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Paediatric Neurology and Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, University Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy.

Aim: To identify factors that may predict and affect the risk of relapse in anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis.

Method: This was a retrospective study of an Italian cohort of patients with paediatric (≤18y) onset anti-NMDAR encephalitis.

Results: Of the 62 children included (39 females; median age at onset 9y 10mo, range 1y 2mo-18y; onset between 2005 and 2018), 21 per cent relapsed (median two total events per relapsing patient, range 2-4). Time to first relapse was median 31.5 months (range 7-89mo). Severity at first relapse was lower than onset (median modified Rankin Scale [mRS] 3, range 2-4, vs median mRS 5, range 3-5; admission to intensive care unit: 0/10 vs 3/10). At the survival analysis, the risk of relapsing was significantly lower in patients who received three or more different immune therapies at first disease event (hazard ratio 0.208, 95% confidence interval 0.046-0.941; p=0.042). Neurological outcome at follow-up did not differ significantly between patients with relapsing and monophasic disease (mRS 0-1 in 39/49 vs 12/13; p=0.431), although follow-up duration was significantly longer in relapsing (median 84mo, range 14-137mo) than in monophasic patients (median 32mo, range 4-108mo; p=0.002).

Interpretation: Relapses may occur in about one-fifth of children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis, are generally milder than at onset, and may span over a long period, although they do not seem to be associated with severity in the acute phase or with outcome at follow-up. Aggressive immune therapy at onset may reduce risk of relapse.

What This Paper Adds: Relapses of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis may span over a long period. Relapses were not associated with severity in the acute phase or outcome at follow-up. Aggressive immune therapy at onset appears to decrease risk of relapse.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dmcn.14267DOI Listing
September 2019

HCN ion channels and accessory proteins in epilepsy: genetic analysis of a large cohort of patients and review of the literature.

Epilepsy Res 2019 07 8;153:49-58. Epub 2019 Apr 8.

Unit of Genetics of Neurodegenerative and Metabolic Diseases, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

The Hyperpolarization-activated Cyclic Nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are highly expressed in the Central Nervous Systems, where they are responsible for the I current. Together with specific accessory proteins, these channels finely regulate neuronal excitability and discharge activity. In the last few years, a substantial body of evidence has been gathered showing that modifications of I can play an important role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. However, the extent to which HCN dysfunction is spread among the epileptic population is still unknown. The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of genetic mutations potentially affecting the HCN channels' activity, using a NGS approach. We screened a large cohort of patients with epilepsy of unknown etiology for mutations in HCN1, HCN2 and HCN4 and in genes coding for accessory proteins (MiRP1, Filamin A, Caveolin-3, TRIP8b, Tamalin, S-SCAM and Mint2). We confirmed the presence of specific mutations of HCN genes affecting channel function and predisposing to the development of the disease. We also found several previously unreported additional genetic variants, whose contribution to the phenotype remains to be clarified. According to these results and data from literature, alteration of HCN1 channel function seems to play a major role in epilepsy, but also dysfunctional HCN2 and HCN4 channels can predispose to the development of the disease. Our findings suggest that inclusion of the genetic screening of HCN channels in diagnostic procedures of epileptic patients should be recommended. This would help pave the way for a better understanding of the role played by I dysfunction in the pathogenesis of epilepsy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2019.04.004DOI Listing
July 2019

Screening of SLC2A1 in a large cohort of patients suspected for Glut1 deficiency syndrome: identification of novel variants and associated phenotypes.

J Neurol 2019 Jun 20;266(6):1439-1448. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Department of Pediatric Neuroscience, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy.

Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS) is a rare neurological disorder caused by impaired glucose delivery to the brain. The clinical spectrum of Glut1 DS mainly includes epilepsy, paroxysmal dyskinesia (PD), developmental delay and microcephaly. Glut1 DS diagnosis is based on the identification of hypoglycorrhachia and pathogenic mutations of the SLC2A1 gene. Here, we report the molecular screening of SLC2A1 in 354 patients clinically suspected for Glut1 DS. From this cohort, we selected 245 patients for whom comprehensive clinical and laboratory data were available. Among them, we identified 19 patients carrying nucleotide variants of pathological significance, 5 of which were novel. The symptoms of onset, which varied from neonatal to adult age, included epilepsy, PD or non-epileptic paroxysmal manifestations. The comparison of the clinical features between the 19 SLC2A1 mutated and the 226 non-mutated patients revealed that the onset of epilepsy within the first year of life (when associated with developmental delay or other neurological manifestations), the association of epilepsy with PD and acquired microcephaly are more common in mutated subjects. Taken together, these data confirm the variability of expression of the phenotypes associated with mutation of SLC2A1 and provide useful clinical tools for the early identification of subjects highly suspected for the disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-019-09280-6DOI Listing
June 2019

Substantia Nigra Swelling and Dentate Nucleus T2 Hyperintensity May Be Early Magnetic Resonance Imaging Signs of β-Propeller Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration.

Mov Disord Clin Pract 2019 Jan 9;6(1):51-56. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Neuroradiology Department, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta Milan Italy.

Background And Methods: Mutations in cause β-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). We reviewed clinical and MRI findings in 4 patients with de novo mutations.

Results: Psychomotor delay and movement disorders were present in all cases; early-onset epileptic encephalopathy was present in 3. In all cases, first MRI showed: prominent bilateral SN enlargement, bilateral dentate nuclei T2-hyperintensity, and corpus callosum thinning. Iron deposition in the SN and globus pallidus (GP) only became evident later. Diffuse cerebral atrophy was present in 3 cases.

Conclusions: In this series, SN swelling and dentate nucleus T2 hyperintensity were early signs of BPAN, later followed by progressive iron deposition in the SN and GP. When clinical suspicion is raised, MRI is crucial for identifying early features suggesting this type of NBIA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mdc3.12693DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6335537PMC
January 2019

Progressive myoclonus epilepsy caused by a gain-of-function KCNA2 mutation.

Seizure 2019 Feb 8;65:106-108. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

Neurophysiopathology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan, Italy; Department of Neurology, San Gerardo Hospital, School of Medicine and Surgery, Milan Center for Neuroscience (NeuroMi), University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2019.01.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Defining the electroclinical phenotype and outcome of PCDH19-related epilepsy: A multicenter study.

Epilepsia 2018 12 19;59(12):2260-2271. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Epilepsy Center, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy.

Objective: PCDH19-related epilepsy is an epileptic syndrome with infantile onset, characterized by clustered and fever-induced seizures, often associated with intellectual disability (ID) and autistic features. The aim of this study was to analyze a large cohort of patients with PCDH19-related epilepsy and better define the epileptic phenotype, genotype-phenotype correlations, and related outcome-predicting factors.

Methods: We retrospectively collected genetic, clinical, and electroencephalogram (EEG) data of 61 patients with PCDH19-related epilepsy followed at 15 epilepsy centers. All consecutively performed EEGs were analyzed, totaling 551. We considered as outcome measures the development of ID, autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), and seizure persistence. The analyzed variables were the following: gender, age at onset, age at study, genetic variant, fever sensitivity, seizure type, cluster occurrence, status epilepticus, EEG abnormalities, and cognitive and behavioral disorders. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the age at which seizures might decrease in frequency.

Results: At last follow-up (median = 12 years, range = 1.9-42.1 years), 48 patients (78.7%) had annual seizures/clusters, 13 patients (21.3%) had monthly to weekly seizures, and 12 patients (19.7%) were seizure-free for ≥2 years. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed a significant decrease of seizure frequency after the age of 10.5 years (sensitivity = 81.0%, specificity = 70.0%). Thirty-six patients (59.0%) had ID and behavioral disturbances. ASD was present in 31 patients. An earlier age at epilepsy onset emerged as the only predictive factor for ID (P = 0.047) and ASD (P = 0.014). Conversely, age at onset was not a predictive factor for seizure outcome (P = 0.124).

Significance: We found that earlier age at epilepsy onset is related to a significant risk for ID and ASD. Furthermore, long-term follow-up showed that after the age of 10 years, seizures decrease in frequency and cognitive and behavioral disturbances remain the primary clinical problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/epi.14600DOI Listing
December 2018

HCN1 mutation spectrum: from neonatal epileptic encephalopathy to benign generalized epilepsy and beyond.

Brain 2018 11;141(11):3160-3178

Neuropediatric Department, Centro Hospitalar do Porto, Porto, Portugal.

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels control neuronal excitability and their dysfunction has been linked to epileptogenesis but few individuals with neurological disorders related to variants altering HCN channels have been reported so far. In 2014, we described five individuals with epileptic encephalopathy due to de novo HCN1 variants. To delineate HCN1-related disorders and investigate genotype-phenotype correlations further, we assembled a cohort of 33 unpublished patients with novel pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants: 19 probands carrying 14 different de novo mutations and four families with dominantly inherited variants segregating with epilepsy in 14 individuals, but not penetrant in six additional individuals. Sporadic patients had epilepsy with median onset at age 7 months and in 36% the first seizure occurred during a febrile illness. Overall, considering familial and sporadic patients, the predominant phenotypes were mild, including genetic generalized epilepsies and genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) spectrum. About 20% manifested neonatal/infantile onset otherwise unclassified epileptic encephalopathy. The study also included eight patients with variants of unknown significance: one adopted patient had two HCN1 variants, four probands had intellectual disability without seizures, and three individuals had missense variants inherited from an asymptomatic parent. Of the 18 novel pathogenic missense variants identified, 12 were associated with severe phenotypes and clustered within or close to transmembrane domains, while variants segregating with milder phenotypes were located outside transmembrane domains, in the intracellular N- and C-terminal parts of the channel. Five recurrent variants were associated with similar phenotypes. Using whole-cell patch-clamp, we showed that the impact of 12 selected variants ranged from complete loss-of-function to significant shifts in activation kinetics and/or voltage dependence. Functional analysis of three different substitutions altering Gly391 revealed that these variants had different consequences on channel biophysical properties. The Gly391Asp variant, associated with the most severe, neonatal phenotype, also had the most severe impact on channel function. Molecular dynamics simulation on channel structure showed that homotetramers were not conducting ions because the permeation path was blocked by cation(s) strongly complexed to the Asp residue, whereas heterotetramers showed an instantaneous current component possibly linked to deformation of the channel pore. In conclusion, our results considerably expand the clinical spectrum related to HCN1 variants to include common generalized epilepsy phenotypes and further illustrate how HCN1 has a pivotal function in brain development and control of neuronal excitability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awy263DOI Listing
November 2018

Network characteristics in benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes patients indicating defective connectivity during spindle sleep: A partial directed coherence study of EEG signals.

Clin Neurophysiol 2018 11 21;129(11):2372-2379. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Neurophysiopathology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Via Celoria 11, 20133 Milano, Italy.

Objective: To investigate the changes in EEG connectivity in children with the typical presentation of benign epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS).

Methods: We compared awake and spindle-sleep EEG recordings obtained by a standard electrode array in patients with lateralised (10 Right, 9 Left-BECTS) or bilateral spikes (10 MF-BECTS) and in 17 age-matched controls. We analysed EEG activity using partial directed coherence, an estimator of connectivity based on the multivariate autoregressive models and calculated in- and out-degrees, strength, clustering coefficient and betweenness centrality.

Results: In comparison with the controls, the awake EEG recordings of the patients with lateralised BECTS showed a minimal increase in out-degrees on F4 and F3. The greater differences, found during sleep, included significant reductions in both in- and out-degrees and strength in all of the patient groups, but in T4 or T3 showing increased out-degrees and strength in Right and Left-BECTS. Betweenness centrality was significantly reduced on C3 and C4 in the patients with MF-BECTS.

Conclusions: Our observations suggest that the main finding in BECTS patients is widely reduced local connectivity.

Significance: The network changes in BECTS can be interpreted as a permissive condition occurring in a developmental window that predisposes to seizure generation during spindle-sleep.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinph.2018.09.008DOI Listing
November 2018

A Loss-of-Function Mutation Associated With Familial Benign Myoclonic Epilepsy in Infancy Causes Increased Neuronal Excitability.

Front Mol Neurosci 2018 6;11:269. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Molecular Physiology and Neurobiology, The PaceLab, Department of Biosciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

HCN channels are highly expressed and functionally relevant in neurons and increasing evidence demonstrates their involvement in the etiology of human epilepsies. Among HCN isoforms, HCN4 is important in cardiac tissue, where it underlies pacemaker activity. Despite being expressed also in deep structures of the brain, mutations of this channel functionally shown to be associated with epilepsy have not been reported yet. Using Next Generation Sequencing for the screening of patients with idiopathic epilepsy, we identified the p.Arg550Cys (c.1648C>T) heterozygous mutation on in two brothers affected by benign myoclonic epilepsy of infancy. Functional characterization in heterologous expression system and in neurons showed that the mutation determines a loss of function of HCN4 contribution to activity and an increase of neuronal discharge, potentially predisposing to epilepsy. Expressed in cardiomyocytes, mutant channels activate at slightly more negative voltages than wild-type (WT), in accordance with borderline bradycardia. While HCN4 variants have been frequently associated with cardiac arrhythmias, these data represent the first experimental evidence that functional alteration of HCN4 can also be involved in human epilepsy through a loss-of-function effect and associated increased neuronal excitability. Since HCN4 appears to be highly expressed in deep brain structures only early during development, our data provide a potential explanation for a link between dysfunctional HCN4 and infantile epilepsy. These findings suggest that it may be useful to include screening to extend the knowledge of the genetic causes of infantile epilepsies, potentially paving the way for the identification of innovative therapeutic strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2018.00269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6089338PMC
August 2018

Electroclinical features of epilepsy monosomy 1p36 syndrome and their implications.

Acta Neurol Scand 2018 Dec 14;138(6):523-530. Epub 2018 Aug 14.

Pediatric Neurology and Muscular Diseases Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Rehabilitation, Ophthalmology, Genetics, Maternal and Child Health, 'G. Gaslini' Institute, University of Genoa, Genova, Italy.

Objectivies: Monosomy 1p36 syndrome is a recognized syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies; medical problems of this syndrome include developmental delay, facial dysmorphisms, hearing loss, short stature, brain anomalies, congenital heart defects. Epilepsy can be another feature but there are few data about the types of seizures and long term prognosis. The aim of this work was to analyse the electroclinical phenotype and the long-term outcome in patients with monosomy 1p36 syndrome and epilepsy.

Materials And Methods: Data of 22 patients with monosomy 1p36 syndrome and epilepsy were reconstructed by reviewing medical records. For each patient we analysed age at time of diagnosis, first signs of the syndrome, age at seizure onset, seizure type and its frequency, EEG and neuroimaging findings, the response to antiepileptic drugs treatment and clinical outcome up to the last follow-up assessment.

Results: Infantile Spasm (IS) represents the most frequent type at epilepsy onset, which occurs in 36.4% of children, and a half of these were associated with hypsarrhythmic electroencephalogram. All patients with IS had persistence of seizures, unlike other patients with different seizures onset. Children with abnormal brain neuroimaging have a greater chance to develop pharmacoresistant epilepsy.

Conclusion: This syndrome represents a significant cause of IS: these patients, who develop IS, can suffer from pharmacoresistent epilepsy, that is more frequent in children with brain abnormalities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ane.13006DOI Listing
December 2018