Publications by authors named "Elena Dlugy"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Blunt High-Grade Pancreatic Injury in Children: A 20-Year Experience in Two Pediatric Surgical Centers.

Isr Med Assoc J 2021 Mar;23(3):180-185

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Background: Pancreatic trauma is uncommon in pediatric patients and presents diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. While non-operative management (NOM) of minor pancreatic injuries is well accepted, the management of major pancreatic injuries remains controversial.

Objectives: To evaluate management strategies for major blunt pancreatic injury in children.

Methods: Data were retrospectively collected for all children treated for grade III or higher pancreatic injury due to blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2015 at two medical centers. Data included demographics, mechanism of injury, laboratory and imaging studies, management strategy, clinical course, operative findings, and outcome.

Results: The cohort included seven boys and four girls aged 4-15 years old (median 9). Six patients had associated abdominal (mainly liver, n=3) injuries. The main mechanism of injury was bicycle (handlebar) trauma (n=6). Five patients had grade III injury and six had grade IV. The highest mean amylase level was recorded at 48 hours after injury (1418 U/L). Management strategies included conservative (n=5) and operative treatment (n=6): distal (n=3) and central (n=1) pancreatectomy, drainage only (n=2) based on the computed tomography findings and patient hemodynamic stability. Pseudocyst developed in all NOM patients (n=5) and two OM cases, and one patient developed a pancreatic fistula. There were no differences in average length of hospital stay.

Conclusions: NOM of high-grade blunt pancreatic injury in children may pose a higher risk of pseudocyst formation than OM, with a similar hospitalization time. However, pseudocyst is a relatively benign complication with a high rate of spontaneous resolution with no need for surgical intervention.
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March 2021

Not only appendicitis: rare appendix disorders manifesting as surgical emergencies in children.

Eur J Pediatr 2021 Feb 18;180(2):407-413. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel affiliated with Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Kaplan St 14, 4920235, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Acute appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pathology in children. However, other rare non-inflammatory non-neoplastic disorders involving the appendix may manifest as surgical emergencies. This study aimed to describe these atypical entities and present representative cases. The database of a tertiary children's medical center was reviewed for all the patients aged 0-18 years who underwent urgent appendectomy between June 2014 and December 2019, for rare disorders of the appendix unrelated to inflammatory or neoplastic processes. Of 1367 patients who underwent appendectomy, 1345 were operated urgently or emergently. Of these, six, all males, mean age 32.6 months (range 0.7-76), underwent appendectomy for rare surgical complications that involved the appendix. These included torsion of the appendix (2), a strangulated internal hernia through an appendicular ring (1) or through a mesoappendix gap (1), an incarcerated appendix in an acute hernia sac (1), and appendiceal intussusception (1). In all cases, the role of the appendix in the pathologic process was unexpected and came as a surprise to the surgeon. During a median follow-up of 4.2 months (range 1-8 months), one patient underwent relaparotomy for small bowel obstruction 4 weeks after the original procedure.Conclusion: The appendix in children can be the source of rare pathological disorders that present as surgical emergencies. Familiarity with these entities may aid in achieving accurate preoperative diagnosis and contribute to surgical team orientation on exploratory laparotomy. However, correct diagnosis is often only established during timely surgical intervention.
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February 2021

Caudal Duplication Syndrome: the Vital Role of a Multidisciplinary Approach and Staged Correction.

European J Pediatr Surg Rep 2016 Dec 31;4(1):1-5. Epub 2015 Dec 31.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center, Sackler Medical School, University of Tel Aviv, Petach Tikvah, Israel.

Caudal duplication syndrome is a rare entity that describes the association between congenital anomalies involving caudal structures and may have a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. A full-term male presented with combination of anomalies including anorectal malformation, duplication of the colon and lower urinary tract, split of the lower spine, and lipomyelomeningocele with tethering of the cord. We report this exceptional case of caudal duplication syndrome with special emphasis on surgical strategy and approach combining all disciplines involved. The purpose of this report is to present the pathology, assessment, and management strategy of this complex case.
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December 2016

Anorectal injuries in children: a 20-year experience in two centers.

Pediatr Surg Int 2015 Sep 19;31(9):815-9. Epub 2015 Jul 19.

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center, Sackler Medical School, University of Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel,

Introduction: Anorectal injuries in children are not frequently reported and their management is challenging. This report reviews the experience in managing this type of injuries in two medical centers over 20 years.

Methods: An institutional database search for patients who were treated for anorectal injuries between 1994 and 2015 was undertaken. Twenty cases were located and medical records reviewed. This study was conducted with institutional review board approval (#572-14).

Results: There were 6 girls and 14 boys with ages ranging between 1 and 15 years (mean 7 years). Eleven patients sustained penetrating trauma, while nine sustained blunt trauma. The mechanism of injury was variable and associated injuries were more common in blunt trauma. Most common presenting symptoms were rectal bleeding (n = 12) and anal pain (n = 11), followed by abdominal pain in six patients. Eighteen anorectal injuries were extraperitoneal and two intraperitoneal. Among patients with extraperitoneal injuries, 12/18 were managed by primary repair with (6) or without (6) fecal diversion and 2/18 by wound irrigation and drainage with fecal diversion and delayed repair. Four patients had superficial anal and perineal injuries that were irrigated and left to heal by secondary intention. Two patients with intraperitoneal rectal injuries underwent primary repair with fecal diversion. Follow-up period ranged from 2 weeks to 8 years (mean 2 years). There were three cases of wound infection, one case of suture line leak requiring reoperation and one case of vesicorectal fistula in a patient with combined trauma of the rectum and urinary bladder. There was no mortality. Fecal continence was preserved in all patients available for follow-up evaluation.

Conclusions: Primary repair of the perineal wound and anal sphincters can be performed safely in most cases given hemodynamic stability. Fecal diversion should be saved for cases with severe perineal involvement or cases with substantial associated injuries and concern of gross contamination.
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September 2015

Intestinal perforation in very-low-birth-weight infants with necrotizing enterocolitis.

J Pediatr Surg 2013 Mar;48(3):562-7

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tikva, Israel.

Purpose: To identify risk factors for intestinal perforation in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).

Methods: Retrospective case-control study over a 10-year period, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to compare all VLBW infants treated for perforated NEC, with two age and weight-matched groups: infants with non-perforated NEC and infants without NEC.

Results: Twenty infants with perforated NEC were matched to 20 infants with non-perforated NEC and 38 infants without NEC. Infants with perforated NEC were younger (p<0.01) and had higher rates of abdominal distention, metabolic acidosis, hyperglycemia and elevated liver enzymes (p<0.05). On logistic regression analysis, abdominal distention was associated with an increased risk of intestinal perforation (OR 39.8, 95% CI 2.71-585) and late onset of NEC (one-day increments) was associated with a decreased risk (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-1.0).

Conclusion: Identification of abdominal distention at an early age in VLBW infants should lead to increased vigilance for signs of perforated NEC and may enable early intervention.
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March 2013

The 16 golden hours for conservative treatment in children with postoperative small bowel obstruction.

J Pediatr Surg 2010 May;45(5):966-8

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petach Tikva 49 202, Israel.

Background: Conservative treatment of postoperative small bowel obstruction in children is widely accepted, provided that there are no clinical signs of bowel strangulation. However, the length of time surgery can be safely deferred remains unclear.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the time limit for observant management of postoperative small bowel obstruction.

Methods: The medical records of 128 children with 174 episodes of postoperative small bowel obstruction were reviewed.

Results: Spontaneous resolution occurred in 63% of cases, 85% within 48 hours of admission. Bowel compromise was noted in 31% of the operated cases, and about half of them underwent bowel resection, accounting for 6% of all admissions. None of the cases treated surgically within 16 hours of admission was associated with bowel strangulation or need for resection.

Conclusions: In children presenting with postoperative small bowel obstruction, prolonging observant treatment for more than 48 hours yields only a small benefit in terms of spontaneous resolution. Bowel strangulation can occur within 16 hours of admission. On the basis of these findings, we suggest raising the index of suspicion for compromised bowel after 16 hours and making the decision for surgery at around 48 hours.
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May 2010

Impact of spinal anesthesia for open pyloromyotomy on operating room time.

J Pediatr Surg 2009 Oct;44(10):1942-6

Department of Anesthesia, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqwa and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 49202, Israel.

Purpose: When pyloromyotomy for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is performed under general anesthesia, metabolic abnormalities and fluid deficits coupled with residual anesthetics may increase the risk of postoperative apnea, thereby, prolonging operating room time and delaying extubation. Spinal anesthesia has been found to reduce the rate of postoperative apnea in high-risk infants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of spinal vs general anesthesia on operating room time in infants undergoing open pyloromyotomy.

Methods: Data for 60 infants who underwent pyloromyotomy under spinal (n = 24) or general (n = 36) anesthesia at a tertiary pediatric medical center were derived from the computerized database. Primary outcome measures were total operating room time, procedure duration, anesthesia release time, wake-up time, and anesthesia control time (anesthesia release plus wake-up). Nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis, and Levene's test was used to assess the equality of variances in samples; P
Results: Mean total operating room time was 50.9 (12.1) minutes in the spinal anesthesia group and 69.5 (26.8) minutes in the general anesthesia group (P = .001). Corresponding values for mean wake-up time were 3.6 (2.9) and 17.2 (25.3) minutes (P < .001), and for mean anesthesia control time, 13.2 (6.7) and 28.5 (24.6) minutes (P < .001). There were no between-group differences in procedure duration or anesthesia release time. On Levene's test, between-group differences were significant for total operating time and wake-up time (P = .01 for both).

Conclusions: The use of spinal anesthesia for open pyloromyotomy in infants with HPS shortens the operating room time by reducing the wake-up time.
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October 2009

Colorectal carcinoma in childhood: a retrospective multicenter study.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2007 Feb;44(2):209-11

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva, Israel.

Objectives: Colorectal carcinoma, a common adult malignancy, has an estimated childhood incidence of 0.3 to 1.5/million in Western countries and 0.2/million in Israel. Diagnosis is difficult because adult screening measures are unfeasible in children. The tumor is frequently associated with predisposing genetic factors, aggressive biological behavior, and poor prognosis. The aim of this multicenter study was to document the clinical profile, treatment and prognosis of colorectal carcinoma in children in Israel.

Patients And Methods: The clinical, laboratory, therapeutic, and prognostic parameters of all 7 children from 4 medical centers in Israel who were diagnosed with colorectal carcinoma over a 25-y period were reviewed.

Results: Patients presented with rectal bleeding (4 of 7), abdominal pain (2 of 7), and abdominal distension (2 of 7). Average time to diagnosis was 6 months. Six patients underwent surgery (1 refused), and 5 received chemotherapy. Histopathological studies showed poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma, signet-ring type, in 4 cases, moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma in 2, and well-differentiated carcinoma in 1. Three patients died of the disease, 2 shortly after diagnosis. One patient with recurrent metastatic disease was lost to follow-up.

Conclusion: Colorectal carcinoma in children is characterized by aggressive tumor behavior and delayed diagnosis, resulting in a worse prognosis than in adults. Heightened physician awareness of the possibility of this disease in children, with special attention to adolescents with predisposing factors and rectal bleeding, could help to improve outcome.
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February 2007

Two year experience with minimal access surgery at Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel.

Isr Med Assoc J 2005 Sep;7(9):564-7

Department of Pediatric and Adolescent Surgery, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva, Israel.

Background: The minimal access surgery revolution has only just begun to impact on pediatric surgery, thanks mainly to technologic advances and evidence of the benefits of minimally invasive procedures in this population.

Objectives: To review the current status of MAS in a pediatric tertiary care center in Israel, in terms of feasibility, safety, and effect on standard practices.

Methods: We reviewed the files of all children who underwent a MAS procedure in our department during the period April 2002 to July 2004, and compared the findings with those of children treated by standard practices.

Results: A total of 301 procedures were performed in 271 patients: 107 thoracoscopic and 194 laparoscopic. There were no major intraoperative complications. The total conversion rate was 3.65%: 0 for thoracoscopy and 5.6% for laparoscopy (11/194). Twenty-four types of procedures were performed during the study period. The thoracoscopies accounted for 92.24% of all thoracic procedures in the department (107/116), and routine abdominal laparoscopic procedures replaced open surgery in 30-100% of cases (total 44.8%, 194/433).

Conclusions: MAS procedures appear to be safe for a wide range of indications in children. In our center they currently account for a significant percentage of pediatric surgeries. We suggest that the integration of MAS training in the residency programs of pediatric surgeons be made a major long-term goal. The creation of a pediatric MAS study group that would allow for multi-institutional studies is especially important in Israel where a relatively large number of pediatric surgery departments handle a small annual number of patients.
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September 2005

Clinical presentation of wandering spleen.

J Pediatr Surg 2002 Oct;37(10):E30

Department of Pediatric Surgery and Imaging Institute, Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel, Petah Tiqva, Israel.

Background: Wandering spleen (WS) is an uncommon condition with a variety of clinical presentations.

Methods: The medical files of 5 children who underwent operation for WS in the authors' department during the period 1996 through 2000 were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: Splenic salvage procedures (retroperitoneal splenopexy) were performed in 4 patients. One patient underwent splenectomy because of splenic necrosis.

Conclusions: Early diagnosis and surgical treatment is mandatory to prevent complications. Every effort should be made to preserve the spleen, especially among the pediatric population, and splenopexy is the procedure of choice even in the asymptomatic patient.
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October 2002

Childhood abdominal cystic lymphangioma.

Pediatr Radiol 2002 Feb 18;32(2):88-94. Epub 2001 Dec 18.

Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Meir General Hospital, Sapir Medical Centre, Kfar Saba 44281, Israel.

Background: Abdominal lymphangioma is a rare benign congenital malformation of the mesenteric and/or retroperitoneal lymphatics. Clinical presentation is variable and may be misleading; therefore, complex imaging studies are necessary in the evaluation of this condition. US and CT have a major role in the correct preoperative diagnosis and provide important information regarding location, size, adjacent organ involvement, and expected complications.

Objective: To evaluate the clinical and imaging findings of seven children with proven abdominal cystic lymphangioma.

Materials And Methods: Clinical and imaging files of seven children with pathologically proven abdominal lymphangioma, from three university hospitals, were retrospectively evaluated. Patient's ages ranged from 1 day to 6 years (mean, 2.2 years). Symptoms and signs included evidence of inflammation, abnormal prenatal US findings, chronic abdominal pain, haemorrhage following trauma, clinical signs of intestinal obstruction, and abdominal distension with lower extremities lymphoedema. Plain films of five patients, US of six patients and CT of five patients were reviewed. Sequential imaging examinations were available in two cases.

Results: Abdominal plain films showed displacement of bowel loops by a soft tissue mass in five of six patients, two of them with dilatation of small bowel loops. US revealed an abdominal multiloculated septated cystic mass in five of six cases and a single pelvic cyst in one which changed in appearance over 2 months. Ascites was present in three cases. CT demonstrated a septated cystic mass of variable sizes in all available five cases. Sequential US and CT examinations in two patients showed progressive enlargement of the masses, increase of fluid echogenicity, and thickening of walls or septa in both cases, with multiplication of septa in one case. At surgery, mesenteric lymphangioma was found in five patients and retroperitoneal lymphangioma in the other two.

Conclusions: US and CT are highly sensitive in the diagnosis of abdominal lymphangioma. Our limited experience with follow-up examinations in two patients suggests that progressive enlargement, multiplication and thickening of septa and increased echogenicity of the cystic fluid are signs indicating complications demanding urgent treatment.
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February 2002