Publications by authors named "Elena Carcarino"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Interaction between SNAI2 and MYOD enhances oncogenesis and suppresses differentiation in Fusion Negative Rhabdomyosarcoma.

Nat Commun 2021 01 8;12(1):192. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA.

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is an aggressive pediatric malignancy of the muscle, that includes Fusion Positive (FP)-RMS harboring PAX3/7-FOXO1 and Fusion Negative (FN)-RMS commonly with RAS pathway mutations. RMS express myogenic master transcription factors MYOD and MYOG yet are unable to terminally differentiate. Here, we report that SNAI2 is highly expressed in FN-RMS, is oncogenic, blocks myogenic differentiation, and promotes growth. MYOD activates SNAI2 transcription via super enhancers with striped 3D contact architecture. Genome wide chromatin binding analysis demonstrates that SNAI2 preferentially binds enhancer elements and competes with MYOD at a subset of myogenic enhancers required for terminal differentiation. SNAI2 also suppresses expression of a muscle differentiation program modulated by MYOG, MEF2, and CDKN1A. Further, RAS/MEK-signaling modulates SNAI2 levels and binding to chromatin, suggesting that the differentiation blockade by oncogenic RAS is mediated in part by SNAI2. Thus, an interplay between SNAI2, MYOD, and RAS prevents myogenic differentiation and promotes tumorigenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20386-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7794422PMC
January 2021

Regulation of inflammation in diabetes: From genetics to epigenomics evidence.

Mol Metab 2020 11 27;41:101041. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, INSERM, Université de Paris, IMMEDIAB Laboratory, F-75006, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Diabetes is one of the greatest public health challenges worldwide, and we still lack complementary approaches to significantly enhance the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic approaches. Genetic and environmental factors are the culprits involved in diabetes risk. Evidence from the last decade has highlighted that deregulation in the immune and inflammatory responses increase susceptibility to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression involved in immune cell polarisation depend on genomic enhancer elements in response to inflammatory and metabolic cues. Several studies have reported that most regulatory genetic variants are located in the non-protein coding regions of the genome and particularly in enhancer regions. The progress of high-throughput technologies has permitted the characterisation of enhancer chromatin properties. These advances support the concept that genetic alteration of enhancers may influence the immune and inflammatory responses in relation to diabetes.

Scope Of Review: Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) combined with functional and integrative analyses have elucidated the impacts of some diabetes risk-associated variants that are involved in the regulation of the immune system. Additionally, genetic variant mapping to enhancer regions may alter enhancer status, which in turn leads to aberrant expression of inflammatory genes associated with diabetes susceptibility. The focus of this review was to provide an overview of the current indications that inflammatory processes are regulated at the genetic and epigenomic levels in diabetes, along with perspectives on future research avenues that may improve understanding of the disease.

Major Conclusions: In this review, we provide genetic evidence in support of a deregulated immune response as a risk factor in diabetes. We also argue about the importance of enhancer regions in the regulation of immune cell polarisation and how the recent advances using genome-wide methods for enhancer identification have enabled the determination of the impact of enhancer genetic variation on diabetes onset and phenotype. This could eventually lead to better management plans and improved treatment responses in human diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2020.101041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7394913PMC
November 2020

Aberrant Function of the C-Terminal Tail of HIST1H1E Accelerates Cellular Senescence and Causes Premature Aging.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 09 22;105(3):493-508. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pretoria, Weskoppies Hospital, Pretoria, 0001 South Africa.

Histones mediate dynamic packaging of nuclear DNA in chromatin, a process that is precisely controlled to guarantee efficient compaction of the genome and proper chromosomal segregation during cell division and to accomplish DNA replication, transcription, and repair. Due to the important structural and regulatory roles played by histones, it is not surprising that histone functional dysregulation or aberrant levels of histones can have severe consequences for multiple cellular processes and ultimately might affect development or contribute to cell transformation. Recently, germline frameshift mutations involving the C-terminal tail of HIST1H1E, which is a widely expressed member of the linker histone family and facilitates higher-order chromatin folding, have been causally linked to an as-yet poorly defined syndrome that includes intellectual disability. We report that these mutations result in stable proteins that reside in the nucleus, bind to chromatin, disrupt proper compaction of DNA, and are associated with a specific methylation pattern. Cells expressing these mutant proteins have a dramatically reduced proliferation rate and competence, hardly enter into the S phase, and undergo accelerated senescence. Remarkably, clinical assessment of a relatively large cohort of subjects sharing these mutations revealed a premature aging phenotype as a previously unrecognized feature of the disorder. Our findings identify a direct link between aberrant chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, and accelerated aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.07.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731364PMC
September 2019

Focal adhesion kinase depletion reduces human hepatocellular carcinoma growth by repressing enhancer of zeste homolog 2.

Cell Death Differ 2017 05 24;24(5):889-902. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Liver Research Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer in humans. The focal adhesion tyrosine kinase (FAK) is often over-expressed in human HCC and FAK inhibition may reduce HCC cell invasiveness. However, the anti-oncogenic effect of FAK knockdown in HCC cells remains to be clarified. We found that FAK depletion in HCC cells reduced in vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity, by inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis, decreasing anchorage-independent growth, and modulating the expression of several cancer-related genes. Among these genes, we showed that FAK silencing decreased transcription and nuclear localization of enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) and its tri-methylation activity on lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3). Accordingly, FAK, EZH2 and H3K27me3 were concomitantly upregulated in human HCCs compared to non-tumor livers. In vitro experiments demonstrated that FAK affected EZH2 expression and function by modulating, at least in part, p53 and E2F2/3 transcriptional activity. Moreover, FAK silencing downregulated both EZH2 binding and histone H3K27me3 levels at the promoter of its target gene NOTCH2. Finally, we found that pharmacological inhibition of FAK activity resembled these effects although milder. In summary, we demonstrate that FAK depletion reduces HCC cell growth by affecting cancer-promoting genes including the pro-oncogene EZH2. Furthermore, we unveil a novel unprecedented FAK/EZH2 crosstalk in HCC cells, thus identifying a targetable network paving the way for new anticancer therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cdd.2017.34DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5423113PMC
May 2017

Pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 as a promising differentiation therapy in embryonal RMS.

BMC Cancer 2014 Feb 27;14:139. Epub 2014 Feb 27.

Department of Oncohematology, Laboratory of Angiogenesis, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, IRCCS, Piazza S, Onofrio 4, 00165 Rome, Italy.

Background: Embryonal Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma derived from myogenic precursors that is characterized by a good prognosis in patients with localized disease. Conversely, metastatic tumors often relapse, leading to a dismal outcome. The histone methyltransferase EZH2 epigenetically suppresses skeletal muscle differentiation by repressing the transcription of myogenic genes. Moreover, de-regulated EZH2 expression has been extensively implied in human cancers. We have previously shown that EZH2 is aberrantly over-expressed in RMS primary tumors and cell lines. Moreover, it has been recently reported that EZH2 silencing in RD cells, a recurrence-derived embryonal RMS cell line, favors myofiber-like structures formation in a pro-differentiation context. Here we evaluate whether similar effects can be obtained also in the presence of growth factor-supplemented medium (GM), that mimics a pro-proliferative microenvironment, and by pharmacological targeting of EZH2 in RD cells and in RD tumor xenografts.

Methods: Embryonal RMS RD cells were cultured in GM and silenced for EZH2 or treated with either the S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibitor 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep) that induces EZH2 degradation, or with a new class of catalytic EZH2 inhibitors, MC1948 and MC1945, which block the catalytic activity of EZH2. RD cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo.

Results: Here we show that EZH2 protein was abnormally expressed in 19 out of 19 (100%) embryonal RMS primary tumors and cell lines compared to their normal counterparts. Genetic down-regulation of EZH2 by silencing in GM condition reduced RD cell proliferation up-regulating p21Cip1. It also resulted in myogenic-like differentiation testified by the up-regulation of myogenic markers Myogenin, MCK and MHC. These effects were reverted by enforced over-expression of a murine Ezh2, highlighting an EZH2-specific effect. Pharmacological inhibition of EZH2 using either DZNep or MC inhibitors phenocopied the genetic knockdown of EZH2 preventing cell proliferation and restoring myogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo.

Conclusions: These results provide evidence that EZH2 function can be counteracted by pharmacological inhibition in embryonal RMS blocking proliferation even in a pro-proliferative context. They also suggest that this approach could be exploited as a differentiation therapy in adjuvant therapeutic intervention for embryonal RMS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-14-139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4016511PMC
February 2014
-->