Publications by authors named "Elena Boggio"

40 Publications

Platelets: 'multiple choice' effectors in the immune response and their implication in COVID-19 thromboinflammatory process.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

IRCAD & Department of Health Sciences, Amedeo Avogadro University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy.

Although platelets are traditionally recognized for their central role in hemostasis, the presence of chemotactic factors, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and costimulatory molecules in their granules and membranes indicates that they may play an immunomodulatory role in the immune response, flanking their capacity to trigger blood coagulation and inflammation. Indeed, platelets play a role not only in the innate immune response, through the expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and release of inflammatory cytokines, but also in the adaptive immune response, through expression of key costimulatory molecules and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules capable to activate T cells. Moreover, platelets release huge amounts of extracellular vesicles capable to interact with multiple immune players. The function of platelets thus extends beyond aggregation and implies a multifaceted interplay between hemostasis, inflammation, and the immune response, leading to the amplification of the body's defense processes on one hand, but also potentially degenerating into life-threatening pathological processes on the other. This narrative review summarizes the current knowledge and the most recent updates on platelet immune functions and interactions with infectious agents, with a particular focus on their involvement in COVID-19, whose pathogenesis involves a dysregulation of hemostatic and immune processes in which platelets may be determinant causative agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13516DOI Listing
March 2021

Eltrombopag second-line therapy in adult patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia in an attempt to achieve sustained remission off-treatment: results of a phase II, multicentre, prospective study.

Br J Haematol 2021 Apr 22;193(2):386-396. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Medical, Surgical and Health Sciences, University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy.

Up to 30% immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) patients achieve a sustained remission off-treatment (SROT) after discontinuation of thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs). Factors predictive of response are lacking. Patients aged ≥18 years with newly diagnosed or persistent ITP were treated with eltrombopag for 24 weeks. Primary end-point was SROT: the proportion of responders that were able to taper and discontinue eltrombopag maintaining the response during a period of observation (PO) of six months. Secondary end-points included the association between some immunological parameters (TPO serum levels, cytokines and lymphocyte subsets) and response. Fifty-one patients were evaluable. Primary end-point was achieved in 13/51 (25%) treated patients and 13/34 (38%) patients who started the tapering. Baseline TPO levels were not associated with response at week 24 nor with SROT. Higher baseline levels of IL-10, IL-4, TNF-α and osteopontin were negative factors predictive of response (P = 0·001, 0·008, 0·02 and 0·03 respectively). This study confirms that SROT is feasible for a proportion of ITP patients treated with eltrombopag. Some biological parameters were predictive of response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17334DOI Listing
April 2021

Sr-Containing Mesoporous Bioactive Glasses Bio-Functionalized with Recombinant ICOS-Fc: An In Vitro Study.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2021 Jan 27;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Applied Science and Technology, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy.

Osteoporotic bone fractures represent a critical clinical issue and require personalized and specific treatments in order to stimulate compromised bone tissue regeneration. In this clinical context, the development of smart nano-biomaterials able to synergistically combine chemical and biological cues to exert specific therapeutic effects (i.e., pro-osteogenic, anti-clastogenic) can allow the design of effective medical solutions. With this aim, in this work, strontium-containing mesoporous bioactive glasses (MBGs) were bio-functionalized with ICOS-Fc, a molecule able to reversibly inhibit osteoclast activity by binding the respective ligand (ICOS-L) and to induce a decrease of bone resorption activity. N adsorption analysis and FT-IR spectroscopy were used to assess the successful grafting of ICOS-Fc on the surface of Sr-containing MBGs, which were also proved to retain the peculiar ability to release osteogenic strontium ions and an excellent bioactivity after functionalization. An ELISA-like assay allowed to confirm that grafted ICOS-Fc molecules were able to bind ICOS-L (the ICOS binding ligand) and to investigate the stability of the amide binding to hydrolysis in aqueous environment up to 21 days. In analogy to the free form of the molecule, the inhibitory effect of grafted ICOS-Fc on cell migratory activity was demonstrated by using ICOSL positive cell lines and the ability to inhibit osteoclast differentiation and function was confirmed by monitoring the differentiation of monocyte-derived osteoclasts (MDOCs), which revealed a strong inhibitory effect, also proven by the downregulation of osteoclast differentiation genes. The obtained results showed that the combination of ICOS-Fc with the intrinsic properties of Sr-containing MBGs represents a very promising approach to design personalized solutions for patients affected by compromised bone remodeling (i.e., osteoporosis fractures).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano11020321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7911784PMC
January 2021

Interplay of BDNF and GDNF in the mature spinal somatosensory system and its potential therapeutic relevance.

Curr Neuropharmacol 2020 Nov 16. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, Grugliasco. Italy.

The growth factors BDNF and GDNF are gaining more and more attention as modulators of synaptic transmission in the mature central nervous system (CNS). The two molecules undergo a regulated secretion in neurons and may be anterogradely transported to terminals where they can positively or negatively modulate fast synaptic transmission. There is today wide consensus on the role of BDNF as a pro-nociceptive modulator, as the neurotrophin has an important part in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory, chronic, and/or neuropathic pain at peripheral and central level. At spinal level, BDNF intervenes in the regulation of chloride equilibrium potential, decreases the excitatory synaptic drive to inhibitory neurons, with complex changes in GABAergic/glycinergic synaptic transmission, and increases excitatory transmission in the superficial dorsal horn. Differently from BDNF, the role of GDNF still remains to be unraveled in full. This review resumes the current literature on the interplay between BDNF and GDNF in the regulation of nociceptive neurotransmission in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. We will first discuss the circuitries involved in such a regulation, as well as the reciprocal interactions between the two factors in nociceptive pathways. The development of small molecules specifically targeting BDNF, GDNF and/or downstream effectors is opening new perspectives for investigating these neurotrophic factors as modulations of nociceptive transmission and chronic pain. Therefore, we finally will consider the molecules of (potential) pharmacological relevance for tackling normal and pathological pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1570159X18666201116143422DOI Listing
November 2020

Osteopontin binds ICOSL promoting tumor metastasis.

Commun Biol 2020 10 26;3(1):615. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Salute, Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases-IRCAD, Università del Piemonte Orientale, 28100, Novara, Italy.

ICOSL/ICOS are costimulatory molecules pertaining to immune checkpoints; their binding transduces signals having anti-tumor activity. Osteopontin (OPN) is here identified as a ligand for ICOSL. OPN binds a different domain from that used by ICOS, and the binding induces a conformational change in OPN, exposing domains that are relevant for its functions. Here we show that in vitro, ICOSL triggering by OPN induces cell migration, while inhibiting anchorage-independent cell growth. The mouse 4T1 breast cancer model confirms these data. In vivo, OPN-triggering of ICOSL increases angiogenesis and tumor metastatization. The findings shed new light on ICOSL function and indicate that another partner beside ICOS may be involved; they also provide a rationale for developing alternative therapeutic approaches targeting this molecular trio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01333-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7588454PMC
October 2020

Vitamin D Supplementation Modulates ICOS+ and ICOS- Regulatory T Cell in Siblings of Children With Type 1 Diabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 12;105(12)

SCDU of Pediatrics, University Hospital Maggiore della Carità, Novara, Italy.

Objectives: Vitamin D plays an immunoregulatory activity. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between blood serum 25(OH)D levels and Th17 and Treg circulating subsets, mainly Treg/inducible costimulatory-positive (ICOS+), which seems to have a protective role in autoimmunity, in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and their healthy siblings (S). The secondary aim was to evaluate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on these subsets.

Patients And Methods: 22 T1D and 33 S were enrolled. Glucose, hemoglobin A1c, 25 OH vitamin D (25[OH]D), T helper type 17 (Th17; CD4+CCR6+), regulatory T cells (Treg; CD4+CD25+Foxp3+), and Treg/ICOS+ cells were evaluated. According to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes, subjects were classified as "at risk" (HLA+), "protective haplotypes" (HLA-; "nested controls"), and "undetermined" (HLAUND). T1D and S subjects were supplemented with cholecalciferol 1000 IU/die and evaluated after 6 months.

Results: Vitamin D insufficiency (74.4%) and deficiency (43%) were frequent. S subjects with 25(OH)D levels <25 nmol/L had Th17, Treg (p < 0.01), and Treg/ICOS+ (P < 0.05) percentages higher than subjects with 25(OH)D >75 nmol/L. Treg/ICOS+ percentages (P < 0.05) were higher in HLA- S subjects compared to percentages observed in S with T1D. At baseline, in S subjects, a decreasing trend in Th17 and Treg/ICOS+ values (P < 0.05) from vitamin D deficiency to sufficiency was observed; 25(OH)D levels were negative predictors of Treg/ICOS+ (R2 = 0.301) and Th17 percentages (R2 = 0.138). After 6 months, supplemented S subjects showed higher 25(OH)D levels (P < 0.0001), and lower Th17 (P < 0.0001) and Treg/ICOS+ (P < 0.05) percentages than at baseline; supplemented T1D patients only had a decrease in Th17 levels (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Serum 25(OH)D levels seem to affect Th17 and Treg cell subsets in S subjects, consistent with its immunomodulating role. HLA role should be investigated in a larger population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa588DOI Listing
December 2020

Nanoemulsions as Delivery Systems for Poly-Chemotherapy Aiming at Melanoma Treatment.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 May 9;12(5). Epub 2020 May 9.

Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Turin, via Pietro Giuria 9, 10125 Turin, Italy.

Advanced melanoma is characterized by poor outcome. Despite the number of treatments having been increased over the last decade, current pharmacological strategies are only partially effective. Therefore, the improvement of the current systemic therapy is worthy of investigation. a nanotechnology-based poly-chemotherapy was tested at preclinical level. Temozolomide, rapamycin, and bevacizumab were co-loaded as injectable nanoemulsions for total parenteral nutrition (Intralipid), due to suitable devices, and preliminarily tested in vitro on human and mouse cell models and in vivo on the B16-F10 melanoma mouse model. Drug combination was efficiently loaded in the liquid lipid matrix of Intralipid, including bevacizumab monoclonal antibody, leading to a fast internalization in tumour cells. An increased cytotoxicity towards melanoma cells, as well as an improved inhibition of tumour relapse, migration, and angiogenesis were demonstrated in cell models for the Intralipid-loaded drug combinations. In preliminary in vivo studies, the proposed approach was able to reduce tumour growth significantly, compared to controls. A relevant efficacy towards tumour angiogenesis and mitotic index was determined and immune response was involved. In these preliminary studies, Intralipid proved to be a safe and versatile poly-chemotherapy delivery system for advanced melanoma treatment, by acting on multiple mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12051198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281359PMC
May 2020

Anti-rasburicase antibodies induce clinical refractoriness by inhibiting the enzyme catalytic activity.

Hematol Oncol 2020 Apr 27;38(2):204-206. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Division of Hematology, Department of Translational Medicine, Università del Piemonte Orientale and Ospedale Maggiore della Carità, Novara, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hon.2700DOI Listing
April 2020

Immunotherapy of experimental melanoma with ICOS-Fc loaded in biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles.

J Control Release 2020 04 18;320:112-124. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

Department of Health Sciences, Inter Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases, UPO, 28100 Novara, Italy; Center for Translational Research on Autoimmune and Allergic Disease-CAAD, Università del Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy.

Inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS) upon binding to its ligand (ICOSL) mediates adaptive immunity and antitumor response. Thus, antitumor therapies targeting the ICOS/ICOSL pathway hold great promise for cancer treatment. In this regard, ICOSL triggering by a soluble recombinant form of ICOS (ICOS-Fc) hampered adhesiveness and migration of dendritic, endothelial, and tumor cells in vitro. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with ICOS-Fc previously showed the capability to inhibit lung metastatization of ICOSL B16-F10 melanoma cells when injected intravenously in mice, but it failed to block the growth of established subcutaneous B16-F10 murine tumors. Thus, we asked whether passive targeting of solid tumors with ICOS-Fc-loaded biocompatible and biodegradable nanoparticles (NPs) could instead prove effectiveness in reducing tumor growth. Here, ICOS-Fc was loaded in two types of polymer nanoparticles, i.e. cross-linked β-cyclodextrin nanosponges (CDNS) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs and in vitro characterized. In vivo experiments showed that treatment of C57BL6/J mice with ICOS-Fc loaded into the two nanoformulations inhibits the growth of established subcutaneous B16-F10 tumors. This anticancer activity appears to involve both anti-angiogenic and immunoregulatory effects, as shown by decreased tumor vascularization and downmodulation of IL-10 and Foxp3, two markers of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Overall, the substantial in vivo anticancer activity of ICOS-Fc-loaded CDNS and PLGA NPs against different components of the tumor microenvironment makes these nanoformulations attractive candidates for future combination cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.01.030DOI Listing
April 2020

Improvement in the Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Doxorubicin Nanosponges in In Vitro and in Mice Bearing Breast Tumor Models.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jan 9;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy.

Doxorubicin (DOX) is an anthracycline widely used in cancer therapy and in particular in breast cancer treatment. The treatment with DOX appears successful, but it is limited by a severe cardiotoxicity. This work evaluated the in vitro and in vivo anticancer effect of a new formulation of β-cyclodextrin nanosponges containing DOX (BNS-DOX). The BNS-DOX effectiveness was evaluated in human and mouse breast cancer cell lines in vitro in terms of effect on cell growth, cell cycle distribution, and apoptosis induction; and in vivo in BALB-neuT mice developing spontaneous breast cancer in terms of biodistribution, cancer growth inhibition, and heart toxicity. BNS-DOX significantly inhibited cancer cell proliferation, through the induction of apoptosis, with higher efficiency than free DOX. The breast cancer growth in BALB-neuT mice was inhibited by 60% by a BNS-DOX dose five times lower than the DOX therapeutic dose, with substantial reduction of tumor neoangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Biodistribution after BNS-DOX treatment revealed a high accumulation of DOX in the tumor site and a low accumulation in the hearts of mice. Results indicated that use of BNS may be an efficient strategy to deliver DOX in the treatment of breast cancer, since it improves the anti-cancer effectiveness and reduces cardiotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12010162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016577PMC
January 2020

Paclitaxel-Loaded Nanosponges Inhibit Growth and Angiogenesis in Melanoma Cell Models.

Front Pharmacol 2019 12;10:776. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.

This study investigated the effects of free paclitaxel (PTX) and PTX-loaded in pyromellitic nanosponges (PTX-PNS) in reducing and melanoma cell growth and invasivity, and in inhibiting angiogenesis. To test the response of cells to the two PTX formulations, the cell viability was evaluated by MTT assay in seven continuous cell lines, in primary melanoma cells, both in 2D and 3D cultures, and in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after exposure to different concentrations of PTX or PTX-PNS. Cell motility was assessed by a scratch assay or Boyden chamber assay, evaluating cell migration in presence or absence of diverse concentrations of PTX or PTX-PNS. The effect of PTX and PTX-PNS on angiogenesis was evaluated as endothelial tube formation assay, a test able to estimate the formation of three-dimensional vessels . To assess the anticancer effect of PTX and PTX-PNS in experiments, the two drug formulations were tested in a melanoma mouse model obtained by B16-BL6 cell implantation in C57/BL6 mice. Results obtained were as follows: 1) MTT analysis revealed that cell proliferation was more affected by PTX-PNS than by PTX in all tested cell lines, in both 2D and 3D cultures; 2) the analysis of the cell migration showed that PTX-PNS acted at very lower concentrations than PTX; 3) tube formation assay showed that PTX-PNS were more effective in inhibiting tube formation than free PTX; and 4) experiments demonstrated that tumor weights, volumes, and growth were significantly reduced by PTX-PNS treatment with respect to PTX; the angiogenesis and the cell proliferation, detected in the tumor samples with CD31 and Ki-67 antibodies, respectively, indicated that, in the PTX-PNS-treated tumors, the tube formation was inhibited, and a low amount of proliferating cells was present. Taken together, our data demonstrated that our new PTX nanoformulation can respond to some important issues related to PTX treatment, lowering the anti-tumor effective doses and increasing the effectiveness in inhibiting melanoma growth .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6639435PMC
July 2019

Inhibition of Semaphorin3A Promotes Ocular Dominance Plasticity in the Adult Rat Visual Cortex.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Sep 31;56(9):5987-5997. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Institute of Neuroscience, National Research Council CNR, Via Moruzzi, 1, 56124, Pisa, Italy.

Perineuronal nets (PNNs) are condensed structures in the extracellular matrix that mainly surround GABA-ergic parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the adult brain. Previous studies revealed a parallel between PNN formation and the closure of the critical period. Moreover, ocular dominance plasticity is enhanced in response to PNN manipulations in adult animals. However, the mechanisms through which perineuronal nets modulate plasticity are still poorly understood. Recent work indicated that perineuronal nets may convey molecular signals by binding and storing proteins with important roles in cellular communication. Here we report that semaphorin3A (Sema3A), a chemorepulsive axon guidance cue known to bind to important perineuronal net components, is necessary to dampen ocular dominance plasticity in adult rats. First, we showed that the accumulation of Sema3A in PNNs in the visual cortex correlates with critical period closure, following the same time course of perineuronal nets maturation. Second, the accumulation of Sema3A in perineuronal nets was significantly reduced by rearing animals in the dark in the absence of any visual experience. Finally, we developed and characterized a tool to interfere with Sema3A signaling by means of AAV-mediated expression of receptor bodies, soluble proteins formed by the extracellular domain of the endogenous Sema3A receptor (neuropilin1) fused to a human IgG Fc fragment. By using this tool to antagonize Sema3A signaling in the adult rat visual cortex, we found that the specific inhibition of Sema3A promoted ocular dominance plasticity. Thus, Sema3A accumulates in perineuronal nets in an experience-dependent manner and its presence in the mature visual cortex inhibits plasticity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-019-1499-0DOI Listing
September 2019

Development and Characterization of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with a Highly Active Doxorubicin Derivative.

Nanomaterials (Basel) 2018 Feb 16;8(2). Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, University of Turin, Via P. Giuria 9, 10125 Turin, Italy.

Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) comprise a versatile drug delivery system that has been developed for the treatment of a variety of diseases. The present study will investigate the feasibility of entrapping an active doxorubicin prodrug (a squalenoyl-derivative) in SLNs. The doxorubicin derivative-loaded SLNs are spherically shaped, have a mean diameter of 300-400 nm and show 85% w/w drug entrapment efficiency. The effects on cell growth of loaded SLNs, free doxorubicin and the prodrug have been examined using cytotoxicity and colony-forming assays in both human ovarian cancer line A2780 wild-type and doxorubicin-resistant cells. Further assessments as to the treatment's ability to induce cell death by apoptosis have been carried out by analyzing annexin-V staining and the activation of caspase-3. The in vitro data demonstrate that the delivery of the squalenoyl-doxorubicin derivative by SLNs increases its cytotoxic activity, as well as its apoptosis effect. This effect was particularly evident in doxorubicin-resistant cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nano8020110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5853741PMC
February 2018

Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Carrying Temozolomide for Melanoma Treatment. Preliminary In Vitro and In Vivo Studies.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Jan 24;19(2). Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Dipartimento di Scienza e Tecnologia del Farmaco, Università degli Studi di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 9, 10124 Torino, Italy.

Aim: To develop an innovative delivery system for temozolomide (TMZ) in solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN), which has been preliminarily investigated for the treatment of melanoma.

Materials And Methods: SLN-TMZ was obtained through fatty acid coacervation. Its pharmacological effects were assessed and compared with free TMZ in in vitro and in vivo models of melanoma and glioblastoma.

Results: Compared to the standard free TMZ, SLN-TMZ exerted larger effects, when cell proliferation of melanoma cells, and neoangiogeneis were evaluated. SLN-TMZ also inhibited growth and vascularization of B16-F10 melanoma in C57/BL6 mice, without apparent toxic effects.

Conclusion: SLN could be a promising strategy for the delivery of TMZ, allowing an increased stability of the drug and thereby its employment in the treatment of aggressive malignacies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5855544PMC
January 2018

A double blind randomized experimental study on the use of IgM-enriched polyclonal immunoglobulins in an animal model of pneumonia developing shock.

Immunobiology 2017 12 8;222(12):1074-1080. Epub 2017 Sep 8.

SC Anestesia e Rianimazione, Ospedale Sant'Andrea (ASL VC), Vercelli, Italy; Dipartimento di Medicina Traslazionale, Università del Piemonte Orientale "Amedeo Avogadro", Novara, Italy; CRRF Mons. L. Novarese, Moncrivello, VC, Italy.

Background: Patients with severe pneumonia often develop septic shock. IgM-enriched immunoglobulins have been proposed as a potential adjuvant therapy for septic shock. While in vitro data are available on the possible mechanisms of action of IgM-enriched immunoglobulins, the results of the in vivo experimental studies are non-univocal and, overall, unconvincing. We designed this double blinded randomized controlled study to test whether IgM-enriched immunoglobulins administered as rescue treatment in a pneumonia model developing shock, could either limit lung damage and/or contain systemic inflammatory response.

Methods: Thirty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were ventilated with injurious ventilation for 30min to prime the lung. The rats were subsequently randomized to received intratracheal instillation of either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (12mg/kg) or placebo followed by 3.5h of protective mechanical ventilation. IgM-enriched immunoglobulins at 25mg/h (0.5mL/h) or saline were intravenously administered in the last hour of mechanical ventilation. During the experiment, gas exchange and hemodynamic measurements were recorded. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed, and blood and organs were stored for cytokines measurements.

Results: Despite similar lung and hemodynamic findings, the administration of IgM-enriched immunoglobulins compared to placebo significantly modulates the inflammatory response by increasing IL-10 levels in the bloodstream and by decreasing TNF-α in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. Furthermore, in vitro data suggest that IgM-enriched immunoglobulins induce monocytes production of IL-10 after LPS stimulation.

Conclusions: In an in vivo model of pneumonia developing shock, IgM-enriched immunoglobulins administered as rescue treatment enhance the anti-inflammatory response by increasing blood levels of IL-10 and reducing TNF-α in BAL fluid.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2017.09.002DOI Listing
December 2017

Role of Anti-Osteopontin Antibodies in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Front Immunol 2017 23;8:321. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Department of Health Sciences, Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases (IRCAD), University of Piemonte Orientale (UPO) , Novara , Italy.

Osteopontin (OPN) is highly expressed in demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). OPN is cleaved by thrombin into N- (OPN-N) and C-terminal (OPN-C) fragments with different ligands and functions. In EAE, administering recombinant OPN induces relapses, whereas treatment with anti-OPN antibodies ameliorates the disease. Anti-OPN autoantibodies (autoAbs) are spontaneously produced during EAE but have never been detected in MS. The aim of the study was to evaluate anti-OPN autoAbs in the serum of MS patients, correlate them with disease course, and recapitulate the human findings in EAE. We performed ELISA in the serum of 122 patients collected cross-sectionally, and 50 patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) disease collected at diagnosis and followed longitudinally for 10 years. In the cross-sectional patients, the autoAb levels were higher in the RR patients than in the primary- and secondary-progressive MS and healthy control groups, and they were highest in the initial stages of the disease. In the longitudinal group, the levels at diagnosis directly correlated with the number of relapses during the following 10 years. Moreover, in patients with active disease, who underwent disease-modifying treatments, autoAbs were higher than in untreated patients and were associated with low MS severity score. The autoAb displayed neutralizing activity and mainly recognized OPN-C rather than OPN-N. To confirm the clinical effect of these autoAbs , EAE was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein MOG in C57BL/6 mice pre-vaccinated with ovalbumin (OVA)-linked OPN or OVA alone. We then evaluated the titer of antibodies to OPN, the clinical scores and cytokine secretion by spleen lymphocytes. Vaccination significantly induced antibodies against OPN during EAE, decreased disease severity, and the protective effect was correlated with decreased T cell secretion of interleukin 17 and interferon-γ . The best effect was obtained with OPN-C, which induced significantly faster and more complete remission than other OPN vaccines. In conclusion, these data suggest that production of anti-OPN autoAbs may favor remission in both MS and EAE. Novel strategies boosting their levels, such as vaccination or passive immunization, may be proposed as a future strategy in personalized MS therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00321DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5362623PMC
March 2017

Enhanced cytotoxic effect of camptothecin nanosponges in anaplastic thyroid cancer cells in vitro and in vivo on orthotopic xenograft tumors.

Drug Deliv 2017 Nov;24(1):670-680

b Department of Drug Science and Technology , University of Torino , Torino , Italy.

Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid (ATC) is a lethal human malignant cancer with median survival of 6 months. To date, no treatment has substantially changed its course, which makes urgent need for the development of novel drugs or novel formulations for drug delivery. Nanomedicine has enormous potential to improve the accuracy of cancer therapy by enhancing availability and stability, decreasing effective doses and reducing side effects of drugs. Camptothecin (CPT) is an inhibitor of DNA topoisomerase-I with several anticancer properties but has poor solubility and a high degradation rate. Previously, we reported that CPT encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin-nanosponges (CN-CPT) increased solubility, was protected from degradation and inhibited the growth of prostate tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to extend that work by assessing the CN-CPT effectiveness on ATC both in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that CN-CPT significantly inhibited viability, clonogenic capacity and cell-cycle progression of ATC cell lines showing a faster and enhanced effect compared to free CPT. Moreover, CN-CPT inhibited tumor cell adhesion to vascular endothelial cells, migration, secretion of pro-angiogenic factors (IL-8 and VEGF-α), expression of β-PIX, belonging to the Rho family activators, and phosphorylation of the Erk1/2 MAPK. Finally, CN-CPT significantly inhibited the growth, the metastatization and the vascularization of orthotopic ATC xenografts in SCID/beige mice without apparent toxic effects in vivo. This work extends the previous insight showing that β-cyclodextrin-nanosponges are a promising tool for the treatment of ATC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10717544.2017.1303856DOI Listing
November 2017

Extracellular proteasome-osteopontin circuit regulates cell migration with implications in multiple sclerosis.

Sci Rep 2017 03 9;7:43718. Epub 2017 Mar 9.

Institut für Biochemie, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany.

Osteopontin is a pleiotropic cytokine that is involved in several diseases including multiple sclerosis. Secreted osteopontin is cleaved by few known proteases, modulating its pro-inflammatory activities. Here we show by in vitro experiments that secreted osteopontin can be processed by extracellular proteasomes, thereby producing fragments with novel chemotactic activity. Furthermore, osteopontin reduces the release of proteasomes in the extracellular space. The latter phenomenon seems to occur in vivo in multiple sclerosis, where it reflects the remission/relapse alternation. The extracellular proteasome-mediated inflammatory pathway may represent a general mechanism to control inflammation in inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep43718DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5343429PMC
March 2017

Osteopontin Bridging Innate and Adaptive Immunity in Autoimmune Diseases.

J Immunol Res 2016 20;2016:7675437. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

Department of Health Sciences and Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases (IRCAD), "A. Avogadro" University of Piemonte Orientale (UPO), Novara, Italy.

Osteopontin (OPN) regulates the immune response at multiple levels. Physiologically, it regulates the host response to infections by driving T helper (Th) polarization and acting on both innate and adaptive immunity; pathologically, it contributes to the development of immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases. In some cases, the mechanisms of these effects have been described, but many aspects of the OPN function remain elusive. This is in part ascribable to the fact that OPN is a complex molecule with several posttranslational modifications and it may act as either an immobilized protein of the extracellular matrix or a soluble cytokine or an intracytoplasmic molecule by binding to a wide variety of molecules including crystals of calcium phosphate, several cell surface receptors, and intracytoplasmic molecules. This review describes the OPN structure, isoforms, and functions and its role in regulating the crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity in autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/7675437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5206443PMC
March 2017

ICOS-Ligand Triggering Impairs Osteoclast Differentiation and Function In Vitro and In Vivo.

J Immunol 2016 11 19;197(10):3905-3916. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

Department of Health Sciences and Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases, University of Piemonte Orientale, 28100 Novara, Italy;

Osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in the bone production and resorption, which are crucial in bone homeostasis. OC hyperactivation plays a role in the exaggerated bone resorption of diseases such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and osteolytic tumor metastases. This work stems from the finding that OCs can express B7h (ICOS-Ligand), which is the ligand of the ICOS T cell costimulatory molecule. Because recent reports have shown that, in endothelial, dendritic, and tumor cells, B7h triggering modulates several activities of these cells, we analyzed the effect of B7h triggering by recombinant ICOS-Fc on OC differentiation and function. The results showed that ICOS-Fc inhibits RANKL-mediated differentiation of human monocyte-derived OC-like cells (MDOCs) by inhibiting the acquirement of the OC morphology, the CD14 cathepsin K phenotype, and the expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, OSCAR, NFATc1, and DC-STAMP. Moreover, ICOS-Fc induces a reversible decrease in the sizes of cells and nuclei and cathepsin K expression in mature MDOCs. Finally, ICOS-Fc inhibits the osteolytic activities of MDOCs in vitro and the development of bone loss in ovariectomized or soluble RANKL-treated mice. These findings open a novel field in the pharmacological use of agonists and antagonists of the ICOS-B7h system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1600424DOI Listing
November 2016

Thrombin Cleavage of Osteopontin Modulates Its Activities in Human Cells In Vitro and Mouse Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis In Vivo.

J Immunol Res 2016 13;2016:9345495. Epub 2016 Jul 13.

Department of Health Sciences and Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases (IRCAD), "A. Avogadro" University of Piemonte Orientale (UPO), 28100 Novara, Italy.

Osteopontin is a proinflammatory cytokine and plays a pathogenetic role in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), by recruiting autoreactive T cells into the central nervous system. Osteopontin functions are modulated by thrombin cleavage generating N- and C-terminal fragment, whose individual roles are only partly known. Published data are difficult to compare since they have been obtained with heterogeneous approaches. Interestingly, thrombin cleavage of osteopontin unmasks a cryptic domain of interaction with α 4 β 1 integrin that is the main adhesion molecule involved in lymphocyte transmigration to the brain and is the target for natalizumab, the most potent drug preventing relapses. We produced recombinant osteopontin and its N- and C-terminal fragments in an eukaryotic system in order to allow their posttranslational modifications. We investigated, in vitro, their effect on human cells and in vivo in EAE. We found that the osteopontin cleavage plays a key role in the function of this cytokine and that the two fragments exert distinct effects both in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that drugs targeting each fragment may be used to fine-tune the pathological effects of osteopontin in several diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9345495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4961817PMC
March 2017

Decreased function of Fas and variations of the perforin gene in adult patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia.

Br J Haematol 2017 Jan 8;176(2):258-267. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Haematology Section, DISM, Azienda Sanitaria Universitaria Integrata S. M. Misericordia, Udine, Italy.

A defective switching off of the immune response is involved in several autoimmune diseases. This switching off involves Fas-mediated apoptosis, perforin-mediated fratricide of activated lymphocytes, and the suppressive activity of regulatory T (Treg) cells. These mechanisms are altered in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome that often displays autoimmune thrombocytopenia. The aim of this research was to evaluate these mechanisms in adult patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), compared with healthy controls. The results show that a substantial subgroup of the ITP patients displayed a defective Fas function; most of them displayed decreased Fas expression in T cells activated in vitro. Moreover, ITP patients displayed an increased frequency of rare missense variations of the PRF1 gene and decreased levels of Treg. Immunological analysis showed that levels of Interleukin (IL)10 and IL17 were decreased and marginal zone B cells were increased. Moreover, myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells were decreased in ITP patients. In conclusion, in adult ITP patients, several mechanisms involved in shutting off the immune response are defective and several immunological parameters are dysregulated; these alterations may play a role in the clinical heterogeneity of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.14248DOI Listing
January 2017

In Vitro and In Vivo Therapeutic Evaluation of Camptothecin-Encapsulated β-Cyclodextrin Nanosponges in Prostate Cancer.

J Biomed Nanotechnol 2016 Jan;12(1):114-27

Camptothecin (CPT), a pentacyclic alkaloid, is an inhibitor of DNA Topoisomerase-I and shows a wide spectrum of anti-cancer activities. The use of CPT has been hampered by poor aqueous solubility and a high degradation rate. Previously, it has been reported that CPT encapsulated in β-cyclodextrin-nanosponges (CN-CPT) overcomes these disadvantages and improves the CPT's inhibitory effect on DU145 prostate tumor cell lines, and PC-3 growth in vitro. This work extends these observations by showing that CN-CPT significantly inhibits the adhesion and migration of these tumor cells and their STAT3 phosphorylation. The anti-adhesive effect is exerted also in human endothelial cells, in which CN-CPT also inhibits the angiogenic activity as assessed by the tubulogenesis and sprouting assays. Finally, CN-CPT substantially delays the growth of PC-3 cell engraftment in SCID mice in vivo without apparent toxic effects. These results support the use of β-cyclodextrin nanosponge nanotechnology as a potential nanocarrier for delivery of anticancer drugs in the treatment of prostate cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jbn.2016.2144DOI Listing
January 2016

Subcutaneous inverse vaccination with PLGA particles loaded with a MOG peptide and IL-10 decreases the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Vaccine 2014 Sep 20;32(43):5681-9. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

dIRCAD and Department of Translational Medicine, Section of Neurology, "A. Avogadro", University of Eastern Piedmont "A. Avogadro", via Solaroli 17, Novara, 28100, Italy.

"Inverse vaccination" refers to antigen-specific tolerogenic immunization treatments that are capable of inhibiting autoimmune responses. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), initial trials using purified myelin antigens required repeated injections because of the rapid clearance of the antigens. This problem has been overcome by DNA-based vaccines encoding for myelin autoantigens alone or in combination with "adjuvant" molecules, such as interleukin (IL)-4 or IL-10, that support regulatory immune responses. Phase I and II clinical trials with myelin basic protein (MBP)-based DNA vaccines showed positive results in reducing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-measured lesions and inducing tolerance to myelin antigens in subsets of MS patients. However, DNA vaccination has potential risks that limit its use in humans. An alternative approach could be the use of protein-based inverse vaccines loaded in polymeric biodegradable lactic-glycolic acid (PLGA) nano/microparticles (NP) to obtain the sustained release of antigens and regulatory adjuvants. The aim of this work was to test the effectiveness of PLGA-NP loaded with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35-55 autoantigen and recombinant (r) IL-10 to inverse vaccinate mice with EAE. In vitro experiments showed that upon encapsulation in PLGA-NP, both MOG35-55 and rIL-10 were released for several weeks into the supernatant. PLGA-NP did not display cytotoxic or proinflammatory activity and were partially endocytosed by phagocytes. In vivo experiments showed that subcutaneous prophylactic and therapeutic inverse vaccination with PLGA-NP loaded with MOG35-55 and rIL-10 significantly ameliorated the course of EAE induced with MOG35-55 in C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, they decreased the histopathologic lesions in the central nervous tissue and the secretion of IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ induced by MOG35-55 in splenic T cells in vitro. These data suggest that subcutaneous PLGA-NP-based inverse vaccination may be an effective tool to treat autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.08.016DOI Listing
September 2014

B7h triggering inhibits the migration of tumor cell lines.

J Immunol 2014 May 11;192(10):4921-31. Epub 2014 Apr 11.

Department of Drug Science and Technology, University of Torino, 10125 Torino, Italy;

Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and several cancer cells express B7h, which is the ligand of the ICOS T cell costimulatory molecule. We have previously shown that B7h triggering via a soluble form of ICOS (ICOS-Fc) inhibits the adhesion of polymorphonuclear and tumor cell lines to HUVECs; thus, we suggested that ICOS-Fc may act as an anti-inflammatory and antitumor agent. Because cancer cell migration and angiogenesis are crucial for metastasis dissemination, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of ICOS-Fc on the migration of cancer cells and ECs. ICOS-Fc specifically inhibited the migration of HUVECs, human dermal lymphatic ECs, and the HT29, HCT116, PC-3, HepG2, JR8, and M14 tumor cell lines expressing high levels of B7h, whereas it was ineffective in the RPMI7932, PCF-2, LM, and BHT-101 cell lines expressing low levels of B7h. Furthermore, ICOS-Fc downmodulated hepatocyte growth factor facilitated the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in HepG2 cells. Moreover, ICOS-Fc downmodulated the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase and the expression of β-Pix in both HUVECs and tumor cell lines. Finally, treatment with ICOS-Fc inhibited the development of lung metastases upon injection of NOD-SCID-IL2Rγnull mice with CF-PAC1 cells, as well as C57BL/6 mice with B16-F10 cells. Therefore, the B7h-ICOS interaction may modulate the spread of cancer metastases, which suggests the novel use of ICOS-Fc as an immunomodulatory drug. However, in the B16-F10-metastasized lungs, ICOS-Fc also increased IL-17A/RORc and decreased IL-10/Foxp3 expression, which indicates that it also exerts positive effects on the antitumor immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1300587DOI Listing
May 2014

IL-17 protects T cells from apoptosis and contributes to development of ALPS-like phenotypes.

Blood 2014 Feb 20;123(8):1178-86. Epub 2013 Dec 20.

Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases, Department of Health Sciences "A. Avogadro" University of Eastern Piedmont, Novara, Italy; and.

In autoimmune/lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), defective Fas death receptor function causes lymphadenomegaly/splenomegaly, the expansion of T-cell receptor αβ(+) CD4/CD8 double-negative T cells, and frequent development of hematologic autoimmunity. Dianzani autoimmune lymphoproliferative disease (DALD) has a similar phenotype but lacks the expansion of double-negative T cells. This work shows that patients with ALPS and DALD have high serum levels of interleukin 17A (IL-17A), IL-17F, and IL-17AF, which are involved in several autoimmune diseases, and that their T cells show increased secretion of these cytokines upon activation in vitro. The following data indicate that these cytokines may contribute to ALPS and DALD: (1) recombinant IL-17A and IL-17F significantly inhibit Fas-induced cell death in Fas-sensitive T cells from healthy donors; (2) this inhibitory effect is also induced by the patients' serum and is reversed by anti-IL-17A antibodies; (3) IL-17A neutralization substantially increases Fas-induced cell death in T cells from ALPS and DALD patients in vitro; and (4) treatment with anti-IL-17A antibodies ameliorates the autoimmune manifestations and, at a lesser extent, the lymphoproliferative phenotype and prolongs survival in MRLlpr/lpr mice, which are an animal model of ALPS. These data suggest that IL-17A and IL-17F could be targeted therapeutically to improve Fas function in ALPS and DALD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2013-07-518167DOI Listing
February 2014

Mutation of FAS, XIAP, and UNC13D genes in a patient with a complex lymphoproliferative phenotype.

Pediatrics 2013 Oct 16;132(4):e1052-8. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

IRCAD-Department of Health Sciences, Via Solaroli, 17, I-28100, Novara, Italy.

This article presents a case report for a child presenting with mixed clinical features of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL), and X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease. From 6 months, he exhibited splenomegaly and lymphoadenopathy and from 4 years, he showed recurrent severe autoimmune hemocytopenia and sepsislike bouts of fever, from which he eventually died at the age of 12. Intriguingly, the patient carried mutations in FAS, XIAP, and UNC13D genes, which are involved in ALPS, XLP disease, and FHL, respectively. These mutations were inherited from the mother, who had rheumatoid arthritis but no signs of ALPS. A role for other modifying genes was suggested by the finding that the healthy father exhibited defective Fas function, without mutation of the FAS gene, and had transmitted to the patient an osteopontin (OPN) gene variant previously associated with ALPS. Therefore, several genes might influence the disease outcome in this family. In vitro analyses revealed that the FAS and the XIAP mutations decreased expression of the corresponding proteins, and the UNC13D mutation decreased granule secretion and Munc interaction with Rab-27a. These findings suggest that overlap may exist between ALPS, FHL, and XLP disease, in accordance with the notion that FHL and XLP disease are due to defective natural killer (NK)/NK T-cell function, which involves Fas. Therefore, we propose that NK cell defects should be evaluated in patients with ALPS-like characteristics, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be considered in individuals with severe refractory cytopenia and FHL-like manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2012-1838DOI Listing
October 2013

Variations of the UNC13D gene in patients with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

PLoS One 2013 1;8(7):e68045. Epub 2013 Jul 1.

Department of Pediatric Hematology Oncology, Meyer Children Hospital, Firenze, Italy.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is caused by genetic defects decreasing Fas function and is characterized by lymphadenopathy/splenomegaly and expansion of CD4/CD8 double-negative T cells. This latter expansion is absent in the ALPS variant named Dianzani Autoimmune/lymphoproliferative Disease (DALD). In addition to the causative mutations, the genetic background influences ALPS and DALD development. We previously suggested a disease-modifying role for the perforin gene involved in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL). The UNC13D gene codes for Munc13-4, which is involved in perforin secretion and FHL development, and thus, another candidate for a disease-modifying role in ALPS and DALD. In this work, we sequenced UNC13D in 21 ALPS and 20 DALD patients and compared these results with sequences obtained from 61 healthy subjects and 38 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We detected four rare missense variations in three heterozygous ALPS patients carrying p.Cys112Ser, p.Val781Ile, and a haplotype comprising both p.Ile848Leu and p.Ala995Pro. Transfection of the mutant cDNAs into HMC-1 cells showed that they decreased granule exocytosis, compared to the wild-type construct. An additional rare missense variation, p.Pro271Ser, was detected in a healthy subject, but this variation did not decrease Munc13-4 function. These data suggest that rare loss-of-function variations of UND13D are risk factors for ALPS development.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0068045PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3698121PMC
February 2014

Differential induction of IL-17, IL-10, and IL-9 in human T helper cells by B7h and B7.1.

Cytokine 2013 Oct 15;64(1):322-30. Epub 2013 Jun 15.

Interdisciplinary Research Center of Autoimmune Diseases (IRCAD) and Department of Health Sciences, "A. Avogadro" University of Eastern Piedmont, 28100 Novara, Italy.

ICOS and CD28 are expressed by T cells and are involved in costimulation of cytokine production in T helper (TH) cells. ICOS binds B7h expressed by several cell types, whereas CD28 binds B7.1 and B7.2 expressed by activated antigen presenting cells. This work investigated the role of B7h and B7.1 in TH17 and TH9 cell differentiation by assessing activity of recombinant B7h-Fc and B7.1-Fc on human naïve TH cells activated in the presence of different combinations of exogenous cytokines. In the presence of TGF-β1 and IL-1β (TH17 promoting condition), B7h-Fc was more effective than B7.1-Fc in inducing IL-17A and IL-10 secretion, whereas B7.1-Fc was more effective in inducing IL-17F. Dual costimulation with B7h-Fc and B7.1-Fc displayed an intermediate pattern with predominance of IL-17F over IL-17A, secretion of high levels of IL-10, and secretion of IL-9 levels lower than those induced by B7.1-Fc alone. In the presence of TGF-β1 and IL-4 (TH9 promoting condition), B7h-Fc induced IL-17A only, whereas B7.1-Fc induced also IL-17F, IL-10, and high levels of IL-9. Experiments on memory TH cells showed that B7h-Fc mainly supported secretion of IL-17A and IL-10, whereas B7.1-Fc supported secretion of IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-10, and IL-9. These data indicate that B7h and B7.1 play different roles in modulation of TH17 and TH9 differentiation. This plasticity might be important in the immune response to pathogens and tumors, and in the development of autoimmune diseases, and should be taken in consideration in designing of immunotherapeutic protocols triggering ICOS or CD28.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2013.05.021DOI Listing
October 2013

Triggering of B7h by the ICOS modulates maturation and migration of monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

J Immunol 2013 Feb 28;190(3):1125-34. Epub 2012 Dec 28.

Department of Medicine and Experimental Oncology, University of Torino, 10126 Torino, Italy.

B7h, expressed by several cell types, binds ICOS expressed by activated T cells. We have previously shown that B7h triggering by ICOS-Fc inhibits human endothelial cell adhesiveness. This work investigated the effect of ICOS-Fc on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs). We found that DCs matured with LPS in the presence of ICOS-Fc (mDCs(ICOS)) produced greater amounts of IL-23 and IL-10, and promoted a higher secretion of IL-17A and IL-17F in MLCs than did those DCs matured with LPS alone (mDCs). Moreover, mDCs(ICOS) pulsed with the keyhole limpet hemocyanin Ag during the maturation phase were better stimulators of Ag-specific MHC class I-, but not class II-restricted T cells than mDCs. This was probably due to promotion of cross-presentation because it was not detected when the Flu-MA(58-66) Ag was directly loaded on already matured DCs and mDCs(ICOS). Finally, ICOS-Fc inhibited the adhesion of both immature DCs and mDCs to vascular and lymphoid endothelial cells, their migratory activity, and the expression of the Rac-1 activator β-Pix involved in cell motility. These data suggest that B7h stimulation modulates DC function with effects on their maturation and recruitment into tissues. This opens a novel view on the use of interactors of the ICOS:B7h system as immunomodulatory drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1201816DOI Listing
February 2013