Publications by authors named "Elaina J Wang"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Functional outcomes after resection of middle frontal gyrus diffuse gliomas.

J Neurosurg 2021 Nov 19:1-8. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Objective: The clinical outcomes for patients undergoing resection of diffuse glioma within the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) are understudied. Anatomically, the MFG is richly interconnected to known language areas, and nearby subcortical fibers are at risk during resection. The goal of this study was to determine the functional outcomes and intraoperative mapping results related to resection of MFG gliomas. Additionally, the study aimed to evaluate if subcortical tract disruption on imaging correlated with functional outcomes.

Methods: The authors performed a retrospective review of 39 patients with WHO grade II-IV diffuse gliomas restricted to only the MFG and underlying subcortical region that were treated with resection and had no prior treatment. Intraoperative mapping results and postoperative neurological deficits by discharge and 90 days were assessed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography was used to assess subcortical tract integrity on pre- and postoperative imaging.

Results: The mean age of the cohort was 37.9 years at surgery, and the median follow-up was 5.1 years. The mean extent of resection was 98.9% for the cohort. Of the 39 tumors, 24 were left sided (61.5%). Thirty-six patients (92.3%) underwent intraoperative mapping, with 59% of patients undergoing an awake craniotomy. No patients had positive cortical mapping sites overlying the tumor, and 12 patients (33.3%) had positive subcortical stimulation sites. By discharge, 8 patients had language dysfunction, and 5 patients had mild weakness. By 90 days, 2 patients (5.1%) had persistent mild hand weakness only. There were no persistent language deficits by 90 days. On univariate analysis, preoperative tumor size (p = 0.0001), positive subcortical mapping (p = 0.03), preoperative tumor invasion of neighboring subcortical tracts on DTI tractography (p = 0.0003), and resection cavity interruption of subcortical tracts on DTI tractography (p < 0.0001) were associated with an increased risk of having a postoperative deficit by discharge. There were no instances of complete subcortical tract transections in the cohort.

Conclusions: MFG diffuse gliomas may undergo extensive resection with minimal risk for long-term morbidity. Partial subcortical tract interruption may lead to transient but not permanent deficits. Subcortical mapping is essential to reduce permanent morbidity during resection of MFG tumors by avoiding complete transection of critical subcortical tracts.
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November 2021

Factors associated with seizures at initial presentation in pediatric patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

J Neurosurg Pediatr 2021 Sep 24:1-6. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco.

Objective: Children with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) can present with seizures, potentially increasing morbidity and impacting clinical management. However, the factors that lead to seizures as a presenting sign are not well defined. While AVM-related seizures have been described in case series, most studies have focused on adults and have included patients who developed seizures after an AVM rupture. To address this, the authors sought to analyze demographic and morphological characteristics of AVMs in a large cohort of children.

Methods: The demographic, clinical, and AVM morphological characteristics of 189 pediatric patients from a single-center database were studied. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to test the effect of these characteristics on seizures as an initial presenting symptom in patients with unruptured brain AVMs.

Results: Overall, 28 of 189 patients initially presented with seizures (14.8%). By univariate comparison, frontal lobe location (p = 0.02), larger AVM size (p = 0.003), older patient age (p = 0.04), and the Supplemented Spetzler-Martin (Supp-SM) grade (0.0006) were associated with seizure presentation. Multivariate analysis confirmed an independent effect of frontal lobe AVM location and higher Supp-SM grade. All patients presenting with seizures had AVMs in the cortex or subcortical white matter.

Conclusions: While children and adults share some risk factors for seizure presentation, their risk factor profiles do not entirely overlap. Pediatric patients with cortical AVMs in the frontal lobe were more likely to present with seizures. Additionally, the Supp-SM grade was highly associated with seizure presentation. Future clinical research should focus on the effect of therapeutic interventions targeting AVMs on seizure control in these patients.
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September 2021

Posterior petrous face meningiomas presenting with Ménière's-like syndrome: a case series and review of the literature.

J Neurosurg 2021 Aug 27:1-8. Epub 2021 Aug 27.

Departments of1Neurological Surgery and.

Objective: Ménière's disease is an inner ear disorder classically characterized by fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness accompanied by episodic vertigo. While the pathogenesis of Ménière's remains under debate, histopathological analyses implicate endolymphatic sac dysfunction with inner ear fluid homeostatic dysregulation. Little is known about whether external impingement of the endolymphatic sac by tumors may present with Ménière's-like symptoms. The authors present a case series of 7 patients with posterior fossa meningiomas that involved the endolymphatic sac and new onset of Ménière's-like symptoms and review the literature on this rare clinical entity.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients undergoing resection of a posterior petrous meningioma was performed at the authors' institution. Inclusion criteria were age older than 18 years; patients presenting with Ménière's-like symptoms, including episodic vertigo, aural fullness, tinnitus, and/or hearing loss; and tumor location overlying the endolymphatic sac.

Results: There were 7 cases of posterior petrous face meningiomas involving the vestibular aperture presenting with Ménière's-like symptoms. Imaging and intraoperative examination confirmed no cranial nerve VIII compression or labyrinthine artery involvement accounting for audiovestibular symptoms. Of the 7 patients in the series, 6 experienced significant improvement or resolution of their vertigo, and all 7 had improvement or resolution of their tinnitus after resection. Of the 5 patients who had preoperative hearing loss, 2 experienced improvement or resolution of their ipsilateral preoperative hearing deficit, whereas the other 3 had unchanged hearing loss compared to preoperative evaluation.

Conclusions: Petrous face meningiomas overlying the endolymphatic sac can present with a Ménière's syndrome. Early recognition and microsurgical excision of these tumors is critical for resolution of most symptoms and stabilization of hearing loss.
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August 2021

Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament in the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar Spine.

Cureus 2021 Mar 22;13(3):e14041. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Neurological Surgery, The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, USA.

Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a relatively rare disorder characterized by elongation of the posterior longitudinal ligament followed by the progressive development of ectopic osseous tissue along the ligament. OPLL is most commonly reported in the cervical spine, with fewer reported cases of thoracic or lumbar OPLL. The incidence of OPLL is high in east Asian populations with a much lower incidence in the United States. In this case report and review, we present the case of a 44-year-old female who was admitted to the hospital with a one-year history of progressive bilateral lower extremity weakness. Her lower extremity weakness had worsened over months and precipitated a gait disturbance that left her wheelchair-bound at the time of presentation. Additional presenting symptoms included lower back pain, stool incontinence, neck pain, and upper extremity paresthesias. Computed tomography of the spine revealed multiple areas of osteophyte formation and OPLL in the cervical spine from C2-5, thoracic spine from T6-10, and in the lumbar and sacral spine from L1-S1. There were notable areas of accompanying neural foraminal stenosis and central canal stenosis with visible spinal cord compression present in various locations. The patient did not undergo surgical intervention given the significant risk of multilevel surgery, and her symptoms were managed with medication. OPLL, particularly when not considered in lower-risk populations, can be a significant cause for progressive debilitating neurological abnormality. We report a rare case of OPLL occurring throughout the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spine.
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March 2021