Publications by authors named "Elaheh Amirani"

35 Publications

The effects of L-carnitine supplementation on indicators of inflammation and oxidative stress: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Dec 15;19(2):1879-1894. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, Research Center for Evidence-Based Health Management, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran.

Objective: Several trials investigated the efficacy of L-carnitine administration on markers of inflammation and indicators of oxidative stress; however, their findings are controversial. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis and a critical review, which would analyze all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in order to determine the effects of L-carnitine supplementation on inflammatory markers and oxidative stress.

Methods: An electronic search was performed using Scopus, Cochrane Library, PubMed, Google scholar and Web of Science databases on publications from 1990 up to May 2020. Human RCTs conducted in healthy subjects or participants with certain disorders which investigating the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation compared to control (placebo, usual treatment or no intervention) on inflammation and oxidative markers were included. Data were pooled applying a random-effects model and as the overall effect size, weighted mean difference (WMD) was presented. Between heterogeneity among studies was computed using Cochran's Q test and I-square (I). Quality of studies assessed using the Jadad scale. Dose-response analysis was measured using meta-regression. The funnel plot, as well as the Egger's regression test was applied to determine the publication bias.

Results: 44 trials (reported 49 effect sizes for different outcomes of interest) met the inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. According to the findings, L-carnitine supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD: -0.10; 95% CI: -0.14, -0.06), interleukin 6 (IL-6) (WMD: -1.87; 95% CI: -2.80, -0.95), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels (WMD: -1.43; 95% CI: -2.03, -0.84), and malondialdehyde (MDA) (WMD: -0.47; 95% CI: -0.76, -0.18) levels, while there was a significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) (WMD: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.02, 3.25). However, no significant effects of L-carnitine on glutathione peroxidase (GPx) (WMD: 0.02; 95% CI: -0.01, 0.05) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (WMD: 0.14; 95% CI: -0.05, 0.33) were found.

Conclusions: L-carnitine supplementation was associated with lowering of CRP, IL-6, TNF-α, and MDA, and increasing SOD levels, but did not affect other inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00627-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843735PMC
December 2020

The effects of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on metabolic status in pregnant women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Dec 6;19(2):1685-1699. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Pars Advanced and Minimally Invasive Medical Manners Research Center, Pars Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Objective: Data regarding the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplementation on metabolic status of pregnant women are limited. This systematic review and meta-analysis were done based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) dealing with the effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on glycemic control, lipoproteins, inflammation and oxidative stress in pregnant women.

Methods: Following databases were searched for eligible studies published from inception to until 2019: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google scholar. Studies that evaluated the effect of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on parameters of glycemic control, lipoproteins, inflammation and oxidative stress in pregnant women were found by using the key MeSH. A study quality assessment was performed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool and heterogeneity between studies was statistically computed using Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I). Data were pooled using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size.

Results: No significant effects of omega-3 PUFA supplementation on FPG, insulin, insulin resistance, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol, interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and malondialdehyde were found. However, omega-3 PUFA significantly increased serum concentrations of HDL-cholesterol (WMD: 3.10; 95% CI: 0.18, 6.03) and reduced C-reactive protein (WMD: -1.85; 95% CI: -2.61, -1.09).

Conclusion: Based on the results of this meta-analysis omega-3 PUFA supplementation during pregnancy has a significant beneficial effect on HDL-cholesterol, and C-reactive protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00558-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843696PMC
December 2020

Curcumin administration and the effects on psychological status and markers of inflammation and oxidative damage in patients with type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2020 Dec 6;40:77-82. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

National Institutes for Medical Research Development (NIMAD), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study assessed the effects of curcumin intake on psychological status, markers of inflammation and oxidative damage in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and coronary heart disease (CHD).

Method: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 60 patients with T2DM and CHD, aged 45-85 years with 2- and 3-vessel CHD. Patients were randomized into two groups to receive either 1000 mg/day curcumin (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks. Using RT-PCR method, gene expression related to insulin metabolism and inflammatory markers on mononuclear cells from peripheral blood was evaluated.

Result: Curcumin intake significantly decreased Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) (β -1.27; 95% CI, -2.27, -0.31; P = 0.01) compared to the placebo group. Curcumin intake caused a significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) (β -0.20 μmol/L; 95% CI, -0.36, -0.04; P = 0.01), significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (β 75.82 mmol/L; 95% CI, 3.400, 148.25; P = 0.04) and glutathione (GSH) levels (β 63.48 μmol/L; 95% CI, 26.58, 100.37; P = 0.001) when compared with the placebo. Additionally, curcumin intake upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) (P = 0.01).

Conclusion: Curcumin intake for 12 weeks in patients with T2DM and CHD had beneficial effects on PSQI, TAC, GSH, MDA values, and gene expression of PPAR-γ. This study was retrospectively registered in the Iranian website (www.irct.ir) for registration of clinical trials (http://www.irct.ir: IRCT20170513033941N63).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.09.029DOI Listing
December 2020

Effects of flaxseed oil supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2020 Dec 16;40:27-33. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to analyze the effects of flaxseed oil supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders.

Methods: Databases including PubMed, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central library were searched until January 31, 2019.

Results: 14 effect sizes from 12 studies were identified eligible to be included in current meta-analysis. Flaxseed supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in interleukin 6 (IL-6) (WMD: -0.22; 95% CI: -0.43, -0.01) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (WMD: -0.17; 95% CI: -0.31, -0.03) and a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels (WMD: 137.25; 95% CI: 68.04, 206.47). Flaxseed oil supplementation did not affect other biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

Conclusions: Overall, this meta-analysis demonstrated flaxseed oil supplementation decreased IL-6 and MDA levels, and increased TAC, but did not affect other biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among patients with MetS and related disorders. This suggests that flaxseed oil supplementation may have played an indirect role in improved clinical symptoms in diseases with metabolic disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.09.017DOI Listing
December 2020

A systematic review and meta-analysis: The effects of probiotic supplementation on metabolic profile in patients with neurological disorders.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Sep 15;53:102507. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Department of Addiction Studies, School of Medical, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Clinical Research Development Unit-Matini/Kargarnejad Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: The objective of meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation on metabolic status in patients with neurological disorders.

Methods: The following databases were search up to April 2019: Pubmed, Scopus, Google scholar, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The quality of the relevant extracted data was assessed according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were pooled by the use of the inverse variance method and expressed as mean difference with 95 % Confidence Intervals (95 % CI).

Results: Nine studies were included in this meta-analysis. The findings suggested that probiotic supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) [Weighted Mean Difference (WMD): -1.06; 95 % CI: -1.80, -0.32] and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (WMD: -0.32; 95 % CI: -0.46, -0.18). Supplementation with probiotics also significantly reduced insulin (WMD: -3.02; 95 % CI: -3.88, -2.15) and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (WMD: -0.71; 95 % CI: -0.89, -0.52). Probiotics significantly reduced triglycerides (WMD: -18.38; 95 % CI: -25.50, -11.26) and VLDL-cholesterol (WMD: -3.16; 95 % CI: -4.53, -1.79), while they increased HDL-cholesterol levels (WMD: 1.52; 95 % CI: 0.29, 2.75).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrated that taking probiotic by patients with neurological disorders had beneficial effects on CRP, MDA, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, VLDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels, but did not affect other metabolic parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102507DOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of whey protein on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins in patients with metabolic syndrome and related conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

Lipids Health Dis 2020 Sep 21;19(1):209. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Institute for Basic Sciences, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the effects of whey protein on serum lipoproteins and glycemic status in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders.

Methods: Online databases, such as Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Scopus were systematically searched by two independent authors from inception until 30th April 2020 for English randomized clinical trials investigating the efficacy of whey protein administration in subjects with Mets or related conditions on the parameters of glycemic and lipid control compared to certain control. In order to evaluate the included studies' methodological quality, Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied. Using Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I) statistic, the included trials' heterogeneity was also examined. Using a random-effects model, data were pooled, and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size.

Results: Twenty-two studies were selected to be included in this meta-analysis. Consumption of whey protein resulted in significant reduction of HbA1c (WMD: -0.15; 95% CI: - 0.29, - 0.01) insulin (WMD: -0.94; 95% CI: - 1.68, - 0.21) and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (WMD: -0.20; 95% CI: - 0.36, - 0.05). A significant reduction in triglycerides levels (WMD: -17.12; 95% CI: - 26.52, - 7.72), total cholesterol (WMD: -10.88; 95% CI -18.60, - 3.17), LDL-cholesterol levels (WMD: -8.47 95% CI: - 16.59, - 0.36) and total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio (WMD: -0.26; 95% CI: - 0.41, - 0.10) was found as well.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis suggests that supplementation with whey protein had beneficial effect on several indicators of glycemic control and lipid parameters in patients with MetS and related conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12944-020-01384-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7504833PMC
September 2020

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of thiamin supplements in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Jul 28:1-6. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Physiology Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of thiamin supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).

Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 60 patients with GDM. Patients were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 100 mg/day thiamin supplements ( = 30) or placebo ( = 30) for 6 weeks.

Results: Thiamin supplementation significantly decreased serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) ( - 0.98 mg/L; 95% CI, -1.54, -0.42;  = .001) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels ( - 0.86 µmol/L; 95% CI, -1.15, -0.57;  < .001) when compared with the placebo. In addition, thiamin supplementation downregulated gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) ( = .002) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with GDM. Thiamin supplementation did not affect other biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

Conclusion: Overall, thiamin supplementation for 6 weeks to patients with GDM significantly reduced hs-CRP and MDA levels, and gene expression of TNF-α, but did not affect other biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: Clinical Trials.govIdentifier no. http://www.irct.ir: IRCT20170513033941N58.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1779212DOI Listing
July 2020

Effects of chitosan and oligochitosans on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-AKT pathway in cancer therapy.

Int J Biol Macromol 2020 Dec 18;164:456-467. Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Stem Cell Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is one of the most important kinase signaling networks in the context of cancer development and treatment. Aberrant activation of AKT, the central mediator of this pathway, has been implicated in numerous malignancies including endometrial, hepatocellular, breast, colorectal, prostate, and, cervical cancer. Thus regulation and blockage of this kinase and its key target nodes is an attractive approach in cancer therapy and diverse efforts have been done to achieve this aim. Chitosan is a carbohydrate with multiple interesting applications in cancer diagnosis and treatment strategies. This bioactive polymer and its derivative oligomers commonly used in drug/DNA delivery methods due to their functional properties which improve efficiency of delivery systems. Further, these compounds exert anti-tumor roles through the stimulation of apoptosis, immune enhancing potency, anti-oxidative features and anti-angiogenic roles. Due to the importance of PI3K-AKT signaling in cancer targeting and treatment resistance, this review discusses the involvement of chitosan, oligochitosaccharides and carriers based on these chemicals in the regulation of this pathway in different tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.07.137DOI Listing
December 2020

The effect of berberine supplementation on obesity parameters, inflammation and liver function enzymes: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Clin Nutr ESPEN 2020 08 6;38:43-49. Epub 2020 May 6.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R Iran. Electronic address:

Introduction: So far, no study has summarized the findings on the effects of berberine intake on anthropometric parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) and liver enzymes. This systematic review and meta-analysis were done based upon randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to analyze the effects of berberine on anthropometric parameters, CRP and liver enzymes.

Method: Following databases were searched for eligible studies published from inception to 30 July 2019: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed and Google scholar. Necessary data were extracted. Data were pooled by the inverse variance method and expressed as mean difference with 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI).

Result: 12 studies were included. Berberine treatment moderately but significantly decreased body weight (WMD = -2.07 kg, 95% CI -3.09, -1.05, P < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (WMD = -0.47 kg/m, 95% CI -0.70, -0.23, P < 0.001), waist circumference (WC) (WMD = -1.08 cm, 95% CI -1.97, -0.19, P = 0.018) and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (WMD = -0.42 mg/L, 95% CI -0.82, -0.03, P = 0.034). However, berberine intake did not affect liver enzymes, including alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (WMD = -1.66 I/U, 95% CI -3.98, 0.65, P = 0.160) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (WMD = -0.87 I/U, 95% CI -2.56, 0.82, P = 0.311).

Conclusion: This meta-analysis found a significant reduction of body weight, BMI, WC and CRP levels associated with berberine intake which may have played an indirect role in improved clinical symptoms in diseases with metabolic disorders. Berberine administration had no significant effect on ALT and AST levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnesp.2020.04.010DOI Listing
August 2020

Circular RNAs: new genetic tools in melanoma.

Biomark Med 2020 05 28;14(7):563-571. Epub 2020 May 28.

Research Center for Biochemistry & Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer. New technologies have resulted in major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of melanoma and other cancer types. Recently, some studies have investigated the role of circular RNAs (circRNAs) in different cancers. CircRNAs are a member of long noncoding RNA family mainly formed through back-splicing and have a closed-loop structure. These molecules affect several biological and oncogenic cascades in diverse ways via acting as microRNA sponge, interacting with RNA-binding proteins and acting as a transcription regulator. In this review, we made an insight into the impact of circRNA dysregulation in the melanoma tumorigenesis based on the presented evidences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/bmm-2019-0567DOI Listing
May 2020

Effects of Nigella sativa on glycemic control, lipid profiles, and biomarkers of inflammatory and oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

Phytother Res 2020 Oct 11;34(10):2586-2608. Epub 2020 May 11.

Metabolic Diseases Research Center, Research Institute for Prevention of Non-Communicable Diseases, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of Nigella sativa (N. sativa) on glycemic control, lipid profiles, and biomarkers of inflammatory and oxidative stress. Two independent authors systematically examined online databases consisting of, EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception until October 30, 2019. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of the studied trials. The heterogeneity among the included studies were assessed using the Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I ) statistic. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size. A total of 50 trials were included in this meta-analysis. We found a significant reduction in total cholesterol (WMD: -16.80; 95% CI: -21.04, -12.55), triglycerides (WMD: -15.73; 95% CI: -20.77, -10.69), LDL-cholesterol (WMD: -18.45; 95% CI: -22.44, -14.94) and VLDL-cholesterol (WMD: -3.72; 95% CI: -7.27, -0.18) following supplementation with N. sativa. In addition, there was significant reductive effect observed with N. sativa on fasting glucose (WMD: -15.18; 95% CI: -19.82, -10.55) and HbA1C levels (WMD: -0.45; 95% CI: -0.66, -0.23). Effects of N. sativa on CRP (WMD: -3.61; 95% CI: -9.23, 2.01), TNF-α (WMD: -1.18; 95% CI: -3.23, 0.86), TAC (WMD: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.63), and MDA levels (WMD: -0.95; 95% CI: -2.18, 0.27) were insignificant. This meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effects of N. sativa on fasting glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, total-, VLDL-, LDL-cholesterol levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6708DOI Listing
October 2020

Comparison Between Biomarkers of Kidney Injury, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Iran J Kidney Dis 2020 01;14(1):31-35

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Introduction: This study was conducted to compare parameters of kidney injury, oxidative stress and inflammation in people with diabetic nephropathy (DN) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 57 cases with DN and 57 cases with T2DM were included in the study. Fasting blood samples were obtained to determine parameters of kidney injury, oxidative stress and inflammation.

Results: The current study showed that patients with DN had higher tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (167.0 ± 40.1 vs. 151.4 ± 37.4 ng/L, P < .05) and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) concentrations (1625.2 ± 631.0 vs. 1391.5 ± 465.4 ng/mL, P < .05) compared with T2DM cases. Moreover, we observed a non-significant increase in MMP-9 levels among patients with DN compared with individuals with T2DM (4864.4 ± 1934.3 vs. 4239.2 ± 1853.9 ng/L, P > .05). Furthermore, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) levels in patients with DN were higher than that of patients with T2DM (8511.7 ± 1799.9 vs. 7660.7 ± 1711.9 AU, P < .05), but the difference in malondialdehyde value was not significant. Finally, we found that total protein levels in cases with DN were enhanced compared with individuals with T2DM (7.1 ± 0.5 vs. 6.9 ± 0.6 mg/dL, P < .05); however, other markers of kidney injury did not change.

Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of present study revealed that few markers of inflammation and oxidative stress including TNF-α, MMP-2, AGEs levels and total protein levels in patients with DN were significantly higher than that of patients with T2DN. Further studies are necessary to confirm these findings.
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January 2020

The effects of probiotic supplementation on mental health, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Mar 27;49:102361. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Addiction Studies, School of Medical, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran; Clinical Research Development Unit-Matini/Kargarnejad Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background And Objective: In the current meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the effects of probiotic supplementation on mental health, biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with psychiatric disorders were assessed.

Methods: The following databases were search up to February 2019: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Google scholar and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials.

Results: Twelve studies were included in the current meta-analysis. The findings demonstrated that probiotic supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) [Weighted Mean Difference (WMD): -9.60; 95 % CI: -10.08, -9.11]. In addition, a significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) (WMD: -1.59; 95 % CI: -2.22, -0.97), interleukin 10 (IL-10) (WMD: -0.29; 95 % CI: -0.48, -0.11) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (WMD: -0.38; 95 % CI: -0.63, -0.13) was found after probiotics supplementation. No significant change was seen in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score (WMD: -11.17; 95 % CI: -24.99, 2.65), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (WMD: -0.12; 95 % CI: -0.20, -0.05), IL-1B (WMD: -0.34; 95 % CI: -1.43, 0.74), IL-6 (WMD: 0.03; 95 % CI: -0.32, 0.38), nitric oxide (NO) (WMD: -0.54; 95 % CI: -2.16, 1.08), glutathione (GSH) (WMD: 46.79; 95 % CI: -17.25, 110.83) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels (WMD: 15.21; 95 % CI: -59.96, 90.37) after probiotics supplementation.

Conclusion: Overall, the current meta-analysis demonstrated that taking probiotic by patients with psychiatric disorders had beneficial effects on HAMD, CRP, IL-10 and MDA levels, but it did not affect BDI score, other markers of inflammation and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102361DOI Listing
March 2020

The effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on mental health parameters and C-reactive protein: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Complement Ther Med 2020 Jan 21;48:102250. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: The findings of trials investigating the effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) supplementation on depression, anxiety, and C-reactive protein (CRP) are inconsistent. The current meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was carried out to assess the effects of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) administration on mental health parameters and CRP levels.

Methods: Two independent authors systematically searched online databases including EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception until 30 July 2019. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of included trials. The heterogeneity among the included studies was assessed using Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I) statistic. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size.

Results: Twenty one trials were included in this meta-analysis. Consumption of saffron resulted in a significant reduction in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) (11 studies with 12 effect size) (WMD: -4.86; 95 % CI: -6.58, -3.14), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) (5 studies) (WMD: -5.29; 95 % CI: -8.27, -2.31) and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores (3 studies with 4 effect size) (WMD: -2.22; 95 % CI: -2.73, -1.72). Saffron intake did not affect Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-D), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HARS-A) scores and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis demonstrated that saffron intake significantly reduced BDI, BAI and PSQI scores, but did not affect HDRS-D, HARS-A scores and CRP levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.102250DOI Listing
January 2020

The effects of -3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil on genetic and metabolic profiles in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Br J Nutr 2020 04 6;123(7):792-799. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, PO Box 81151-87159, Kashan, Iran.

The present study was performed to evaluate the effects of n-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil on genetic and metabolic profiles in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed in sixty women with GDM. Participants were randomly divided into two groups to intake either 2 × 1000 mg/d n-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil containing 400 mg α-linolenic acid in each capsule (n 30) or placebo (n 30) for 6 weeks. n-3 Fatty acid intake up-regulated PPAR-γ (P < 0·001) and LDL receptor (P = 0·004) and down-regulated gene expression of IL-1 (P = 0·002) and TNF-α (P = 0·001) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of subjects with GDM. In addition, n-3 fatty acid supplementation reduced fasting plasma glucose (P = 0·001), insulin levels (P = 0·001) and insulin resistance (P < 0·001) and increased insulin sensitivity (P = 0·005) when compared with the placebo. Additionally, n-3 fatty acid supplementation was associated with a decrease in TAG (P < 0·001), VLDL-cholesterol (P < 0·001), total cholesterol (P = 0·01) and total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio (P = 0·01) when compared with placebo. n-3 Fatty acid administration was also associated with a significant reduction in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (P = 0·006) and malondialdehyde (P < 0·001), and an increase in total nitrite (P < 0·001) and total glutathione levels (P = 0·006) when compared with the placebo. n-3 Fatty acid supplementation for 6 weeks to women with GDM had beneficial effects on gene expression related to insulin, lipid and inflammation, glycaemic control, lipids, inflammatory markers and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519003416DOI Listing
April 2020

The effects of grape seed extract on glycemic control, serum lipoproteins, inflammation, and body weight: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Phytother Res 2020 Feb 26;34(2):239-253. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to analyze the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on glycemic control and serum lipoproteins, inflammation and body weight. Two independent authors systematically searched online databases including EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception until May 30, 2019. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of included trials. The heterogeneity among the included studies was assessed using Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I ) statistic. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size. Fifty trials were included in this meta-analysis. Pooling effect sizes from studies demonstrated a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (WMD): -2.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.14, -0.86), total cholesterol (TC; WMD: -6.03; 95% CI: -9.71, -2.35), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (WMD: -4.97; 95% CI: -8.37, -1.57), triglycerides (WMD: -6.55; 95% CI: -9.28, -3.83), and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations (WMD: -0.81; 95% CI: -1.25, -0.38) following GSE therapy. Grape seed did not influence HbA1c, HDL cholesterol levels, and anthropometric measurements. This meta-analysis demonstrated that GSE intake significantly reduced FPG, TC, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and CRP levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6518DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of resistant starch on glycemic control, serum lipoproteins and systemic inflammation in patients with metabolic syndrome and related disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 29;60(18):3172-3184. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of resistant starch (RS) on glycemic status, serum lipoproteins and inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders. Two independent authors systematically searched online database including EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception until 30 April 2019. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of included trials. The heterogeneity among the included studies was assessed using Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I) statistic. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size. Nineteen trials were included in this meta-analysis. Administration of RS resulted in significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (14 studies) (WMD: -4.28; 95% CI: -7.01, -1.55), insulin (12 studies) (WMD: -1.95; 95% CI: -3.22, -0.68), and HbA1C (8 studies) (WMD: -0.60; 95% CI: -0.95, -0.24). When pooling data from 13 studies, a significant reduction in total cholesterol levels (WMD: -8.19; 95% CI: -15.38, -1.00) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD: -8.57; 95% CI: -13.48, -3.66) were found as well. Finally, RS administration was associated with a significant decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (WMD: -2.02; 95% CI: -3.14, -0.90). This meta-analysis showed beneficial effects of RS on improving FPG, insulin, HbA1c, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and TNF-α levels in patients with MetS and related disorders, but it did not affect HOMA-IR, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, CRP and IL-6 levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1680950DOI Listing
November 2020

The Effects of L-Carnitine Supplementation on Serum Lipids: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Curr Pharm Des 2019 ;25(30):3266-3281

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: The findings of trials investigating the effects of L-carnitine administration on serum lipids are inconsistent. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize the effects of L-carnitine intake on serum lipids in patients and healthy individuals.

Methods: Two authors independently searched electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar from 1990 until August 1, 2019, in order to find relevant RCTs. The quality of selected RCTs was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Cochrane's Q test and I-square (I2) statistic were used to determine the heterogeneity across included trials. Weight mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI between the two intervention groups were used to determine pooled effect sizes. Subgroup analyses were performed to evaluate the source of heterogeneity based on suspected variables such as, participant's health conditions, age, dosage of L-carnitine, duration of study, sample size, and study location between primary RCTs.

Results: Out of 3460 potential papers selected based on keywords search, 67 studies met the inclusion criteria and were eligible for the meta-analysis. The pooled results indicated that L-carnitine administration led to a significant decrease in triglycerides (WMD: -10.35; 95% CI: -16.43, -4.27), total cholesterol (WMD: -9.47; 95% CI: - 13.23, -5.70) and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentrations (WMD: -6.25; 95% CI: -9.30, -3.21), and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (WMD: 1.39; 95% CI: 0.21, 2.57). L-carnitine supplementation did not influence VLDL-cholesterol concentrations. When we stratified studies for the predefined factors such as dosage, and age, no significant effects of the intervention on triglycerides, LDL-C, and HDL-C levels were found.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis demonstrated that L-carnitine administration significantly reduced triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, and significantly increased HDL-cholesterol levels in the pooled analyses, but did not affect VLDL-cholesterol levels; however, these findings were not confirmed in our subgroup analyses by participant's health conditions, age, dosage of L-carnitine, duration of study, sample size, and study location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666190830154336DOI Listing
June 2020

The effects of curcumin supplementation on endothelial function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Phytother Res 2019 Nov 18;33(11):2989-2995. Epub 2019 Aug 18.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Impaired endothelial function is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Curcumin supplementation might be an appropriate approach to decrease the complications of CVD. Randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of curcumin supplementation on endothelial function were included. Two independent authors systematically searched online database including EMBASE, Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science with no time restriction. Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool was applied to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Between-study heterogeneities were estimated using the Cochran's Q test and I-square (I ) statistic. Data were pooled using a random-effects model, and weighted mean differences (WMDs) were considered as the overall effect sizes. Ten studies with 11 effect sizes were included. We found a significant increase in flow-mediated dilation (FMD) following curcumin supplementation (WMD: 1.49; 95% CI [0.16, 2.82]). There was no effect of curcumin supplement on pulse wave velocity (PWV; WMD: -41.59; 95% CI [-86.59, 3.42]), augmentation index (Aix; WMD: 0.71; 95% CI [-1.37, 2.79]), endothelin-1 (ET-1; WMD: -0.30; 95% CI [-0.96, 0.37]), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1; WMD: -10.11; 95% CI [-33.67, 13.46]). This meta-analysis demonstrated the beneficial effects of curcumin supplementation on improving FMD, though it did not influence PWV, Aix, Et-1, and sICAM-1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6477DOI Listing
November 2019

The effects of catechin on endothelial function: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 7;60(14):2369-2378. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The findings of trials investigating the effect of catechin on endothelial function are controversial. This meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to summarize the existing evidence and determine the effects of catechin supplementation on endothelial function. Two authors independently searched electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception until March 2019, in order to find relevant RCTs. The quality of selected RCTs was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool. Cochrane's Q test and -square () statistic were used to determine the heterogeneity of included trials. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size. A total of 16 studies with 22 effect sizes were included in this meta-analysis. A significant increase in flow mediated dilation (FMD) in 10 studies was found after catechin supplementation including 13 effect sizes (WMD: 1.53; 95% CI: 0.93, 2.14). The pooled analysis of 7 effect sizes from 4 studies showed a significant reduction in pulse wave velocity (PWV) after catechin supplementation (WMD: -0.32; 95% CI: -0.44, -0.20) and combining 5 effect sizes from 3 studies in augmentation index (AI) (WMD: -3.57; 95% CI: -6.40, -0.74). Catechin supplementation significantly increased FMD, and significantly reduced PWV and AI, but did not affect other markers of endothelial function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2019.1639037DOI Listing
September 2020

The Effects of Selenium Supplementation on Gene Expression Related to Insulin and Lipid Metabolism, and Pregnancy Outcomes in Patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 May 17;195(1):1-8. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

This study was performed to evaluate the effects of selenium supplementation on gene expression related to insulin and lipid metabolism, and pregnancy outcomes in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 36 patients with GDM. Participants were randomly divided into two groups to intake either 200 μg/day selenium supplements as selenium yeast or placebo (n = 18 each group) for 6 weeks. Selenium supplementation upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (P = 0.03) and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) (P = 0.01) in lymphocytes of subjects with GDM compared with the placebo. Selenium supplementation did not affect gene expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)]. Supplementation with selenium had a significant decrease in incidence of newborns' hyperbilirubinemia (5.6% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.03) and newborns' hospitalization (5.6% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.03) compared with the placebo. Overall, we found that selenium supplementation for 6 weeks among patients with GDM significantly increased PPAR-γ and GLUT-1 expression, but did not affect gene expression of LDLR and LP(a). It also reduced incidence of newborns' hyperbilirubinemia and newborns' hospitalization. Clinical trial registration number: http://www.irct.ir: IRCT20170513033941N35.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01818-zDOI Listing
May 2020

Long-term vitamin D and high-dose -3 fatty acids' supplementation improve markers of cardiometabolic risk in type 2 diabetic patients with CHD.

Br J Nutr 2019 08 16;122(4):423-430. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran.

This study was performed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids' co-supplementation on markers of cardiometabolic risk in diabetic patients with CHD. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among sixty-one vitamin D-deficient diabetic patients with CHD. At baseline, the range of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in study participants was 6·3-19·9 ng/ml. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups either taking 50 000 IU vitamin D supplements every 2 weeks plus 2× 1000 mg/d n-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil (n 30) or placebo (n 31) for 6 months. Vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids' co-supplementation significantly reduced mean (P = 0·01) and maximum levels of left carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) (P = 0·004), and mean (P = 0·02) and maximum levels of right CIMT (P = 0·003) compared with the placebo. In addition, co-supplementation led to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (β -0·40 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·77, -0·03; P = 0·03), insulin (β -1·66 μIU/ml; 95 % CI -2·43, -0·89; P < 0·001), insulin resistance (β -0·49; 95 % CI -0·72, -0·25; P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (β -0·21 mmol/l; 95 % CI -0·41, -0·01; P = 0·04), and a significant increase in insulin sensitivity (β +0·008; 95 % CI 0·004, 0·01; P = 0·001) and HDL-cholesterol (β +0·09 mmol/l; 95 % CI 0·01, 0·17; P = 0·02) compared with the placebo. Additionally, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β -1·56 mg/l; 95 % CI -2·65, -0·48; P = 0·005) was reduced in the supplemented group compared with the placebo group. Overall, vitamin D and n-3 fatty acids' co-supplementation had beneficial effects on markers of cardiometabolic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114519001132DOI Listing
August 2019

The Influences of Chromium Supplementation on Metabolic Status in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Apr 26;194(2):313-320. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

This investigation was conducted to determine the effects of chromium supplementation on metabolic status in diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 64 diabetic patients with CHD between October 2017 and January 2018. Patients were randomly divided into two groups to obtain either 200 μg chromium (n = 32) or placebo (n = 32) for 12 weeks. Chromium supplementation significantly reduced body weight (- 0.9 ± 1.6 vs. + 0.1 ± 0.8 kg, P = 0.001), BMI (- 0.4 ± 0.7 vs. + 0.1 ± 0.3 kg/m, P = 0.002), fasting glucose (β - 11.03 mg/dL; 95% CI, - 18.97, - 3.09; P = 0.007), insulin (β - 1.33 μIU/mL; 95% CI, - 1.90, - 0.76; P < 0.001), and insulin resistance (β - 0.44; 95% CI, - 0.62, - 0.25; P < 0.001) and significantly increased insulin sensitivity (β 0.007; 95% CI, 0.003, 0.01; P < 0.001) compared with the placebo. In addition, taking chromium led to a significant reduction in serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (β - 0.49 mg/L; 95% CI, - 0.91, - 0.06; P = 0.02) and plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (β - 0.22 μmol/L; 95% CI, - 0.35, - 0.10; P = 0.001); also, a significant rise in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (β 84.54 mmol/L; 95% CI, 31.05, 138.02; P = 0.002) was observed in comparison with placebo. Additionally, chromium administration significantly reduced diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (β - 5.01 mmHg; 95% CI, - 9.04, - 0.97; P = 0.01) compared with the placebo. Overall, the 12-week supplementation of chromium to diabetic patients with CHD had beneficial impacts on weight, BMI, glycemic control, hs-CRP, TAC, MDA, and DBP.Trial Registration www.irct.ir: http://www.irct.ir: IRCT20170513033941N30.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01783-7DOI Listing
April 2020

The effects of vitamin D supplementation on mental health, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2019 08 13;94:109651. Epub 2019 May 13.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: In the current meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the effects of vitamin D supplementation on mental health, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients with psychiatric disorders are assessed.

Methods: The following databases were search up to March 2019: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The quality of the relevant extracted data was assessed according to the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Data were pooled by the use of the inverse variance method and expressed as mean difference with 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI).

Results: Eleven effect sizes from nine studies were included in the final analyses. A pooled analysis of 9 effect sizes showed a significant reduction in Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) score following supplementation with vitamin D [weighted mean difference (WMD): -3.91; 95% CI: -5.15 -2.66), I= 85.9%]. Combining data from two available studies on the effects of vitamin D supplementation on Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) also revealed a significant reduction in this score following the intervention (WMD: -1.78; 95% CI: -2.28, -1.28). In addition, there were significant increase in glutathione (GSH) through 3 studies (WMD: 180.70; 95% CI: 6.76, 354.64), and in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) through 3 studies (WMD: 90.09; 95% CI: 56.36, 123.82) after vitamin D supplementation. Combining data from five studies, we found a significant reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations after vitamin D supplementation (WMD: -1.74; 95% CI: -2.82, -0.66).

Conclusions: Overall, the current meta-analysis demonstrated that taking vitamin D supplements among patients with psychiatric disorders had beneficial effects on BDI, PSQI, GSH, TAC and CRP levels, but did not affect other biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2019.109651DOI Listing
August 2019

The Effects of Quercetin Supplementation on Blood Pressures and Endothelial Function Among Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Curr Pharm Des 2019 ;25(12):1372-1384

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were performed to determine the effect of quercetin administration on blood pressures and endothelial function among patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and related disorders.

Methods: We searched systematically online databases including Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and Web of Science to identify the relevant RCTs until December 2018. Q-test and I2 statistics were applied to assess heterogeneity among the included studies. Data were pooled using a random-effects model and weighted mean difference (WMD) was considered as the overall effect size.

Results: Out of 284 citations, 8 RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. We found a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (WMD: -1.69; 95% CI: -3.22, -0.17) following the intake of quercetin supplements. However, quercetin supplementation did not significantly affect diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (WMD: -3.14; 95% CI: -8.24, 1.95), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) (WMD: -24.49; 95% CI: -53.74, 4.77) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) (WMD: -5.78; 95% CI: -12.93, 1.38).

Conclusion: In summary, the current meta-analysis demonstrated that quercetin supplementation significantly reduced SBP, yet did not affect DBP, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 among patients with MetS and related disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666190513095352DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of Chromium and Carnitine Co-supplementation on Body Weight and Metabolic Profiles in Overweight and Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Feb 11;193(2):334-341. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R., Iran.

The primary aim of our study was to determine the influence of taking chromium plus carnitine on insulin resistance, with a secondary objective of evaluating the influences on lipid profiles and weight loss in overweight subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In a 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 54 overweight women were randomly assigned to receive either supplements (200 μg/day chromium picolinate plus 1000 mg/day carnitine) or placebo (27/each group). Chromium and carnitine co-supplementation decreased weight (- 3.6 ± 1.8 vs. - 1.0 ± 0.7 kg, P < 0.001), BMI (- 1.3 ± 0.7 vs. - 0.3 ± 0.3 kg/m, P < 0.001), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (- 5.1 ± 6.0 vs. - 1.1 ± 4.9 mg/dL, P = 0.01), insulin (- 2.0 ± 1.4 vs. - 0.2 ± 1.2 μIU/mL, P < 0.001), insulin resistance (- 0.5 ± 0.4 vs. - 0.04 ± 0.3, P < 0.001), triglycerides (- 18.0 ± 25.2 vs. + 5.5 ± 14.4 mg/dL, P < 0.001), total (- 17.0 ± 20.3 vs. + 3.6 ± 12.0 mg/dL, P < 0.001), and LDL cholesterol (- 13.3 ± 19.2 vs. + 1.4 ± 13.3 mg/dL, P = 0.002), and elevated insulin sensitivity (+ 0.007 ± 0.005 vs. + 0.002 ± 0.005, P < 0.001). In addition, co-supplementation upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (P = 0.02) and low-density lipoprotein receptor expression (P = 0.02). Overall, chromium and carnitine co-supplementation for 12 weeks to overweight women with PCOS had beneficial effects on body weight, glycemic control, lipid profiles except HDL cholesterol levels, and gene expression of PPAR-γ and LDLR. Clinical trial registration number: http://www.irct.ir: IRCT20170513033941N38.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01720-8DOI Listing
February 2020

Carnitine and chromium co-supplementation affects mental health, hormonal, inflammatory, genetic, and oxidative stress parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 2019 Mar 5:1-9. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

c Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases , Kashan University of Medical Sciences , Kashan , Iran.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of carnitine and chromium on mental health, hormonal, inflammatory and genetic parameters in women with PCOS.

Methods: This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 54 subjects, aged 18-40 years old. Subjects were randomly allocated to take either 1000 mg/d carnitine plus 200 µg/d chromium as chromium picolinate (n = 26) or placebo (n = 27) for 12 weeks.

Results: Carnitine and chromium co-supplementation, compared with the placebo, significantly improved beck depression inventory (β - 0.84; 95% CI, -1.51, -0.17; p = 0.01), general health questionnaire scores (β - 1.13; 95% CI, -2.13, -0.14; p = 0.02) and depression anxiety and stress scale scores (β - 0.96; 95% CI, -0.78, -0.14; p = 0.02). Participants who received carnitine plus chromium supplements had significantly lower total testosterone (β - 0.15 ng/mL; 95% CI, -0.24, -0.06; p = 0.002), hirsutism (β - 0.48; 95% CI, -0.91, -0.06; p = 0.02), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (β - 1.02 mg/L; 95% CI, -1.79, -0.25; p = 0.01), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (β - 0.38 µmol/L; 95% CI, -0.56, -0.20; p < 0.001), and higher total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels (β 107.18 mmol/L; 95% CI, 44.24, 170.12; p = 0.001) compared with the placebo. Moreover, carnitine and chromium co-supplementation upregulated gene expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) (p = 0.02) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) (p = 0.02) compared with the placebo.

Conclusion: Overall, the co-administration of carnitine and chromium for 12 weeks to women with PCOS had beneficial effects on mental health parameters, serum total testosterone, mF-G scores, hs-CRP, TAC and MDA levels, and gene expression of IL-6 and TNF-α.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0167482X.2018.1557144DOI Listing
March 2019

The effects of magnesium and vitamin E co-supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in patients with diabetic foot ulcer: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Wound Repair Regen 2019 05 11;27(3):277-284. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

This study was carried out to determine the effects of magnesium and vitamin E co-supplementation on wound healing and metabolic status in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). The current randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 57 patients with grade 3 DFU. Participants were randomly divided into two groups to take either 250 mg magnesium oxide plus 400 IU vitamin E (n = 29) or placebo per day (n = 28) for 12 weeks. Compared with the placebo, taking magnesium plus vitamin E supplements reduced ulcer length (β [difference in the mean of outcomes measures between treatment groups] -0.56 cm; 95% CI, -0.92, -0.20; p = 0.003), width (β -0.35 cm; 95% CI, -0.64, -0.05; p = 0.02) and depth (β -0.18 cm; 95% CI, -0.33, -0.02; p = 0.02). In addition, co-supplementation led to a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (β -13.41 mg/dL; 95% CI, -20.96, -5.86; p = 0.001), insulin (β -1.45 μIU/ml; 95% CI, -2.37, -0.52; p = 0.003), insulin resistance (β -0.60; 95% CI, -0.99, -0.20; p = 0.003) and HbA1c (β -0.32%; 95% CI, -0.48, -0.16; p < 0.003), and a significant elevation in insulin sensitivity (β 0.007; 95% CI, 0.003, 0.01; p < 0.001) compared with the placebo. Additionally, compared with the placebo, taking magnesium plus vitamin E supplements decreased triglycerides (β -10.08 mg/dL; 95% CI, -19.70, -0.46; p = 0.04), LDL-cholesterol (β -5.88 mg/dL; 95% CI, -11.42, -0.34; p = 0.03), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (β -3.42 mg/L; 95% CI, -4.44, -2.41; p < 0.001) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (β -0.30 μmol/L; 95% CI, -0.45, -0.15; p < 0.001), and increased HDL-cholesterol (β 2.62 mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.60, 4.63; p = 0.01) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels (β 53.61 mmol/L; 95% CI, 4.65, 102.57; p = 0.03). Overall, magnesium and vitamin E co-supplementation for 12 weeks to patients with DFU had beneficial effects on ulcer size, glycemic control, triglycerides, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol, hs-CRP, TAC, and MDA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/wrr.12701DOI Listing
May 2019

Effects of Selenium Supplementation on Metabolic Status in Patients Undergoing for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) Surgery: a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2019 Oct 14;191(2):331-337. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of selenium supplementation on glycemic control, lipid profiles, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in patients undergoing for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed among 33 patients undergoing for CABG surgery, aged 40-85 years old. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups to intake either 200 μg/day selenium supplements as selenium yeast (n = 17) or placebo (n = 16) for 4 weeks. Glycemic control, lipid profiles, and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were assessed at baseline and at the end of trial. After the 4-week intervention, selenium supplementation significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (β, 6.76 mg/dL; 95% CI, - 13.13, - 0.40; P = 0.03), insulin (β, - 1.14 μIU/mL; 95% CI, - 2.01, - 0.28; P = 0.01); homeostasis model of assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (β - 0.35; 95% CI, - 0.62, - 0.08; P = 0.01); and total-/HDL-cholesterol ratio (β - 0.31; 95% CI, - 0.51, - 0.09; P = 0.008); and significantly increased HDL-cholesterol levels (β, 2.72 mg/dL; 95% CI, 0.89, 4.55; P = 0.005) compared with the placebo. Moreover, selenium supplementation led to a significant reduction in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (β, - 0.68 mg/L; 95% CI, - 1.18, - 0.17; P = 0.01) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (β, - 0.27 μmol/L; 95% CI, - 0.47, - 0.07; P = 0.009), and a significant elevation in total glutathione (GSH) levels (β, 77.33 μmol/L; 95% CI, 56.11, 98.55; P < 0.001) compared with the placebo. Selenium supplementation did not affect other metabolic profiles. Overall, our study demonstrated that selenium supplementation for 4 weeks to patients undergoing for CABG surgery had beneficial effects on FPG, insulin, HOMA-IR, total-/HDL-cholesterol ratio, HDL-cholesterol, hs-CRP, GSH, and MDA levels, but did not affect other metabolic profiles. Clinical trial registration number: http://www.irct.ir : IRCT2017090533941N22.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-1636-7DOI Listing
October 2019