Publications by authors named "Ekaterina Saukko"

4 Publications

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Prospective comparison of F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT, whole-body MRI and CT in primary nodal staging of unfavourable intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Urology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Purpose: To prospectively compare F-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-1007 positron emission tomography (PET)/CT, whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI) including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and standard computed tomography (CT), in primary nodal staging of prostate cancer (PCa).

Methods: Men with newly diagnosed unfavourable intermediate- or high-risk PCa prospectively underwent F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT, WBMRI with DWI and contrast-enhanced CT within a median of 8 days. Six readers (two for each modality) independently reported pelvic lymph nodes as malignant, equivocal or benign while blinded to the other imaging modalities. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were reported according to optimistic (equivocal lesions interpreted as benign) and pessimistic (equivocal lesions interpreted as malignant) analyses. The reference standard diagnosis was based on multidisciplinary consensus meetings where available histopathology, clinical and follow-up data were used.

Results: Seventy-nine patients completed all the imaging modalities, except for one case of interrupted WBMRI. Thirty-one (39%) patients had pelvic lymph node metastases, which were detected in 27/31 (87%), 14/31 (45%) and 8/31 (26%) patients by F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT, WBMRI with DWI and CT, respectively (optimistic analysis). In 8/31 (26%) patients, only F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT detected malignant lymph nodes, while the other two imaging modalities were reported as negative. At the patient level, sensitivity and specificity values for F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT, WBMRI with DWI and CT in optimistic analysis were 0.87 (95%CI 0.71-0.95) and 0.98 (95%CI 0.89-1.00), 0.37 (95%CI 0.22-0.55) and 0.98 (95%CI 0.89-1.00) and 0.26 (95%CI 0.14-0.43) and 1.00 (95%CI 0.93-1.00), respectively.

Conclusion: F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT showed significantly greater sensitivity in nodal staging of primary PCa than did WBMRI with DWI or CT, while maintaining high specificity.

Clinical Trial Registration: ID: NCT03537391.
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March 2021

A systematic review of MRI studies of language development from birth to 2 years of age.

Dev Neurobiol 2021 Jan 8;81(1):63-75. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, Turku Brain and Mind Center, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Neurocognitive functions supporting language development start to develop well before first words are spoken during the first years of life. This process coincides with the initial growth spurt of the brain. While the core components of the language network are well characterized in adults and children, the initial neural correlates of language skills are still relatively unknown. We reviewed 10 studies identified via a systematic search that combined magnetic resonance imaging and language-related measures in healthy infants from birth to 2 years of age. We aimed to describe the current knowledge as well as point out viable future directions for similar studies. Expectedly, the implicated cerebral areas included many established components of the language networks, including frontal and temporal regions. A volumetric leftward asymmetry of the brain was suggested as a determinant of language skills, yet with marked interindividual variation. Overall, temporal and frontal brain volumes associated positively with language skills. Positive associations were described between the maturation of language related white matter tracts and language skills. The language networks showed adult-like structural similarities already in neonates, with weaker asymmetry compared to adults. In summary, we found some evidence that the language circuit described in older age groups is also associated to language skills during the first 2 years of life. However, across the reviewed studies there were no systematic neural correlates of language skills, which is partly explained by a modest number of studies, scattered representation of ages in measurements and the variance in the used methods.
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January 2021

A Prospective Comparison of F-prostate-specific Membrane Antigen-1007 Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography, Whole-body 1.5 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging with Diffusion-weighted Imaging, and Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography/Computed Tomography with Traditional Imaging in Primary Distant Metastasis Staging of Prostate Cancer (PROSTAGE).

Eur Urol Oncol 2020 Jul 13. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Urology, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland.

Background: Computed tomography (CT) and bone scintigraphy (BS) are the imaging modalities currently used for distant metastasis staging of prostate cancer (PCa).

Objective: To compare standard staging modalities with newer and potentially more accurate imaging modalities.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective, single-centre trial (NCT03537391) enrolled 80 patients with newly diagnosed high-risk PCa (International Society of Urological Pathology grade group ≥3 and/or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] ≥20 and/or cT ≥ T3; March 2018-June 2019) to undergo primary metastasis staging with two standard and three advanced imaging modalities.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: The participants underwent the following five imaging examinations within 2 wk of enrolment and without a prespecified sequence: BS, CT, Tc-hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (Tc-HMDP) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)-CT, 1.5 T whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WBMRI) using diffusion-weighted imaging, and F-prostate-specific membrane antigen-1007 (F-PSMA-1007) positron emission tomography(PET)-CT. Each modality was reviewed by two independent experts blinded to the results of the prior studies, who classified lesions as benign, equivocal, or malignant. Pessimistic and optimistic analyses were performed to resolve each equivocal diagnosis. The reference standard diagnosis was defined using all available information accrued during at least 12 mo of clinical follow-up. Patients with equivocal reference standard diagnoses underwent MRI and/or CT to search for the development of anatomical correspondence. PSMA PET-avid lesions without histopathological verification were rated to be malignant only if there was a corresponding anatomical finding suspicious for malignancy at the primary or follow-up imaging.

Results And Limitations: Seventy-nine men underwent all imaging modalities except for one case of interrupted MRI. The median interval per patient between the first and the last imaging study was 8 d (interquartile range [IQR]: 6-9). The mean age was 70 yr (standard deviation: 7) and median PSA 12 ng/mL (IQR:7-23). The median follow-up was 435 d (IQR: 378-557). Metastatic disease was detected in 20 (25%) patients. The imaging modality F-PSMA-1007 PET-CT had superior sensitivity and highest inter-reader agreement. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) values for bone metastasis detection with PSMA PET-CT were 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.85-0.95) and 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87-0.96) for readers 1 and 2, respectively, while the AUC values for BS, CT, SPECT-CT, and WBMRI were 0.71 (95% CI: 0.58-0.84) and 0.8 (95% CI: 0.67-0.92), 0.53 (95% CI: 0.39-0.67) and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.54-0.77), 0.77 (95% CI: 0.65-0.89) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62-0.88), and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.74-0.96) and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.54-0.80), respectively, for the other four pairs of readers. The imaging method F-PSMA-1007 PET-CT detected metastatic disease in 11/20 patients in whom standard imaging was negative and influenced clinical decision making in 14/79 (18%) patients. In 12/79 cases, false positive bone disease was reported only by PSMA PET-CT. Limitations included a nonrandomised study setting and few histopathologically validated suspicious lesions.

Conclusions: Despite the risk of false positive bone lesions, F-PSMA-1007 PET-CT outperformed all other imaging methods studied for the detection of primary distant metastasis in high-risk PCa.

Patient Summary: In this report, we compared the diagnostic performance of conventional and advanced imaging. It was found that F-prostate-specific membrane antigen-1007 positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-PSMA-1007 PET-CT) was superior to the other imaging modalities studied for the detection of distant metastasis at the time of initial diagnosis of high-risk prostate cancer. PSMA PET-CT also appears to detect some nonmetastatic bone lesions.
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July 2020

Patient radiation dose and fluoroscopy time during ERCP: a single-center, retrospective study of influencing factors.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2018 04 28;53(4):495-504. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

e Research Unit of Medical Imaging, Physics and Technology, University of Oulu , Oulu , Finland.

Objectives: Recently, both the number and the complexity with associated increased technical difficulty of therapeutic ERCP procedures have significantly increased resulting in longer procedural and fluoroscopy times. During ERCP, the patient is exposed to ionizing radiation and the consequent radiation dose depends on multiple factors. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting fluoroscopy time and radiation dose in patients undergoing ERCP.

Materials And Methods: Data related to patient demographics, procedural characteristics and radiation exposure in ERCP procedures (n = 638) performed between August 2013 and August 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. Statistically significant factors identified by univariate analyses were included in multivariate analysis with fluoroscopy time (FT) and dose area product (DAP) as dependent variables. Effective dose (ED) was estimated from DAP measurements using conversion coefficient.

Results: The factors independently associated with increased DAP during ERCP were age, gender, radiographer, complexity level of ERCP, cannulation difficulty grade, bile duct injury and biliary stent placement. In multivariate analysis the endoscopist, the complexity level of ERCP, cannulation difficulty grade, pancreatic duct leakage, bile duct dilatation and brushing were identified as predictors for a longer FT. The mean DAP, FT, number of acquired images and ED for all ERCP procedures were 2.33 Gy·cm, 1.84 min, 3 and 0.61 mSv, respectively.

Conclusions: Multiple factors had an effect on DAP and FT in ERCP. The awareness of these factors may help to predict possible prolonged procedures causing a higher radiation dose to the patient and thus facilitate the use of appropriate precautions.
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April 2018