Publications by authors named "Eka Ginanjar"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Elevation of Cardiac Biomarkers in COVID-19 As a Major Determinant for Mortality: A Systematic Review.

Acta Med Indones 2021 Oct;53(4):385-396

Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Background: This study aimed to summarize the prognosis of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with elevated troponin and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels and demonstrate the involvement of myocardial injury as a complication in COVID-19.

Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using several databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, PROQUEST and SCOPUS ) for studies published up to August 2020. Observational studies about the mortality outcome of COVID-19 patients who experienced cardiac injury, as defined by the elevation of serum levels of troponin, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), with NT-proBNP or only BNP or only NT-proBNP, were included. In addition, a critical appraisal was conducted for all included studies using the Critical Appraisal for Prognostic Studies checklist published by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine by the University of Oxford.

Results: Seven retrospective observational studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. This study found that there is a higher risk of death in COVID 19 patients with higher levels of troponin and NT-proBNP, indicating the importance of these biomarkers as determinant factors to predict in-hospital deaths.

Conclusion: Based on the analysis, elevation of troponin  and NT-proBNP levels plays an essential role in determining the patient prognosis because it is shown to be associated with in-hospital mortality. This also supports the involvement of myocardial injury as a prominent fatal complication in COVID-19.
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October 2021

Usefulness of the CODE ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Program to Improve Quality Assurance in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Am J Cardiol 2022 02 12;165:27-32. Epub 2021 Dec 12.

Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Central Jakarta, Indonesia.

The highest mortality rate associated with acute coronary syndrome is observed in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Quality care in STEMI management depends on timely reperfusion of the ischemic coronary artery. The CODE STEMI program has been developed to reduce delays and serves as a method to improve quality care in patients with STEMI. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of implementing the CODE STEMI program on quality care and hospital marketing strategy. Our research was a descriptive study with mixed evaluation methods. We enrolled 207 patients with STEMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention from 2015 to 2018. We used quantitative methods by tracking medical records and administrative documents, as well as qualitative methods by observation and in-depth interviews. Statistical analysis was done using Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests. Our study demonstrated reduced door-to-balloon time, total cost, and length of stay of patients with STEMI who were treated with the CODE STEMI program (p <0.001, p <0.001, and p = 0.009, respectively). In addition, there was a likely decrease in major adverse cardiac event incidence and mortality rate after the implementation of CODE STEMI. The hospital and patients expressed their satisfaction with the CODE STEMI program. The program proved to have good efficacy, effectiveness, optimality, acceptability, legitimation, and equity. It also met the marketing mix principles, which included increasing the total number of patients with cardiovascular diseases as well as increasing levels of public trust in STEMI management. In conclusion, the CODE STEMI program has a positive impact on quality care and hospital marketing strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.10.047DOI Listing
February 2022

The Association of β2-Microglobulin and Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 with Major Adverse Cardiac Event in Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

Acta Med Indones 2021 Jan;53(1):5-12

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia - Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Background: chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the severity and risk of mortality in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. The role of β2-M as a filtration and inflammation marker and FGF23 as a CKD-MBD process marker might be significant in the pathophysiology in ACS with CKD patients. This study aims to determine the association of β2-M and FGF23 with major adverse cardiac event (MACE) in ACS patients with CKD.

Methods: we used cross sectional and retrospective cohort analysis for MACE. We collected ACS patients with CKD consecutively from January until October 2018 at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital. Data were analyzed using logistic regression and Cox's Proportional Hazard Regression.

Results: a total of 117 patients were selected according to the study criteria. In bivariate analysis, β2-M, FGF23, and stage of CKD had significant association with MACE (p = 0.014, p = 0.026, p = 0.014, respectively). In multivariate analysis, β2-M - but not FGF 23- was significantly associated with MACE (adjusted HR 2.16; CI95% 1.15-4.05; p = 0.017).

Conclusion: β2-M was significantly associated with MACE, while FGF23 was not so. This finding supports the role of inflammation in cardiovascular outcomes in ACS with CKD patient through acute on chronic effect.
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January 2021

CODE STEMI Program Improves Clinical Outcome in ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

Open Access Emerg Med 2020 2;12:315-321. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Purpose: One of the most frequent causes of cardiac mortality is ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Delay in the management of STEMI patients is a cause of high mortality and morbidity. This study aims to determine the effect of the implementation of the CODE STEMI program on major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and mortality of STEMI patients at Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital.

Patients And Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study that enrolled 207 STEMI patients who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) in 2015-2018. The patients were divided into two groups. The first group was treated prior to establishing the CODE STEMI program. The other group was treated according to the program, which was implemented in January 2017. Data were collected from medical records, and we retrospectively analyzed all in-hours, MACE, and mortality of STEMI patients from both groups as primary outcomes. Data analysis was done using the Mann-Whitney and chi-square test.

Results: There were 72 and 135 patients in the pre-CODE STEMI and CODE STEMI groups, respectively. D2BT was significantly reduced by 130 min (288±306 vs 158±81, P< 0.001) since the implementation of CODE STEMI program. There were trends to lower in-hospital mortality rates (8.3% vs 4.4%, RR = 0.53) and MACE at 30 days (48.61% vs 37.78%, RR = 0.77).

Conclusion: Implementation of the CODE STEMI program can reduce door-to-balloon time and decrease the MACE and mortality rate in STEMI patients in general hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OAEM.S259155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7646377PMC
November 2020

Predictors of 30-day Mortality in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients.

Acta Med Indones 2019 Jul;51(3):238-244

Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia - Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital.

Background: to identify other factors other than the TIMI scores that can be used as predictors of 30-day mortality in STEMI patients by including variables of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) and glomerulus filtration rate (GFR) at Cipto Mangunkusumo National Central General Hospital.

Methods: a retrospective cohort study was conducted in 487 STEMI patients who were hospitalized at RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo between 2004 and 2013. Sample size was calculated using the rule of thumbs formula. Data were obtained from medical records and analyzed with bivariate and multivariate method using Cox's Proportional Hazard Regression Model. Subsequently, a new scoring system was developed to predict 30-day mortality rate in STEMI patients. Calibration and discrimination features of the new model were assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test and area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

Results: bivariate and multivariate analyses showed that only two variables in the new score system model were statistically significant, i.e. the Killip class II to IV and GFR with a range of total score between 0 and 4.6. Thirty-day mortality risk stratification for STEMI patient included high, moderate and low risks. The risk was considered high when the total score was >3.5 (46.5%). It was considered moderate if the total score was between 2.5 and 3.5 (23.2%) and low if the total score was <2.5 (5.95%). Both variables of the score had satisfactory calibration (p > 0.05) and discrimination (AUC 0.816 (0.756-0.875; CI 95%).

Conclusion: There are two new score variables that can be used as predictors of 30-day mortality risks for STEMI patients, i.e. the Killip class and GFR with satisfactory calibration and discrimination rate.
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July 2019

ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Simulation Case for Evaluation of Interprofessional Performance in a Hospital.

Emerg Med Int 2019 7;2019:7562637. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Emergency Unit, Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Central Jakarta 10430, Indonesia.

Introduction: Interprofessional collaboration between units in a hospital is essential in order to reach desired time for primary percutaneous intervention (PCI) in acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) cases. We developed a simulation to engage various medical and nonmedical staff in interprofessional and interunit team collaboration.

Method: We used a scenario in this simulation. Beginning in the emergency department, it detailed a 50-year-old male presenting with progressive chest pain since 7 hours before admission. The emergency team directly examined the patient, and STEMI diagnosis was made, followed by sending the patient to the cardiac catheterization laboratory to undergo primary PCI. A resuscitation kit was required for the simulation. An evaluation sheet was prepared to evaluate every step of patient management. Three judges observed the simulation. At the end of the simulation, debriefing was done, and recommendation for the simulation was discussed. Besides medical activities during patient management, interprofessional communication, administration activities, consultations, and handover process were also evaluated.

Results: The team achieved the appropriate door-to-electrocardiogram (ECG) time in 8 minutes, but overall target was delayed since door-to-skin puncture time was reached in 110 minutes. Some factors that contributed to these conditions were long waiting time during patient admission, several attempts for telephone consultation to the cardiologist, and prolonged admission process in the cardiac catheterization laboratory.

Conclusions: The simulation was well received by both participant and our institution, stating that it is a valuable resource for developing interdisciplinary learning program. This simulation also contributed to the development of the clinical pathway, STEMI protocol, in our institution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7562637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800974PMC
October 2019

Iron Absorption in Iron-Deficient Women, Who Received 65 mg Fe with an Indonesian Breakfast, Is Much Better from NaFe(III)EDTA than from Fe(II)SO₄, with an Acceptable Increase of Plasma NTBI. A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2018 Sep 10;11(3). Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Department of Medical Microbiology, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, Utrecht 3584 CX, The Netherlands.

Plasma non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI) is potentially harmful due to the generation of free radicals that cause tissue damage in vascular and other diseases. Studies in iron-replete and iron-deficient subjects, receiving a single oral test dose of Fe(II)SO₄ or NaFe(III)EDTA with water, revealed that FeSO₄ was well absorbed when compared with NaFeEDTA, while only the Fe(II) compound showed a remarkable increase of NTBI. As NaFeEDTA is successfully used for food fortification, a double-blind randomized cross-over trial was conducted in 11 healthy women with uncomplicated iron deficiency. All subjects received a placebo, 6.5 mg FeSO₄, 65 mg FeSO₄, 6.5 mg NaFeEDTA, and 65 mg NaFeEDTA with a traditional Indonesian breakfast in one-week intervals. Blood tests were carried out every 60 min for five hours. NTBI detection was performed using the fluorescein-labeled apotransferrin method. Plasma iron values were highly increased after 65 mg NaFeEDTA, twice as high as after FeSO₄. A similar pattern was seen for NTBI. After 6.5 mg of NaFeEDTA and FeSO₄, NTBI was hardly detectable. NaFeEDTA was highly effective for the treatment of iron deficiency if given with a meal, inhibiting the formation of nonabsorbable Fe-complexes, while NTBI did not exceed the range of normal values for iron-replete subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph11030085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6161297PMC
September 2018

Double Culprits in a Patient with ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction: A Challenging But Rewarding Case.

Acta Med Indones 2018 Apr;50(2):165-167

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia - Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Myocardial infarction simultaneously involving two or more culprit lesions is extremely rare and usually has a poor clinical outcomes including mortality. Management of this complicated condition is challenging and limited time. Nevertheless, autopsy studies revealed that thrombotic occlusion of more than one major epicardium coronary artery is not uncommon. A 68-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of limited breath and chest discomfort since two hours prior to admission. She also felt exert dyspnoea since one month ago. She has two risk factors that were uncontrolled that is hypertension (HT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). On admission, she succumbed into cardiogenic shock and pulmonary oedema. ECG revealed a diminished R wave in V2-V4 with ST elevation in V2-V5 and in aVR. Biphasic T wave was seen in V2-V6. The working diagnosis was anterior STEMI, Killip class IV with thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score of 8. While being transferred to catheter lab, she gasped, became desaturation, and was intubated prior to procedure. The patient was given double inotropes which run maximally. By Coronary angiography, there were occlusions at the LAD and LCX. Stent was applied at proximal LAD and LCX. Subsequently, patient's condition improved and post-procedure ECG showed improvement in aVR and precordial leads, and ST elevation was significantly diminished from V5 and aVR, and R wave came back in V2-V4.Previous study found around 50% of STEMI patients had multi-vessels diseases. In this case, ECG suggested LAD region infarction with ST elevation in aVR, commonly associated with left main stenosis (LMS) involvement.Thrombus aspiration in LAD and LCX yielded hemodynamic improvement. V-stenting technique, introduced in 1996, allows delivery and implantation of 2 stents together, and therefore shorten the stent deployment time.
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April 2018

ST Elevation in Lead aVR and Its Association with Clinical Outcomes.

Acta Med Indones 2017 Oct;49(4):347-350

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia - Cipto Mangunkusumo, Jakarta, Indonesia..

The purpose of this case repots are to evaluate the role of ST elevation in aVR lead and to make analysis between both cases. There are some atypical electrocardiogram (ECG) presentations which need prompt management in patient with ischemic clinical manifestation such as ST elevation in aVR lead. In this case study, we report a 68-year old woman with chief symptoms of shortness of breath and chest discomfort. She was diagnosed with cardiogenic shock, with Killip class IV, and TIMI score of 8. The second case is a 57-year-old man with typical chest pain at rest which could not be relieved with nitrate treatment. He was diagnosed with ST elevation in inferior and aVR lead, and occlusion in left circumflex artery (LCX). Both patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Subsequently, both cases presented remarkable clinical improvements and improved ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in aVR lead.
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October 2017

Autoimmune Disease with Cardiac Valves Involvement: Libman-Sacks Endocarditis.

Acta Med Indones 2017 Apr;49(2):148-150

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Indonesia - Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia.

This case study aim to evaluate the response of steroid treatment for autoimmune endocarditis. Valvular heart disease is relatively rising in both congenital and acquired cases, but the autoimmune endocarditis remains rare. In this case, a 34 year old woman with clinical manifestation resembling systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is diagnosed with Libman-sacks Endocarditis. After six months of steroid treatment, her clinical manifestations and heart structure improved.
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April 2017

Vitamin D and autoimmune disease.

Acta Med Indones 2007 Jul-Sep;39(3):133-41

Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta.

Vitamin D as a part of the endocrine system is an important component in the interaction between the kidney, bone, parathyroid hormone, and the intestine, which maintains extracellular calcium level within normal limits, in order to keep the vital physiologic process and skeletal integrity. Vitamin D is also associated with hypertension, muscular function, immunity, and ability to encounter infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. The role of vitamin D in immunity is a feedback reaction of paracrine to eliminate inflammation or to influence CD4 T-cell differentiation and or to increase the function of T suppressor cell or combination between both. The active form of vitamin D produces and maintains self immunologic tolerance, some studies show that 1,25(OH)2D inhibits induction of disease in autoimmune encephalomyelitis, thyroiditis, type-1 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), systemic lupus erythematosus, and collagen-induced arthritis and Lyme arthritis.
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December 2007
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