Publications by authors named "Eira Leinonen"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of NCAN as a candidate gene for developmental dyslexia.

Sci Rep 2017 08 24;7(1):9294. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, and Molecular Neurology Research Program, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

A whole-genome linkage analysis in a Finnish pedigree of eight cases with developmental dyslexia (DD) revealed several regions shared by the affected individuals. Analysis of coding variants from two affected individuals identified rs146011974G > A (Ala1039Thr), a rare variant within the NCAN gene co-segregating with DD in the pedigree. This variant prompted us to consider this gene as a putative candidate for DD. The RNA expression pattern of the NCAN gene in human tissues was highly correlated (R > 0.8) with that of the previously suggested DD susceptibility genes KIAA0319, CTNND2, CNTNAP2 and GRIN2B. We investigated the association of common variation in NCAN to brain structures in two data sets: young adults (Brainchild study, Sweden) and infants (FinnBrain study, Finland). In young adults, we found associations between a common genetic variant in NCAN, rs1064395, and white matter volume in the left and right temporoparietal as well as the left inferior frontal brain regions. In infants, this same variant was found to be associated with cingulate and prefrontal grey matter volumes. Our results suggest NCAN as a new candidate gene for DD and indicate that NCAN variants affect brain structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-10175-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5570950PMC
August 2017

Genome-wide association analysis reveals variants on chromosome 19 that contribute to childhood risk of chronic otitis media with effusion.

Sci Rep 2016 09 16;6:33240. Epub 2016 Sep 16.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

To identify genetic risk factors of childhood otitis media (OM), a genome-wide association study was performed on Finnish subjects, 829 affected children, and 2118 randomly selected controls. The most significant and validated finding was an association with an 80 kb region on chromosome 19. It includes the variants rs16974263 (P = 1.77 × 10(-7), OR = 1.59), rs268662 (P = 1.564 × 10(-6), OR = 1.54), and rs4150992 (P = 3.37 × 10(-6), OR = 1.52), and harbors the genes PLD3, SERTAD1, SERTAD3, HIPK4, PRX, and BLVRB, all in strong linkage disequilibrium. In a sub-phenotype analysis of the 512 patients with chronic otitis media with effusion, one marker reached genome-wide significance (rs16974263, P = 2.92 × 10(-8)). The association to this locus was confirmed but with an association signal in the opposite direction, in a UK family cohort of 4860 subjects (rs16974263, P = 3.21 × 10(-4), OR = 0.72; rs4150992, P = 1.62 × 10(-4), OR = 0.71). Thus we hypothesize that this region is important for COME risk in both the Finnish and UK populations, although the precise risk variants or haplotype background remain unclear. Our study suggests that the identified region on chromosome 19 includes a novel and previously uncharacterized risk locus for OM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep33240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5025747PMC
September 2016

Evidence for genetic regulation of the human parieto-occipital 10-Hz rhythmic activity.

Eur J Neurosci 2016 08 4;44(3):1963-71. Epub 2016 Jul 4.

Molecular Neurology Research Program, Research Programs Unit, University of Helsinki, PO Box 63, FI-00014, Helsinki, Finland.

Several functional and morphological brain measures are partly under genetic control. The identification of direct links between neuroimaging signals and corresponding genetic factors can reveal cellular-level mechanisms behind the measured macroscopic signals and contribute to the use of imaging signals as probes of genetic function. To uncover possible genetic determinants of the most prominent brain signal oscillation, the parieto-occipital 10-Hz alpha rhythm, we measured spontaneous brain activity with magnetoencephalography in 210 healthy siblings while the subjects were resting, with eyes closed and open. The reactivity of the alpha rhythm was quantified from the difference spectra between the two conditions. We focused on three measures: peak frequency, peak amplitude and the width of the main spectral peak. In accordance with earlier electroencephalography studies, spectral peak amplitude was highly heritable (h(2)  > 0.75). Variance component-based analysis of 28 000 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers revealed linkage for both the width and the amplitude of the spectral peak. The strongest linkage was detected for the width of the spectral peak over the left parieto-occipital cortex on chromosome 10 (LOD = 2.814, nominal P < 0.03). This genomic region contains several functionally plausible genes, including GRID1 and ATAD1 that regulate glutamate receptor channels mediating synaptic transmission, NRG3 with functions in brain development and HRT7 involved in the serotonergic system and circadian rhythm. Our data suggest that the alpha oscillation is in part genetically regulated, and that it may be possible to identify its regulators by genetic analyses on a realistically modest number of samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.13300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5113795PMC
August 2016

Predisposition to Childhood Otitis Media and Genetic Polymorphisms within the Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Locus.

PLoS One 2015 15;10(7):e0132551. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Predisposition to childhood otitis media (OM) has a strong genetic component, with polymorphisms in innate immunity genes suspected to contribute to risk. Studies on several genes have been conducted, but most associations have failed to replicate in independent cohorts.

Methods: We investigated 53 gene polymorphisms in a Finnish cohort of 624 cases and 778 controls. A positive association signal was followed up in a tagging approach and tested in an independent Finnish cohort of 205 cases, in a British cohort of 1269 trios, as well as in two cohorts from the United States (US); one with 403 families and the other with 100 cases and 104 controls.

Results: In the initial Finnish cohort, the SNP rs5030717 in the TLR4 gene region showed significant association (OR 1.33, P = .003) to OM. Tagging SNP analysis of the gene found rs1329060 (OR 1.33, P = .002) and rs1329057 (OR 1.29, P = .003) also to be associated. In the more severe phenotype the association was stronger. This finding was supported by an independent Finnish case cohort, but the associations failed to replicate in the British and US cohorts. In studies on TLR4 signaling in 20 study subjects, the three-marker risk haplotype correlated with a decreased TNFα secretion in myeloid dendritic cells.

Conclusions: The TLR4 gene locus, regulating the innate immune response, influences the genetic predisposition to childhood OM in a subpopulation of patients. Environmental factors likely modulate the genetic components contributing to the risk of OM.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0132551PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4503307PMC
May 2016

FGF23 gene variation and its association with phosphate homeostasis and bone mineral density in Finnish children and adolescents.

Bone 2015 Feb 24;71:124-30. Epub 2014 Oct 24.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Biomedicum Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Genetics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), a bone-derived hormone, participates in the hormonal bone-parathyroid-kidney axis, which is modulated by PTH, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, plasma phosphate (Pi), and diet. Inappropriately high serum FGF23, seen in certain genetic and acquired disorders, results in urinary phosphate wasting and impaired bone mineralization. This study investigated the impact of FGF23 gene variation on phosphate homeostasis and bone health. The study included 183 children and adolescents (110 girls) aged 7-19 years (median 13.2years). Urine and blood parameters of calcium and phosphate homeostasis were analyzed. Bone characteristics were quantified by DXA and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Genetic FGF23 variation was assessed by direct sequencing of coding exons and flanking intronic regions. Nine FGF23 polymorphisms were detected; three of them were common: rs3832879 (c.212-37insC), rs7955866 (c.716C>T, p.T239M) and rs11063112 (c.2185A>T). Four different haplotypes and six different diplotypes were observed among these three polymorphisms. The variations in FGF23 significantly associated with plasma PTH and urinary Pi excretion, even after adjusting for relevant covariates. FGF23 variations independently associated with total hip BMD Z-score, but not with other bone outcomes. In instrument analysis, genetic variance in FGF23 was considered a weak instrument as it only induced small variations in circulating FGF23, PTH and Pi concentrations (F statistic less than 10). The observed associations between FGF23 variations and circulating PTH, and Pi excretion and total hip BMD Z-scores suggest that FGF23 polymorphisms may play a role in mineral homeostasis and bone metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2014.10.013DOI Listing
February 2015

Genome-wide linkage analysis of human auditory cortical activation suggests distinct loci on chromosomes 2, 3, and 8.

J Neurosci 2012 Oct;32(42):14511-8

Brain Research Unit and MEG Core, O.V. Lounasmaa Laboratory, Aalto University, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland.

Neural processes are explored through macroscopic neuroimaging and microscopic molecular measures, but the two levels remain primarily detached. The identification of direct links between the levels would facilitate use of imaging signals as probes of genetic function and, vice versa, access to molecular correlates of imaging measures. Neuroimaging patterns have been mapped for a few isolated genes, chosen based on their connection with a clinical disorder. Here we propose an approach that allows an unrestricted discovery of the genetic basis of a neuroimaging phenotype in the normal human brain. The essential components are a subject population that is composed of relatives and selection of a neuroimaging phenotype that is reproducible within an individual and similar between relatives but markedly variable across a population. Our present combined magnetoencephalography and genome-wide linkage study in 212 healthy siblings demonstrates that auditory cortical activation strength is highly heritable and, specifically in the right hemisphere, regulated oligogenically with linkages to chromosomes 2q37, 3p12, and 8q24. The identified regions delimit as candidate genes TRAPPC9, operating in neuronal differentiation, and ROBO1, regulating projections of thalamocortical axons. Identification of normal genetic variation underlying neurophysiological phenotypes offers a non-invasive platform for an in-depth, concerted capitalization of molecular and neuroimaging levels in exploring neural function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1483-12.2012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6621440PMC
October 2012

Genetic background and the risk of otitis media.

Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2012 Jan 21;76(1):41-4. Epub 2011 Oct 21.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, PO Box 220, 00029 HUS, Finland.

Objective: Otitis media is a multifactorial disease where genetic background may have an important role. For genome-wide association studies, it is important to understand the degree of heritability. The objective of this study was to estimate the heritability of recurrent acute otitis media and chronic otitis media with effusion.

Methods: Children operated because of recurrent or chronic otitis media at the Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland, as well as their families were recruited during 2008-2009. A cohort of 2436 subjects was enrolled consisting of 1279 children and their parents. The study subjects answered a questionnaire concerning their otitis media history and treatment, as well as tobacco exposure, allergy and asthma history. Heritability estimates were calculated for recurrent acute, chronic and any episodes of otitis media using software especially designed for estimating heritability in family cohorts.

Results: Altogether 901 subjects suffered from recurrent otitis media and 559 from chronic otitis media with effusion. The heritability estimates in our cohort were 38.5% for recurrent (P=7.3 × 10(-9)), 22.1% for chronic (P=4.6 × 10(-3)) and 47.8% for any otitis media (P=1.5 × 10(-11)).

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a moderately strong and statistically significant genetic component for both recurrent acute otitis media and chronic otitis media with effusion. These results highlight the importance of unraveling the genetic factors for otitis media that are still poorly known.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijporl.2011.09.026DOI Listing
January 2012

Intracranial aneurysms in Finnish families: confirmation of linkage and refinement of the interval to chromosome 19q13.3.

Am J Hum Genet 2004 Mar 6;74(3):564-71. Epub 2004 Feb 6.

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

We recently reported a two-stage genomewide screen of 48 sib pairs affected with intracranial aneurysms (IAs) that revealed suggestive linkage to chromosome 19q13, with a LOD score of 2.58. The region supporting linkage spanned approximately 22 cM. Here, we report a follow-up study of the locus at 19q13, with a sample size expanded to 139 affected sib pairs, along with 83 other affected relative pairs (222 affected relative pairs in total). Suggestive linkage was observed in both independent sample sets, and linkage was significant in the combined set at 70 cM (LOD score 3.50; P=.00006) and at 80 cM (LOD score 3.93; P=.00002). Linkage was highly significant at 70 cM (LOD score 5.70; P=.000001) and at 80 cM (LOD score 3.99; P=.00005) when a covariate measuring the number of affected individuals in the nuclear family was included. To evaluate further the contribution to the linkage signal from families with more than two affected relatives, we performed model-based linkage analysis with a recessive model and a range of penetrances, and we obtained maximum linkage at 70 cM (LOD score 3.16; P=.00007) with a penetrance of 0.3. We then estimated location by using GENEFINDER. The most likely location for a gene predisposing to IAs in the Finnish population is in a region with a 95% confidence interval of 11.6 cM (P=.00007) centered 2.0 cM proximal to D19S246.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/382285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1182270PMC
March 2004

Familial intracranial aneurysms: an analysis of 346 multiplex Finnish families.

Stroke 2003 Jun 15;34(6):1370-4. Epub 2003 May 15.

Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, 540 E Canfield Ave, Detroit, Mich 48201, USA.

Background And Purpose: Genetic risk factors are considered important in the development, growth, and rupture of intracranial aneurysms; however, few have been identified. We analyzed intracranial aneurysm families with at least 2 affected persons and determined relationships between affected persons and assessed the inheritance patterns of aneurysms.

Methods: Families with > or =2 members with verified diagnoses of intracranial aneurysms were recruited from Kuopio and Helsinki, Finland. Families with a diagnosis of other heritable disorders that have associated intracranial aneurysms, such as autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, were excluded.

Results: We identified 346 Finnish multiplex families with 160 (46.2%) male and 186 (53.8%) female index cases. There were a total of 937 aneurysm cases, with an average of 2.7 cases per family. The majority of the families had only 2 affected relatives (n=206; 59.5%), although there were families with up to 6 (n=10), 7 (n=1), 8 (n=1), or 10 (n=2) affected persons. The affected relatives of the index cases included 108 sisters, 116 brothers, 105 parents, 30 children, 15 grandparents, 102 aunts or uncles, and 64 cousins. Of the 937 affected persons, 569 (60.7%) were alive and available for genetic analysis. Inheritance patterns consistent with autosomal recessiveness were observed in 198 (57.2%), autosomal dominance in 126 (36.4%), and autosomal dominance with incomplete penetrance in 19 (5.5%) of the families.

Conclusions: The collection is the most extensive published to date and extends previous observations of familial aggregation that are consistent with a major gene effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000072822.35605.8BDOI Listing
June 2003