Publications by authors named "Eileen Sutton"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Embedding supervised exercise training for men on androgen deprivation therapy into standard prostate cancer care: a feasibility and acceptability study (the STAMINA trial).

Sci Rep 2021 06 14;11(1):12470. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Allied Health Professionals, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

Lifestyle interventions involving exercise training offset the adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. Yet provision of integrated exercise pathways in cancer care is sparse. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of an embedded supervised exercise training intervention into standard prostate cancer care in a single-arm, multicentre prospective cohort study. Feasibility included recruitment, retention, adherence, fidelity and safety. Acceptability of behaviourally informed healthcare and exercise professional training was assessed qualitatively. Despite the imposition of lockdown for the COVID-19 pandemic, referral rates into and adherence to, the intervention was high. Of the 45 men eligible for participation, 79% (n = 36) received the intervention and 47% (n = 21) completed the intervention before a government mandated national lockdown was enforced in the United Kingdom. Patients completed a mean of 27 min of aerobic exercise per session (SD = 3.48), at 77% heart rate maximum (92% of target dose), and 3 sets of 10 reps of 3 resistance exercises twice weekly for 12 weeks, without serious adverse event. The intervention was delivered by 26 healthcare professionals and 16 exercise trainers with moderate to high fidelity, and the intervention was deemed highly acceptable to patients. The impact of societal changes due to the pandemic on the delivery of this face-to-face intervention remain uncertain but positive impacts of embedding exercise provision into prostate cancer care warrant long-term investigation.
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June 2021

The development of a theory and evidence-based intervention to aid implementation of exercise into the prostate cancer care pathway with a focus on healthcare professional behaviour, the STAMINA trial.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Mar 25;21(1):273. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute for Population Health Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK.

Background: Twice-weekly supervised aerobic and resistance exercise for 12 weeks reduces fatigue and improves quality of life in men on Androgen Deprivation Therapy for prostate cancer. Despite the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) proposing this as standard of care, it does not routinely take place in practice. Healthcare professionals are in a prime position to deliver and integrate these recommendations. A change in the behaviour of clinical teams is therefore required. In this paper, we describe the development of a training package for healthcare professionals using theory and evidence to promote delivery of such recommendations as standard care.

Methods: The intervention development process was guided by the Medical Research Council guidance for complex interventions and the Behaviour Change Wheel. Target behaviours were identified from the literature and thirty-five prostate cancer care healthcare professionals (including oncologists, consultant urologists, clinical nurse specialists, physiotherapists, general practitioners and commissioners) were interviewed to understand influences on these behaviours. The Theoretical Domains Framework was used to identify theoretical constructs for change. Behaviour change techniques were selected based on theory and evidence and were translated into intervention content. The intervention was refined with the input of stakeholders including healthcare professionals, patients, and exercise professionals in the form of rehearsal deliveries, focus groups and a workshop.

Results: Seven modifiable healthcare professional target behaviours were identified to support the delivery of the NICE recommendations including identifying eligible patients suitable for exercise, recommending exercise, providing information, exercise referral, providing support and interpret and feedback on progress. Ten domains from the Theoretical Domain's Framework were identified as necessary for change, including improving knowledge and skills, addressing beliefs about consequences, and targeting social influences. These were targeted through twenty-two behaviour change techniques delivered in a half-day, interactive training package. Based on initial feedback from stakeholders, the intervention was refined in preparation for evaluation.

Conclusions: We designed an intervention based on theory, evidence, and stakeholder feedback to promote and support the delivery of NICE recommendations. Future work will aim to test this training package in a multi-centre randomised trial. If proven effective, the development and training package will provide a template for replication in other clinical populations, where exercise has proven efficacy but is insufficiently implemented.
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March 2021

Towards implementing exercise into the prostate cancer care pathway: development of a theory and evidence-based intervention to train community-based exercise professionals to support change in patient exercise behaviour (The STAMINA trial).

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Mar 22;21(1):264. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute for Population Health Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Background: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommend that men on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer should receive supervised exercise to manage the side-effects of treatment. However, these recommendations are rarely implemented into practice. Community-based exercise professionals (CBEPs) represent an important target group to deliver the recommendations nationally, yet their standard training does not address the core competencies required to work with clinical populations, highlighting a need for further professional training. This paper describes the development of a training package to support CBEPs to deliver NICE recommendations.

Methods: Development of the intervention was guided by the Medical Research Council guidance for complex interventions and the Behaviour Change Wheel. In step one, target behaviours, together with their barriers and facilitators were identified from a literature review and focus groups with CBEPs (n = 22) and men on androgen deprivation therapy (n = 26). Focus group outputs were mapped onto the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify theoretical constructs for change. In step two, behaviour change techniques and their mode of delivery were selected based on psychological theories and evidence to inform intervention content. In step three, the intervention was refined following delivery and subsequent feedback from intervention recipients and stakeholders.

Results: Six modifiable CBEPs target behaviours were identified to support the delivery of the NICE recommendations. Nine domains of the TDF were identified as key determinants of change, including: improving knowledge and skills and changing beliefs about consequences. To target the domains, we included 20 BCTs across 8 training modules and took a blended learning approach to accommodate different learning styles and preferences. Following test delivery to 11 CBEPs and feedback from 28 stakeholders, the training package was refined.

Conclusion: Established intervention development approaches provided a structured and transparent guide to intervention development. A training package for CBEPs was developed and should increase trust amongst patients and health care professionals when implementing exercise into prostate cancer care. Furthermore, if proven effective, the development and approach taken may provide a blueprint for replication in other clinical populations where exercise has proven efficacy but is insufficiently implemented.
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March 2021

Engaging with diverse audiences to raise awareness about childhood eczema: reflections from two community events.

Res Involv Engagem 2021 Jan 19;7(1). Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Centre for Academic Primary Care, Population Health Sciences, Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: Eczema is a common childhood condition, causing dry and itchy skin which can be difficult to manage. We have been undertaking eczema and food allergy research to address previously prioritised research questions. We obtained funding to trial novel approaches to reach diverse audiences to raise awareness of childhood eczema, research, and public involvement in research.

Methods: This paper reflects on two public engagement events held in collaboration with stakeholders in two settings of ethnic diversity in East Bristol, UK. We invited parents and children to attend the events by public display of posters. We created novel activities related to the research and involved artists to engage parents/carers and children about eczema and the research we are doing into its management.

Results: Attendance at the first event was lower than expected. Lessons learned were incorporated into the second event, to use a more structured approach and attract greater numbers of parents/carers from more diverse backgrounds. Creative approaches such as using artists at both events made the subject more accessible for diverse audiences, including children.

Conclusion: We successfully delivered two public engagement events. The success of the events has generated individual interest in PPI and enquiries about future events from neighbouring community groups. Reflections from the events have also been fed back to inform the research.
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January 2021

Discharging Women with Advanced Ovarian Cancer on Home Parenteral Nutrition: Making and Implementing the Decision.

Nutrients 2020 Jan 7;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Faculty of Medicine, Biology and Health, and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.

Increasingly, patients with advanced ovarian cancer in bowel obstruction are receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Little is known about making and implementing the decision. This study explored the decision-making process for HPN and investigated the barriers and facilitators to implementation. This was a qualitative study underpinned by phenomenology involving 93 longitudinal in-depth interviews with 20 patients, their relatives and healthcare professionals, over 15 months. Participants were interviewed a maximum of four times. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically as per the techniques of Van Manen. We found variance between oncologists and patients regarding ownership of the HPN decision. The oncologists believed they were engaging in a shared decision-making process. However, patients felt that the decision was oncologist-driven. Nevertheless, they were content to have the treatment, when viewing the choice as either HPN or death. In implementing the decision, the principal mutable barrier to a timely discharge was communication difficulties across professional disciplines and organisations. Facilitators included developing a single point-of-contact between organisations, improving communication and implementing standardised processes. Oncologists and patients differ in their perceptions of how treatment decisions are made. Although patients are satisfied with the process, it might be beneficial for healthcare professionals to check patients' understanding of treatment.
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January 2020

Palliative home parenteral nutrition in patients with ovarian cancer and malignant bowel obstruction: experiences of women and family caregivers.

BMC Palliat Care 2019 Dec 29;18(1):120. Epub 2019 Dec 29.

Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Background: Malnutrition is a problem in advanced cancer, particularly ovarian cancer where malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is a frequent complication. Parenteral nutrition is the only way these patients can received adequate nutrition and is a principal indication for palliative home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Giving HPN is contentious as it may increase the burden on patients. This study investigates patients' and family caregivers' experiences of HPN, alongside nutritional status and survival in patients with ovarian cancer and MBO.

Methods: This mixed methods study collected data on participant characteristics, clinical details and body composition using computed tomography (CT) combined with longitudinal in-depth interviews underpinned by phenomenological principles. The cohort comprised 38 women with ovarian cancer and inoperable MBO admitted (10/2016 to 12/ 2017) to a tertiary referral hospital. Longitudinal interviews (n = 57) were carried out with 20 women considered for HPN and 13 of their family caregivers.

Results: Of the 38 women, 32 received parenteral nutrition (PN) in hospital and 17 were discharged on HPN. Nutritional status was poor with 31 of 33 women who had a CT scan having low muscle mass, although 10 were obese. Median overall survival from admission with MBO for all 38 women was 70 days (range 8-506) and for those 17 on HPN was 156 days (range 46-506). Women experienced HPN as one facet of their illness, but viewed it as a "lifeline" that allowed them to live outside hospital. Nevertheless, HPN treatment came with losses including erosion of normality through an impact on activities of daily living and dealing with the bureaucracy surrounding the process. Family caregivers coped but were often left in an emotionally vulnerable state.

Conclusions: Women and family caregivers reported that the inconvenience and disruption caused by HPN was worth the extended time they had at home.
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December 2019

Best emollients for eczema (BEE) - comparing four types of emollients in children with eczema: protocol for randomised trial and nested qualitative study.

BMJ Open 2019 11 6;9(11):e033387. Epub 2019 Nov 6.

Centre of Evidence-Based Dermatology, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK.

Introduction: Atopic dermatitis/eczema affects around 20% of children and is characterised by inflamed, dry, itchy skin. Guidelines recommend 'leave-on' emollients that are applied directly to the skin to add or trap moisture and used regularly, they can soothe, enhance the skin barrier and may prevent disease 'flares'. However, the suitability of the many different emollients varies between people and there is little evidence to help prescribers and parents and carers decide which type to try first.

Methods And Analysis: Design: pragmatic, multicentre, individually randomised, parallel group superiority trial of four types of emollient (lotions, creams, gel or ointments).

Setting: general practitioner surgeries in England.

Participants: children aged over 6 months and less than 12 years with mild-to-severe eczema and no known sensitivity to study emollients.

Interventions: study-approved lotion, cream, gel or ointment as the only leave-on emollient for 16 weeks, with directions to apply twice daily and as required. Other treatments, such as topical corticosteroids, used as standard care.

Follow-up: 52 weeks.

Primary Outcome: validated patient-orientated eczema measure measured weekly for 16 weeks.

Secondary Outcomes: eczema signs (Eczema Area Severity Index) by masked researcher, treatment use, parent satisfaction, adverse events, child and family quality of life (Atopic Dermatitis Quality of Life, Child Health Utility 9D and Dermatitis Family Impact).

Sample Size: 520 participants (130 per group).

Analysis: intention-to-treat using linear mixed models for repeated measures.Nested qualitative study: audio-recording of sample of baseline appointments and up to 60 interviews with participants at 4 and 16 weeks, interviews to be transcribed and analysed thematically.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethics approval granted by the NHS REC (South West - Central Bristol Research Ethics Committee 17/SW/0089). Findings will be presented at conferences, published in open-access peer-reviewed journals and the study website; and summaries shared with key stakeholders.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN84540529.
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November 2019

Home parenteral nutrition for people with inoperable malignant bowel obstruction.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 08 10;8:CD012812. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

School of Health Sciences, The University of Manchester, and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Oxford Road, Manchester, UK, M13 9PL.

Background: People with advanced ovarian or gastrointestinal cancer may develop malignant bowel obstruction (MBO). They are able to tolerate limited, if any, oral or enteral (via a tube directly into the gut) nutrition. Parenteral nutrition (PN) is the provision of macronutrients, micronutrients, electrolytes and fluid infused as an intravenous solution and provides a method for these people to receive nutrients. There are clinical and ethical arguments for and against the administration of PN to people receiving palliative care.

Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) in improving survival and quality of life in people with inoperable MBO.

Search Methods: We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), BNI, CINAHL, Web of Science and NHS Economic Evaluation and Health Technology Assessment up to January 2018, ( and in the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) search portal ( In addition, we handsearched included studies and used the 'Similar articles' feature on PubMed for included articles.

Selection Criteria: We included any studies with more than five participants investigating HPN in people over 16 years of age with inoperable MBO.

Data Collection And Analysis: We extracted the data and assessed risk of bias for each study. We entered data into Review Manager 5 and used GRADEpro to assess the quality of the evidence.

Main Results: We included 13 studies with a total of 721 participants in the review. The studies were observational, 12 studies had only one relevant treatment arm and no control and for the one study with a control arm, very few details were given. The risk of bias was high and the certainty of evidence was graded as very low for all outcomes. Due to heterogeneity of data, meta-analysis was not performed and therefore the data were synthesised via a narrative summary.The evidence for benefit derived from PN was very low for survival and quality of life. All the studies measured overall survival and 636 (88%) of participants were deceased at the end of the study. However there were varying definitions of overall survival that yielded median survival intervals between 15 to 155 days (range three to 1278 days). Three studies used validated measures of quality of life. The results from assessment of quality of life were equivocal; one study reported improvements up until three months and two studies reported approximately similar numbers of participants with improvements and deterioration. Different quality of life scales were used in each of the studies and quality of life was measured at different time points. Due to the very low certainty of the evidence, we are very uncertain about the adverse events related to PN use. Adverse events were measured by nine studies and data for individual participants could be extracted from eight studies. This revealed that 32 of 260 (12%) patients developed a central venous catheter infection or were hospitalised because of complications related to PN.

Authors' Conclusions: We are very uncertain whether HPN improves survival or quality of life in people with MBO as the certainty of evidence was very low for both outcomes. As the evidence base is limited and at high risk of bias, further higher-quality prospective studies are required.
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August 2018

A multi-centre investigation of delivering national guidelines on exercise training for men with advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy in the UK NHS.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(7):e0197606. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield United Kingdom.

Background: National guidelines (NICE-CG175) recommended 12 weeks of supervised exercise training for men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer to counter debilitating adverse effects of castration. As with other chronic conditions where exercise is indicated, it is uncertain if these services are being delivered in the health services. The aim of this multi-centre investigation was to examine what exercise referral is currently available for men on ADT as provided by the NHS and if a supervised, individually-tailored exercise training package (as per the national NICE guidelines CG175) is embedded within prostate cancer care.

Methods: A multi-centre investigation of current National Health Service (NHS) care involving a web-based survey of NHS prostate cancer care, five focus groups involving 26 men on ADT and 37 semi-structured interviews with healthcare professionals (HCPs) involved in the management of prostate cancer. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis evaluated quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Qualitative methods followed COREQ standards.

Results: HCPs and men on ADT asserted that medical castration has a serious and debilitating impact on many features of men's quality of life. There is support for exercise training programmes as part of cancer care and patients would support their initiation soon after diagnosis. Involving the Multidisciplinary Team (MDT) is proposed as key to this. Critically, traditional values in oncology would need to be overcome for widespread acceptance. Specialist further training for HCPs around behaviour change support could encourage this. Given that these schemes are seen as a fundamental part of cancer care, it is felt the NHS should commission and support provision. 79 representatives of 154 NHS trusts (51%) provided survey data on current delivery: only 17% could provide supervised exercise as per CG175.

Conclusions: Evidence-based national exercise guidelines are not being delivered to men on ADT as intended. Traditional values in oncology and the need for NHS financial support are seen as major barriers to provision of current best practice guidelines. Despite this both HCPs and men on ADT are in favour of such programmes being a fundamental part of their cancer care.
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December 2018

Using the Normalization Process Theory to qualitatively explore sense-making in implementation of the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme: "It's not rocket science".

PLoS One 2018 18;13(4):e0195890. Epub 2018 Apr 18.

NIHR Bristol Biomedical Research Centre (Nutrition Theme) at the University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.

Introduction: The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery programme (ERAS) is an approach to the perioperative care of patients encompassing multiple interventions and involving a wide range of different actors. It can thus be defined as a complex intervention. Despite the strength of the evidence-base in its support, the implementation of ERAS has been slow. This paper specifically explores the utility of Normalization Process Theory (NPT) as a methodological framework to aid exploration of ERAS implementation, with a focus on the core NPT construct coherence.

Methods And Materials: The study employed qualitative methods guided by NPT. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty-six healthcare professionals working in three specialities (thoracic, colorectal, head and neck) in a UK hospital. Data were analysed using an adapted Framework Approach.

Results: Coherence, or sense-making work, was key to successful implementation and demonstrated in the importance of participants believing in ERAS both as an individual and as a team. In order to invest in ERAS individuals needed to be able to differentiate its practices favourably with those enacted pre-implementation (differentiation). Participants also needed to understand their specific tasks and responsibilities (individual specification) and build a shared understanding (communal specification), resolving differences in planning meetings. Belief in the worth of ERAS was often aligned to evidence for its effectiveness or benefit to patients (internalization), so implementing ERAS therefore 'made sense'. Sense-making work had strong links with aspects of implementation related to other NPT constructs including resource issues such as funding for data collection and feedback (reflexive monitoring: systemization) and failure to replace key staff members (collective action: skill set workability).

Conclusions: NPT was found to be a valuable heuristic device to employ in the exploration of ERAS implementation processes. NPT was useful in facilitating recognition of the importance of coherence work to successful implementation. However despite participants' strong beliefs in the worth of ERAS, it was in translating these beliefs into action that barriers were encountered, highlighting the interconnectedness of NPT constructs and the complicated nature of implementing complex interventions.
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July 2018

Barriers and facilitators to healthy lifestyle and acceptability of a dietary and physical activity intervention among African Caribbean prostate cancer survivors in the UK: a qualitative study.

BMJ Open 2017 Oct 15;7(10):e017217. Epub 2017 Oct 15.

School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Objectives: Diet and lifestyle may have a role in delaying prostate cancer progression, but little is known about the health behaviours of Black British prostate cancer survivors despite this group having a higher prostate cancer mortality rate than their White counterparts. We explored the barriers and facilitators to dietary and lifestyle changes and the acceptability of a diet and physical activity intervention in African Caribbean prostate cancer survivors.

Design: We conducted semistructured in-depth interviews and used thematic analysis to code and group the data.

Participants And Setting: We recruited 14 African Caribbean prostate cancer survivors via letter or at oncology follow-up appointments using purposive and convenience sampling.

Results: A prostate cancer diagnosis did not trigger dietary and lifestyle changes in most men. This lack of change was underpinned by five themes: precancer diet and lifestyle, evidence, coping with prostate cancer, ageing, and autonomy. Men perceived their diet and lifestyle to be healthy and were uncertain about the therapeutic benefits of these factors on prostate cancer recurrence. They considered a lifestyle intervention as unnecessary because their prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was kept under control by the treatments they had received. They believed dietary and lifestyle changes should be self-initiated and motivated, but were willing to make additional changes if they were perceived to be beneficial to health. Nonetheless, some men cited advice from health professionals and social support in coping with prostate cancer as facilitators to positive dietary and lifestyle changes. A prostate cancer diagnosis and ageing also heightened men's awareness of their health, particularly in regards to their body weight.

Conclusions: A dietary and physical activity intervention framed as helping men to regain fitness and aid post-treatment recovery aimed at men with elevated PSA may be appealing and acceptable to African Caribbean prostate cancer survivors.
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October 2017

Acceptability of dietary and physical activity lifestyle modification for men following radiotherapy or radical prostatectomy for localised prostate cancer: a qualitative investigation.

BMC Urol 2017 Oct 10;17(1):94. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

University of Bristol, NIHR Biomedical Research Centre - Nutrition, Diet and Lifestyle Theme, Level 3, University Hospitals Bristol Education Centre, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS2 8AE, England, UK.

Background: The experience and acceptability of lifestyle interventions for men with localised prostate cancer are not well understood, yet lifestyle interventions are increasingly promoted for cancer survivors. We explored the opinions, experiences and perceived acceptability of taking part in nutritional and physical activity interventions amongst men with prostate cancer and their partners; with the ultimate plan to use such information to inform the development of nutritional and physical activity interventions for men with prostate cancer.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 16 men, and seven partners, undergoing curative surgery or radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Interviews explored experiences of lifestyle interventions, acceptable changes participants would make and perceived barriers and facilitators to change. Interviews were thematically analysed using the framework approach.

Results: Men were frequently open to lifestyle modification and family support was considered vital to facilitate change. Health beneficial, clinician endorsed, understandable, enjoyable interventions were perceived as attractive. Barriers included 'modern' digital technology, poor weather, competing commitments or physical limitations, most notably incontinence following radical prostatectomy. Men were keen to participate in research, with few negative aspects identified.

Conclusions: Men are willing to change behaviour but this needs to be supported by clinicians and health professionals facilitating lifestyle change. An 'intention-behaviour gap', when an intended behaviour does not materialise, may exist. Digital technology for data collection and lifestyle measurement may not be suitable for all, and post-surgery urinary incontinence is a barrier to physical activity. These novel findings should be incorporated into lifestyle intervention development, and implemented clinically.
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October 2017

Healthcare professionals' views of the enhanced recovery after surgery programme: a qualitative investigation.

BMC Health Serv Res 2017 Aug 31;17(1):617. Epub 2017 Aug 31.

The NIHR Biomedical Research Unit at the University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Bristol in Nutrition, Diet and Lifestyle, Bristol, UK.

Background: The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) programme is an approach to the perioperative care of patients which aims to improve outcomes and speed up recovery after surgery. Although the evidence base appears strong for this programme, the implementation of ERAS has been slow. This study aimed to gain an understanding of the facilitating factors and challenges of implementing the programme with a view to providing additional contextual information to aid implementation. The study had a particular focus on the nutritional elements as these have been highlighted as important.

Methods: The study employed qualitative research methods, guided by the Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) to explore the experiences and opinions of 26 healthcare professionals from a range of disciplines implementing the programme.

Results: This study identified facilitating factors to the implementation of ERAS: alignment with evidence based practice, standardising practice, drawing on the evidence base of other specialties, leadership, teamwork, ERAS meetings, patient involvement and education, a pre-operative assessment unit, staff education, resources attached to obtaining The Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) money, the ward layout, data collection and feedback, and adapting the care pathway. A number of implementation challenges were also identified: resistance to change, standardisation affecting personalised patient care, the buy-in of relevant stakeholders, keeping ERAS visible, information provision to patients, resources, palatability of nutritional drinks, aligning different ward cultures, patients going to non-ERAS departments, spreading the programme within the hospital, differences in health issue, and utilising a segmental approach.  CONCLUSIONS: The findings presented here provide useful contextual information from diverse surgical specialties to inform healthcare providers when implementing ERAS in practice. Addressing the challenges and utilising the facilitating factors identified in this study, could speed up the rate at which ERAS is adopted, implemented and embedded.
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August 2017

The provision of dietary and physical activity advice for men diagnosed with prostate cancer: a qualitative study of the experiences and views of health care professionals, patients and partners.

Cancer Causes Control 2017 04 20;28(4):319-329. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

The NIHR Biomedical Research Unit in Nutrition, Diet and Lifestyle at the University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Bristol, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS2 8AE, UK.

Purpose: To explore the views and experiences of health care professionals (HCPs), men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer and their partners about the provision of advice on diet and physical activity after diagnosis and treatment for localised prostate cancer.

Methods: Semi-structured in-depth interviews with ten HCPs (Consultant Urological Surgeons, Uro-Oncology Clinical Nurse Specialists and Allied Health Professionals: see Table 1) and sixteen men diagnosed with localised prostate cancer and seven of their partners. Data from interviews were thematically analysed using the Framework Approach.

Results: The men and their partners provided differing accounts to the HCPs and sometimes to each other concerning the provision of advice on diet and physical activity. Some men were unable to recall receiving such advice from HCPs. Factors impacting upon advice-giving included the perceived lack of an evidence base to support dietary and physical activity advice and the credibility of advice providers. The timing of advice provision was a contentious issue as some HCPs believed that patients might not be willing to receive dietary and physical activity advice at the time of diagnosis, whilst others viewed this an opportune time to provide behaviour change information. Patients concurred with the latter opinion.

Conclusions: Men and their partners would value nutritional and physical activity advice from their HCP, after a localised prostate cancer diagnosis. Men would prefer to receive this advice at an early stage in their cancer journey and may implement behaviour change if the received advice is clear and evidence-based. HCPs should receive suitable training regarding what information to provide to men and how best to deliver this information.
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April 2017

Attitudes to Exercise and Diabetes in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Qualitative Analysis.

PLoS One 2015 14;10(10):e0137562. Epub 2015 Oct 14.

NIHR Biomedical Research Unit in Nutrition, Diet & Lifestyle, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Education Centre, Upper Maudlin Street, Bristol, BS2 8AE, United Kingdom; Department of Paediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes, Bristol Royal Hospital for Children, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Upper Maudlin St, Bristol BS2 8BJ, United Kingdom; School of Clinical Sciences, University of Bristol, 69 St Michael's Hill, Bristol, BS2 8DZ, United Kingdom.

Aims: To investigate young people's attitudes to, and understanding of, physical activity on glycaemic control in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.

Methods: Four focus groups with 11-14 and 15-16 year olds were conducted with twelve young people with Type 1 Diabetes, from within a larger study investigating physical activity and fitness. Qualitative analysis of the focus group data was performed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis.

Results: Four superordinate themes were identified: Benefits of Exercise, Knowledge and Understanding, Information and Training and "You can do anything". Young people felt that exercising helped them to manage their diabetes and had a beneficial psychological and physical impact on their bodies. They reported a lack of knowledge and understanding about diabetes among school staff and other young people. The overwhelming sense from young people was that although diabetes impacts upon their lives, with preparation, physical activity can take place as normal.

Conclusions: Whilst young people had an awareness of the physical and psychological benefits of exercise in managing their diabetes, they experienced difficulties at school. Professional support and discussions with young people, giving tailored strategies for managing Type 1 Diabetes during exercise are needed. Healthcare teams should ensure that the support and educational needs of school staff are met. Providing more opportunities to empower young people to take on the responsibility for their Type 1 Diabetes care is merited. Young people felt diabetes did not stop them from participating in activities; it is simply a part of them that needs managing throughout life.
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June 2016

Are We All Agreed? Consensual Methods and the 'Necessities of Life' in the UK Today.

J Soc Policy 2015 Jul;44(3):591-610

School of Social Policy , University of Birmingham email:

In recent decades, consensual approaches to poverty measurement have been widely adopted in large-scale survey research both in the UK and internationally. However, while ascertaining the extent of public agreement on the 'necessities of life' has been central to this approach, long-standing critiques have questioned the nature of public consensus on poverty derived using survey methods. By drawing on new primary research preparatory to the , we consider the contribution of qualitative methods in understanding public views on necessities and discuss their implications for survey-based poverty measurement. Our findings raise some important conceptual and measurement issues for consensual poverty measures within large-scale social surveys. Firstly, our research suggests that public understandings of the term 'necessity' are diverse and may not always be consistent with researchers' interpretations or with wider usage of this term within consensual poverty measurement. Secondly, a better understanding of the considerations which inform survey respondents' deliberations is needed. Thirdly, our findings have important implications for how we should interpret the concept of 'consensus' within the context of consensual poverty surveys, and emphasise the need for the application of more deliberative methods in determining public views on the 'necessities of life'.
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July 2015

Development of a supportive care measure for economic evaluation of end-of-life care using qualitative methods.

Palliat Med 2014 Feb 22;28(2):151-7. Epub 2013 May 22.

1School of Oral and Dental Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: An imperative to assess the economic impact of care at the end of life is emerging in response to national policy developments in a number of settings. Current focus on health benefits in economic evaluation may not appropriately capture benefits of interventions at the end of life. No instruments are available for measuring such benefits for economic evaluation of end-of-life care.

Aim: To develop a descriptive system for a measure for use in economic evaluation of end-of-life care.

Design: An initial phase of in-depth interviews was conducted to develop conceptual attributes for inclusion in a measure; a second phase of semi-structured repeat interviews with a subsample of informants was carried out to clarify and confirm the final set of attributes and to develop meaningful wording for a measure.

Setting/participants: In total, 23 older people from three groups across the dying trajectory: older people (1) within the general population, (2) living in residential care and (3) receiving palliative care.

Results: Interviews suggested that the important domains to include within this framework from the perspective of those approaching the end-of-life are choice/having a say in decision-making, love and affection/being with people who care, freedom from physical suffering, freedom from emotional suffering, dignity and self-respect, support, and preparation. A full descriptive system comprising seven questions, each representing one attribute, was developed.

Conclusion: Economic evaluation should reflect the broader benefits of end-of-life care. Although the supportive care measure developed here requires validation and valuation, it provides a substantial step forward in appropriate economic evaluation of end-of-life care.
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February 2014

Coordinate My Care: a clinical service that coordinates care, giving patients choice and improving quality of life.

BMJ Support Palliat Care 2012 Dec;2(4):301-7

The Royal Marsden & Royal Brompton Palliative Care Service, The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Introduction: If palliative care is to lead the way towards a new model for integrated care, the ability to share information across the whole of health and social care is essential. Coordinate My Care (CMC) is a service dedicated to preserving dignity and autonomy at the end of life. Its care pathways enable health professionals from primary and secondary care to put the patient at the centre of health care delivery. This service is underpinned by an electronic solution. The CMC record can be accessed 24/7 by all health and social care professionals who have a legitimate relationship with the patient.

Patients And Methods: The record displays diagnosis, prognosis, advanced care plan, resuscitation status and patients wishes for end of life care patients across London. This article is a review of CMC use and outcomes from August 2010- March 2012.

Results: 1087 CMC patient records were analysed. The primary diagnosis was non-cancer in 52.3%, cancer in 46.3% and unknown in 1.4%, 42% of all patients were cared for by generalist only and had no specialist palliative care involvement. At the time of analysis 207 had died. Actual place of death was home 38.6%, care/nursing home 16.4%, hospice 12.1% and 30% in hospital. This equates to 55% of patients dying in their usual place of residence and reflects that 70% died outside of hospital.

Conclusion: The CMC service has a well defined pathway underpinned by an electronic solution. It has been shown to change culture and deliver fully integrated, personalised end of life care. A pan-London CMC roll out will take place over the next 12 months.
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December 2012

Using qualitative methods for attribute development for discrete choice experiments: issues and recommendations.

Health Econ 2012 Jun 6;21(6):730-41. Epub 2011 May 6.

Health Economics Unit, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Attribute generation for discrete choice experiments (DCEs) is often poorly reported, and it is unclear whether this element of research is conducted rigorously. This paper explores issues associated with developing attributes for DCEs and contrasts different qualitative approaches. The paper draws on eight studies, four developed attributes for measures, and four developed attributes for more ad hoc policy questions. Issues that have become apparent through these studies include the following: the theoretical framework for random utility theory and the need for attributes that are neither too close to the latent construct nor too intrinsic to people's personality; the need to think about attribute development as a two-stage process involving conceptual development followed by refinement of language to convey the intended meaning; and the difficulty in resolving tensions inherent in the reductiveness of condensing complex and nuanced qualitative findings into precise terms. The comparison of alternative qualitative approaches suggests that the nature of data collection will depend both on the characteristics of the question (its sensitivity, for example) and the availability of existing qualitative information. An iterative, constant comparative approach to analysis is recommended. Finally, the paper provides a series of recommendations for improving the reporting of this element of DCE studies.
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June 2012

Investigating Choice Experiments for Preferences of Older People (ICEPOP): evaluative spaces in health economics.

J Health Serv Res Policy 2008 Oct;13 Suppl 3:31-7

Department of Health Economics, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

This paper deals with three concerns about the evaluative framework that is currently dominant within health economics. These concerns are: that the evaluative framework is concerned entirely with health; that the evaluative framework has an individualistic focus on patients alone; and that the methods used to estimate 'health' within the current evaluative framework could be improved both in terms of the generation of descriptive systems and in using valuation methods that rely less on people's ability to express their preferences on a cardinal scale. In exploring these issues the Investigating Choice Experiments for Preferences of Older People (ICEPOP) programme has explicitly focused on both the topic of older people and the methods of discrete choice experiments. A capability index has been developed and attributes for an economic measure of end-of-life care are currently being generated, providing the possibility of extending the evaluative framework beyond health alone. A measure of carer's experience and a framework for extending measurement in end-of-life care to loved ones are both also in development, thus extending the evaluative framework beyond the patient alone. Rigorous qualitative methods employing an iterative approach have been developed for use in constructing attributes, and best-worst scaling has been utilized to reduce task complexity and provide insights into heterogeneity. There are a number of avenues for further research in all these areas, but in particular there is need for greater attention to be paid to the theory underlying the evaluative framework within health economics.
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October 2008

Measuring dietary sodium intake in infancy: a review of available methods.

Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2008 May;22(3):261-8

Department of Social Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

It has been hypothesised that infancy may be a particularly sensitive period with respect to the effect of dietary sodium (salt) intake on later blood pressure. If this is the case, interventions to reduce dietary sodium intake in infancy could have major public health impact by reducing cardiovascular disease in the future. However, research in this area is hampered by difficulties of how to measure dietary sodium intake in infancy. Here we review the literature with an aim to describe different methods that have been used for research purposes, how these have been used and their relative strengths and limitations. We identified five studies that were relevant to our aim. In epidemiological and intervention studies sodium intake in infancy has been assessed via parents using diet diaries, which appear to be feasible and acceptable to parents. In these studies, sodium concentration in breast milk is assumed not to vary from one woman to the next, which may not be correct but has been poorly studied. The gold standard method - 24 h urinary excretion of sodium - was used in only one study and there is debate about the most appropriate way to collect urine for research purposes in infants. None of the studies directly compared different methods for determining infant dietary sodium intake. We conclude that research is required to determine the best methods of estimating dietary sodium intake in infants in different research contexts.
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May 2008