Publications by authors named "Eileen L Zurbriggen"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Becoming an object: A review of self-objectification in girls.

Body Image 2020 Jun 26;33:278-299. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, United States.

Objectification theory (Fredrickson & Roberts, 1997) provides a framework for understanding how cultural pressure on women's appearance (i.e., sexual objectification) impacts their psychological and physical well-being. Although objectification theory proposes that objectification processes commence with the onset of puberty, much of the existing research on self-objectification has been conducted with adult women. Thus, less is known about how self-objectification operates with younger girls and adolescent girls. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of self-objectification research on girls under the age of 18 including the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of self-objectification as well as protective factors (nā€‰=ā€‰66 studies). In addition, we discuss how development is relevant to objectification theory and self-objectification. Finally, we call for a program of research that addresses methodological and conceptual concerns in existing research, fills gaps in the research literature, and pays further attention to developmental processes in self-objectification. An especially notable pattern we identified is that self-objectification is strongly related to age, such that older girls experience higher levels of self-objectification compared to younger girls. The aim of this paper is to provoke deeper considerations of development and the inclusion of girls in future research on self-objectification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.02.016DOI Listing
June 2020

The Role of Self-Efficacy and Identity in Mediating the Effects of STEM Support Experiences.

Anal Soc Issues Public Policy 2019 Dec 29;19(1):7-49. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Psychology, University of California Santa Cruz.

We report results from two studies testing the Mediation Model of Research Experiences (MMRE), which posits that science (or engineering) self-efficacy and identity as a scientist (or engineer) mediate the association between support programs and students' commitment to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) careers. Study 1 included 502 matriculated and recently graduated undergraduate STEM students. Structural equation modeling analyses indicated that research experience, instrumental mentoring, and involvement in a community of scientists were associated with commitment to a STEM career, mediated through science/engineering self-efficacy and identity as a scientist/engineer. There were few interactions with ethnicity and none with gender. In Study 2, 63 undergraduate students in science/engineering support programs were surveyed with a similar instrument at the beginning and end of their programs. Pre-post analyses indicated that increases over time in community involvement were associated with increases in science/engineering self-efficacy, and increases over time in science/engineering identity were associated with increased commitment to a STEM career. Taken together, these two studies show the importance of psychological processes such as identity and self-efficacy in understanding the specific ways in which science/engineering support programs lead to enhanced commitment to a career in STEM among white and underrepresented minority undergraduate students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asap.12170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7009288PMC
December 2019

Research mentoring and scientist identity: insights from undergraduates and their mentors.

Int J STEM Educ 2018 30;5(1):41. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

2Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA USA.

Background: Mentored research apprenticeships are a common feature of academic outreach programs that aim to promote diversity in science fields. The current study tests for links between three forms of mentoring (instrumental, socioemotional, and negative) and the degree to which undergraduates psychologically identify with science. Participants were 66 undergraduate-mentor dyads who worked together in a research apprenticeship. The undergraduate sample was predominantly composed of women, first-generation college students, and members of ethnic groups that are historically underrepresented in science.

Results: Findings illustrated that undergraduates who reported receiving more instrumental and socioemotional mentoring were higher in scientist identity. Further, mentors who reported engaging in higher levels of negative mentoring had undergraduates with lower scientist identity. Qualitative data from undergraduates' mentors provided deeper insight into their motivation to become mentors and how they reason about conflict in their mentoring relationships.

Conclusions: Discussion highlights theoretical implications and details several methodological recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40594-018-0139-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6310469PMC
November 2018

Individual differences in preferences for matched-ethnic mentors among high-achieving ethnically diverse adolescents in STEM.

Child Dev 2012 May-Jun;83(3):896-910. Epub 2012 Apr 17.

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

This short-term longitudinal study examined (a) adolescents' contact with mentors who share their background in relation to the importance they place on having such mentors, and (b) the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy, identity, and commitment to a science career. Participants were 265 ethnically diverse adolescents (M age = 15.82) attending a 4-week science education program. Cluster analyses indicated that at Time 1, underrepresented ethnic minorities were more often in the cluster defined by feelings of importance of having a matched-background mentor but not having much contact. Perceptions of contact increased over time for these students and were associated with increased feelings of identity as a science student. The results suggest the need for attending to individual differences in students' preferences for matched-background mentors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2012.01744.xDOI Listing
July 2012

Trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships.

J Trauma Dissociation 2012 ;13(2):127-33

Intimate relationships can both affect and be affected by trauma and its sequelae. This special issue highlights research on trauma, attachment, and intimate relationships. Several themes emerged. One theme is the exploration of the associations between a history of trauma and relational variables, with an emphasis on models using these variables as mediators. Given the significance of secure attachment for healthy relationships, it is not surprising that attachment emerges as another theme of this issue. Moreover, a key component of relationships is trust, and so a further theme of this issue is betrayal trauma (J. J. Freyd, 1996 ). As the work included in this special issue makes clear, intimate relationships of all types are important for the psychological health of those exposed to traumatic events. In order to best help trauma survivors and those close to them, it is imperative that research exploring these issues be presented to research communities, clinical practitioners, and the public in general. This special issue serves as one step toward that objective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15299732.2012.642762DOI Listing
July 2012

Implicit motives and sexual conservatism as predictors of sexual behaviors.

J Soc Psychol 2011 Sep-Oct;151(5):535-55

Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.

This study was designed to provide an assessment of the relationship between the two most important implicit motives and the most frequently studied sexual behaviors. A community sample of 102 men and 92 women completed measures of implicit power and affiliation-intimacy motives, sexual conservatism, social desirability, and sexual behavior. For men, high power motivation was positively associated with the number of sexual partners and the frequency of sex. There was an interaction between sexual conservatism and power motivation in women. For women low in sexual conservatism, high power motivation was positively associated with the number of sexual partners and with earlier initiation to intercourse and oral sex. There were few associations between affiliation-intimacy motivation and sexual behaviors; however, women high in this motive reported later initiation to oral sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224540903365372DOI Listing
November 2011

Self- and Partner-objectification in Romantic Relationships: Associations with Media Consumption and Relationship Satisfaction.

Sex Roles 2011 Apr 22;64(7-8):449-462. Epub 2011 Feb 22.

Few studies have examined objectification in the context of romantic relationships, even though strong theoretical arguments have often made this connection. This study addresses this gap in the literature by examining whether exposure to mass media is related to self-objectification and objectification of one's partner, which in turn is hypothesized to be related to relationship and sexual satisfaction. A sample of undergraduate students (91 women and 68 men) enrolled in a university on the west coast of the United States completed self-report measures of the following variables: self-objectification, objectification of one's romantic partner, relationship satisfaction, sexual satisfaction, and exposure to objectifying media. Men reported higher levels of partner objectification than did women; there was no gender difference in self-objectification. Self- and partner-objectification were positively correlated; this correlation was especially strong for men. In regression analyses, partner-objectification was predictive of lower levels of relationship satisfaction. Furthermore, a path model revealed that consuming objectifying media is related to lowered relationship satisfaction through the variable of partner-objectification. Finally, self- and partner-objectification were related to lower levels of sexual satisfaction among men. This study provides evidence for the negative effects of objectification in the context of romantic relationships among young adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-9933-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3062032PMC
April 2011

Gender, sexuality, and the authoritarian personality.

J Pers 2010 Dec 12;78(6):1801-26. Epub 2010 Oct 12.

Smith College, Department of Psychology, Northampton, MA 01063,

The political correlates of the authoritarian personality have been well established by researchers, but important linkages to other major constructs in psychology need fuller elaboration. We present new data and review old data from our laboratories that show the myriad ways in which authoritarianism is implicated in the important domain of gender roles. We show that women and men high in authoritarianism live in rigidly gendered worlds where male and female roles are narrowly defined, attractiveness is based on traditional conceptions of masculinity and femininity, and conventional sexual mores are prescribed. As a construct, authoritarianism is not just relevant for understanding people's politics, but it also affects the most personal of domains--romantic partnerships, lifestyle goals, and basic attitudes about male and female relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00670.xDOI Listing
December 2010

Personality and politics: introduction to the special issue.

J Pers 2010 Dec 12;78(6):1595-600. Epub 2010 Oct 12.

Department of Psychology, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063, USA.

This special issue of Journal of Personality brings together 10 original articles addressing the intersection of personality and politics. Articles build on classic traditions in political psychology by presenting both idiographic and nomothetic work on the motivational, cognitive, ideological, attitudinal, and identity correlates of many different aspects of political behavior. This work is used to understand political activism and leadership as well as everyday political behavior. We hope this collection of articles will inspire our readers to explore new investigations in personality and political psychology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2010.00663.xDOI Listing
December 2010

A longitudinal study of conversations with parents about sex and dating during college.

Dev Psychol 2010 Jan;46(1):139-50

Psychology Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, Idaho 83725-1715, USA.

Emerging adulthood is a time of sexual and romantic relationship development as well as change in the parent-child relationship. This study provides a longitudinal analysis of 30 young adults' (17 women, 13 men) sexual experiences, attitudes about sexuality and dating, and reported conversations with parents about sexuality and dating from the 1st and 4th years of college. Self-report questionnaires revealed increases in general closeness with parents, increases in sexual and dating experiences, and more sexually permissive as well as more gender stereotyped attitudes. Qualitative analyses of individual interviews indicated a movement from unilateral and restrictive sex-based topics to more reciprocal and relationship-focused conversations over time. Gender analyses revealed that young women reported more restrictive sex messages and young men more positive sex messages. Participants also described increased openness and comfort in talking about sexual topics with both mothers and fathers from the 1st to 4th year of college. Overall, the results suggest that prior findings of increased mutuality with parents during the college years extend to the traditionally taboo topic of sexuality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016931DOI Listing
January 2010

Representation and execution of vocal motor programs for expert singing of tonal melodies.

J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform 2006 Aug;32(4):944-63

Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.

Three experiments were conducted to study motor programs used by expert singers to produce short tonal melodies. Each experiment involved a response-priming procedure in which singers prepared to sing a primary melody but on 50% of trials had to switch and sing a different (secondary) melody instead. In Experiment 1, secondary melodies in the same key as the primary melody were easier to produce than secondary melodies in a different key. Experiment 2 showed that it was the initial note rather than key per se that affected production of secondary melodies. In Experiment 3, secondary melodies involving exact transpositions were easier to sing than secondary melodies with a different contour than the primary melody. Also, switches between the keys of C and G were easier than those between C and E. Taken together, these results suggest that the initial note of a melody may be the most important element in the motor program, that key is represented in a hierarchical form, and that melodic contour is represented as a series of exact semitone offsets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0096-1523.32.4.944DOI Listing
August 2006

Gender differences in the enactment of sociosexuality: an examination of implicit social motives, sexual fantasies, coercive sexual attitudes, and aggressive sexual behavior.

J Sex Res 2006 May;43(2):163-73

University of California-Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.

An unrestricted sociosexual orientation (the endorsement of casual sex) has been found to correlate with undesirable behaviors and personality characteristics more so in men than in women. Using a community sample of men and women, we investigated the correlations between sociosexuality and behaviors, motives, attitudes, and fantasies related to sexual aggression. Participants (n = 168; ages 21-45) completed self-report measures of sociosexual orientation, sexual conservatism, rape myth acceptance, adversarial sexual beliefs, attitudes toward women, sexual behaviors, and perpetration of sexual aggression. Participants also wrote five brief stories that were scored for power and affiliation-intimacy motives and two sexual fantasies that were coded for the theme of dominance. For both men and women, an unrestricted sociosexual orientation was correlated with behavioral items indicating earlier life experiences with sex, a greater number of lifetime sex partners, and more frequent sexual activity. For men, an unrestricted sociosexual orientation was linked with higher levels of rape myth acceptance and adversarial sexual beliefs; more conservative attitudes toward women; higher levels of power motivation and lower levels of affiliation-intimacy motivation; and past use of sexual aggression. For women, an unrestricted sociosexual orientation was associated with sexual fantasies of dominance and lower levels of sexual conservatism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224490609552311DOI Listing
May 2006

Power, desire, and pleasure in sexual fantasies.

J Sex Res 2004 Aug;41(3):288-300

Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.

One hundred and sixty-two participants (ages 21-45) wrote open-ended sexual fantasies and completed self-report measures of rape myth acceptance, adversarial sexual beliefs, and attitudes toward women. We coded fantasies using a newly developed scoring system that includes themes of dominance, submission, sexual pleasure, and sexual desire. Men fantasized about dominance more than women did; they also tended to focus more on the desire and pleasure of their partner. Desire and pleasure were more closely linked in the fantasies of men than in the fantasies of women, for whom the two were distinct constructs. Although fantasies of submission were not associated with problematic attitudes for either gender, men's fantasies of dominance were associated with greater acceptance of rape myths. For women, greater rape myth acceptance was associated with emotional and romantic fantasy themes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224490409552236DOI Listing
August 2004

Predicting memory for childhood sexual abuse: "non-significant" findings with the potential for significant harm.

J Child Sex Abus 2003 ;12(2):113-21

Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J070v12n02_07DOI Listing
July 2004