Publications by authors named "Ehsan Zayerzadeh"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

In vivo toxicological evaluation of graphene oxide nanoplatelets for clinical application.

Int J Nanomedicine 2018 22;13:4757-4769. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

NanoRegMed ltd, Nanotechnology and Regenerative Medicine Commercialization Centre, The London Bioscience Innovation Centre, London, UK.

Background: Graphene is considered as a wonder material; it is the strongest material on the planet, super-elastic, and conductive. Its application in biomedicine is huge, with a multibillion-dollar industry, and will revolutionize the diagnostic and treatment of diseases. However, its safety and potential toxicity is the main challenge.

Methods: This study assessed the potential toxicity of graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONs) in an in vivo animal model using systemic, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological examinations. Normal saline (control group) or GONs (3-6 layers, lateral dimension=5-10 μm, and thickness=0.8-2 nm) at dose rate of 50, 150, or 500 mg/kg were intraperitoneally injected into adult male Wistar rats (n=5) every 48 hours during 1 week to receive each animal a total of four doses. The animals were allowed 2 weeks to recover after the last dosing. Then, animals were killed and the blood was collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. The organs including the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, intestine, brain, and heart were harvested for histopathological evaluations.

Results: The results showed GONs prevented body weight gain in animals after 21 days, treated at 500 mg/kg, but not in the animals treated at 150 or 50 mg/kg GONs. The biochemical analysis showed a significant increase in total bilirubin, with a significant decrease in triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein in animals treated at 500 mg/kg. Nonetheless, other hematological and biochemical parameters remained statistically insignificant in all GONs treated animals. The most common histopathological findings in the visceral organs were granulomatous reaction with giant cell formation and accumulation of GONs in capsular regions. Also, small foci of neuronal degeneration and necrosis were the most outstanding findings in the brain, including the cerebellum.

Conclusion: In conclusion, this study shows that GONs without functionalization are toxic. The future study is a comparison of the functionalized with non-functionalized GONs.
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October 2018

Antivenom Efficacy in Neutralizing Histopathological Complications Following Envenomation.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2017 Mar 14;11(1):42-49. Epub 2017 Mar 14.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Food Industry and Agriculture, Standard Research Institute, Karaj, Iran.

Background: Nowadays use of specific antivenin for latrodectism is considered as the most effective treatment in the world. This study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of specific antivenom against histopathological complications caused by venom on liver, heart and kidneys tissues within 72h.

Methods: Two groups were selected, each one contained 6 male New Zealand rabbits weighing 2±0.5kg. The animals were anesthetized with 0.5ml ketamine and 0.5ml xylazine by intramuscular route. The venom (0.5mg/kg) was injected subcutaneously to both the groups. The second group of rabbits 24h after the venom injection received specific antivenom by intravenous route. Seventy-two hours after the venom and antivenom injections, the rabbits were dissected to obtain heart, liver and kidney tissues. The tissues were stained by hematoxylin and eosin stains and histopathological studies were examined by optical microscope.

Results: In group one, the venom induced myocytolysis, myocarditis, coagulation necrosis in the heart tissue and the liver tissue showed central vein congestion, congested vessels, dilated sinusoids and inflammation. However, no significant histopathological complications were observed in kidney tissues. In the second group, antivenom injection greatly prevented escalation of the complications on foresaid tissues.

Conclusion: venom induces histopathological complications on vital organs. Specific antivenom injection, 24h after the venom injection, could protect the tissues from incidence and intensification of histopathological complications. Future studies in human beings should be conducted to assess the protection against the specific- antivenin.
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March 2017

Inhibitory effect of curcumin on angiogenesis in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model: An aortic ring assay.

J Tradit Complement Med 2016 Oct 27;6(4):437-441. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Endocrinology and Metabolism Research Center (EMRC), Vali-Asr Hospital, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) has been associated with the inhibition of angiogenesis, as well as the prevention of cancers and inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of curcumin in suppressing angiogenesis in the cultured endothelial cells of rat aortic rings.

Methods: Eight-week-old male Wistar rats were randomized into five groups each with a different treatment and cell culturing paradigm: controls cultured in the absence of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) (C), controls cultured in the presence of VEGF (C-V), controls treated with curcumin and then cultured in media lacking VEGF (C-TC), diabetics cultured in media supplemented with VEGF (D-V) and diabetics treated with curcumin and then cultured in media supplemented with VEGF (D-V-TC). Each group consisted of 8 animals. Diabetes was induced in by streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg body weight, IV). After 8 weeks, animals were sacrificed and their aortas were excised. Ring-shaped explants were embedded in a 96-well culture plate. Angiogenesis response was measured by counting the number of primary microtubules in each well.

Results: Optic microscopy revealed that the D-V group had the highest number of microvessels, while angiogenesis was not observed in the C or C-TC groups. The number of primary microtubules was significantly lower in the D-V-TC group compared to the D-V group (P < 0.05). The D-V-TC group had a significantly higher number of microvessels compared to the C-TC group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Curcumin attenuates angiogenesis response in stertozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
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October 2016

Amelioration of cardio-respiratory perturbations following Mesobuthus eupeus envenomation in anesthetized rabbits with commercial polyvalent F(ab')2 antivenom.

Toxicon 2012 Feb 17;59(2):249-56. Epub 2011 Nov 17.

Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Karaj, Iran.

Immunotherapy is the only specific treatment for scorpion sting. In the present study, protective effects of polyvalent antivenom against hemodynamic disturbances, biomarkers (troponin T, creatinine kinase isoenzyme MB, Lactate dehydrogenase) changes, electrocardiogram abnormalities and histopathological complications in heart and lung induced by Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom was investigated in anesthetized rabbits. Twenty four rabbits were randomized into four equal groups: six rabbits in control group received 1 ml ultra-pure water subcutaneously (group 1). Group two received LD50 of venom (4.5 mg/kg). In the third and fourth groups, 5 ml of scorpion antivenom was administrated intravenously simultaneous with venom injection and 60 min following envenomation, respectively. Results of the present study indicate significant decrease in hemodynamic parameters following envenomation in the second group of animals. Venom injection caused edema, myocytolysis, coagulation necrosis, hemorrhage in heart as well as edema, hemorrhage and vascular thrombus in lungs. Although envenomed rabbits presented rises in LDH and TnT but no alteration in CK-MB was observed. Electrocardiogram monitoring of rabbits showed ST elevation and inverted T waves. Simultaneous administration of antivenom and venom prevented entirely the clinical signs, hemodynamic disturbances, markers changes, ECG abnormalities and histopathological damages. Delayed immunotherapy gradually ameliorated clinical signs, hemodynamic disturbances and markers changes related to envenomation. Histopathological evaluation showed slight alterations such as mild myocytolysis in heart and mild edema in lung following delayed immunotherapy. In conclusion, scorpion antivenom administration has preventive, neutralizing and curative properties for M. eupeus scorpion envenomation, if it would be applied at optimum time, dose and route.
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February 2012