Publications by authors named "Ehsan Mostafavi"

160 Publications

Borrelia duttonii-like spirochetes parasitize Meriones persicus in East Azerbaijan Province of Iran.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 Nov 4;12(6):101825. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; National Reference Laboratory for Plague, Tularemia and Q Fever, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Akanlu, Kabudar Ahang, Hamadan, Iran.

In Iran, Borrelia persica and Borrelia microti/microti-like borreliae have been established as causative agents of tickborne relapsing fever (TBRF). However, the epidemiology of two previously described species, Borrelia balthazardi and Borrelia latyschewii (latychevi), has remained elusive for many years. We investigated Borrelia infection in various rodents and small mammals in the TBRF endemic East Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran, where B. perisca and B. balthazardi might coexist. Among trapped animals (n=210), a 16S real-time PCR detected Borrelia DNA in 11 Meriones persicus. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using six different loci, including four coding regions (flaB, glpQ, groEL, p66) and two non-coding (rrs, IGS) followed by phylogeny revealed considerable sequence identity between the borreliae detected, B. microti, and East African Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia recurrentis. Our results indicate that B. microti and microti-like borreliae, including the specimens previously characterized in the south of Iran and the present study, are different ecotypes of B. duttonii, i.e., exhibiting a single species/entity or descendants of a recent common ancestor. Our findings also suggest that the species we had long coined as B. balthazardi and the microti-like borreliae detected herein might be the same.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2021.101825DOI Listing
November 2021

Morphometric Study of , , and in Qatar.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jul 22;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering & Science, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa.

The current study was undertaken to estimate the morphometric pattern of three commensal rodents, i.e., , , and in Qatar. One hundred forty-eight rodents were captured from different facilities throughout Qatar. The captured rodents were used to identify the external body and cranio-mandibular morphometry. The study found that was the most prevalent ( = 120, 81%, 95% CI: 73.83-87.05). Most of the rodents were collected from Al Rayan municipality ( = 92, 62%), were adults ( = 138, 93.2%, 95% CI: 87.92-96.71), and were from livestock farms ( = 79, 49%, 95% CI: 41.02-57.65). The rodents' average body weights were 18.8 ± 2.2 gm, 264.3 ± 87.5 gm, and 130 ± 71.3 gm for , , and , respectively. The research found that the studied rodents are smaller than those of other countries such as Turkey, Tunisia, and Iran. The study of morphometry is a useful tool for the traditional identification of small mammal species, including rodents. The average morphometric measurements of the external body and skull were normally distributed and can be used as a reference of and for Qatar. A further comprehensive study is required to investigate the rodent population index, eco-friendly control program, and public health importance in Qatar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11082162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8388387PMC
July 2021

Q Fever Endocarditis in Northeast Iran.

Case Rep Infect Dis 2021 28;2021:5519164. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

This report presents a case of chronic Q fever endocarditis. A 60-year-old male farmer and rancher was admitted to the hospital with symptoms of weight loss, fever, severe sweating, weakness, and anorexia. PCR was negative for in the blood sample, but phase I and II IgG antibodies against were positive (1 : 16384 and 1 : 2048, respectively) by the indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA). According to the adjusted Duke criteria, Q fever endocarditis was confirmed, and the patient was successfully treated with doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5519164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177991PMC
May 2021

Rodent-Related Zoonotic Pathogens at the Human-Animal-Environment Interface in Qatar: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 31;18(11). Epub 2021 May 31.

School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering & Science, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa.

Rodents are one of the most diversified terrestrial mammals, and they perform several beneficial activities in nature. These animals are also important as carriers of many pathogens with public health importance. The current systematic review was conducted to formulate a true depiction of rodent-related zoonoses in Qatar. Following systematic searches on PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Web of Science and a screening process, a total of 94 published articles were selected and studied. The studied articles reported 23 rodent-related zoonotic pathogens that include nine bacterial, eleven parasitic, and three viral pathogens, from which the frequently reported pathogens were (32 reports), (23), and spp. (16). The possible pathway of entry of the rodent-borne pathogens can be the land port, seaports, and airport of Qatar through carrier humans and animals, contaminated food, and agricultural products. The pathogens can be conserved internally by rodents, pets, and livestock; by agricultural production systems; and by food marketing chains. The overall estimated pooled prevalence of the pathogens among the human population was 4.27% (95%CI: 4.03-4.51%; < 0.001) with significant heterogeneity ( = 99.50%). The top three highest prevalent pathogens were (30.90%; 22.75-39.04%; < 0.001; = 99.70%) followed by (21.93%; 6.23-37.61%; < 0.001; = 99.30%) and hepatitis E virus (18.29%; 11.72-24.86%; < 0.001; = 96.70%). However, there is a knowledge gap about the listed pathogens regarding the occurrence, transmission pathways, and rodent role in transmission dynamics at the human-animal-environment interface in Qatar. Further studies are required to explore the role of rodents in spreading zoonotic pathogens through the One Health framework, consisting of zoologists, ecologists, microbiologists, entomologists, veterinarians, and public health experts in this country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115928DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198466PMC
May 2021

Iran COVID-19 Epidemiology Committee: A Review of Missions, Structures, Achievements, and Challenges.

J Res Health Sci 2021 Mar 7;21(1):e00505. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in Iran, the control and management of the epidemic were headed by the National Headquarter for the Control of COVID-19 Epidemic through setting up different scientific committees, including the COVID-19 National Epidemiology Committee. The present study reviews the missions, structures, achievements, and challenges of the Epidemiology Committee.

Study Design: A rapid review .

Methods: All relevant reports, documents, guidelines, published literature, and surveillance data related to the establishment, visions, missions, roles, activities, and outputs of the COVID-19 Epidemiology Committee were critically reviewed in this study.

Results: The efforts of the committee's working groups may have impacted improvements in data registration/usage, provincial data quality at provincial levels, and perception of the epidemic situation in the provinces. The committees have also played role in informing the policies in different stages of the epidemic through routine or problem-based data/evidence analyses, epidemic investigations, and mathematical modeling.

Conclusion: The structure and experience gained by the committee can be used in similar situations within and outside the country. To further improve the impacts of our activities, it is essential to have effective interaction, collaboration, and data flow between the committee and a broad range of organizations within and outside the Ministry of Health and Medical Education.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jrhs.2021.45DOI Listing
March 2021

Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in the WHO Eastern Mediterranean Region, 2001-2018.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Primary Care and Public Health, School of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College, London, UK.

Background: Countries in the World Health Organization (WHO) Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) are predisposed to highly contagious, severe and fatal, emerging infectious diseases (EIDs), and re-emerging infectious diseases (RIDs). This paper reviews the epidemiological situation of EIDs and RIDs of global concern in the EMR between 2001 and 2018.

Methods: To do a narrative review, a complete list of studies in the field was we prepared following a systematic search approach. Studies that were purposively reviewed were identified to summarize the epidemiological situation of each targeted disease. A comprehensive search of all published studies on EIDs and RIDs between 2001 and 2018 was carried out through search engines including Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect.

Results: Leishmaniasis, hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are reported from all countries in the region. Chikungunya, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), dengue fever, and H5N1 have been increasing in number, frequency, and expanding in their geographic distribution. Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), which was reported in this region in 2012 is still a public health concern. There are challenges to control cholera, diphtheria, leishmaniasis, measles, and poliomyelitis in some of the countries. Moreover, Alkhurma hemorrhagic fever (AHF), and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are limited to some countries in the region. Also, there is little information about the real situation of the plague, Q fever, and tularemia.

Conclusion: EIDs and RIDs are prevalent in most countries in the region and could further spread within the region. It is crucial to improve regional capacities and capabilities in preventing and responding to disease outbreaks with adequate resources and expertise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2021.13DOI Listing
March 2021

How Iran responded to expanding need for laboratory services for COVID-19?

Health Policy Technol 2021 Jun 16;10(2):100506. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Rapid Response Team, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Iran.

After the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in early 2020 in Iran, the rapid response team of Pasteur Institute of Iran was the first lab starting detection and report of suspected human samples. This article is a short summery of all actions from the preparedness for detecting the first cases of COVID-19, expanding the nationwide laboratory service, choosing the suitable laboratory tests and other challenges in laboratory detection during SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hlpt.2021.100506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8049847PMC
June 2021

Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii infection in aborted samples of domestic ruminants in Iran.

PLoS One 2021 14;16(4):e0250116. Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Coxiella burnetii is the causative agent of Q fever which is a highly infectious zoonotic disease. C. burnetii has become one of the most important causes of abortion in livestock, which can lead to widespread abortions in these animals. There are very limited studies on the prevalence of C. burnetii infection in cases of animal abortion in Iran. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of C. burnetii in ruminant abortion samples in Iran.

Methods: Abortion samples from cattle, sheep and goats were collected from different parts of Iran and were tested using Real-time PCR targeting the IS1111 element of C. burnetii.

Results: In this study, 36 samples (24.7%) of the 146 collected samples were positive for C. burnetii. The prevalence of C. burnetii was 21.3% (20 of 94 samples) in sheep samples. Also, 10 of 46 cattle samples (21.7%) were positive. All six goat abortion samples were positive for C. burnetii.

Conclusions: The findings of the study demonstrate that C. burnetii plays an important role in domestic ruminant abortions in Iran, suggesting that more attention should be paid to the role of C. burnetii in domestic animal abortions by veterinary organizations. The risk of transmitting the infection to humans due to abortion of animals should also be considered.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250116PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8046214PMC
October 2021

Investigation of in elderly people: A preliminary study in Iran.

Trop Doct 2021 Jul 13;51(3):319-322. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Elderly people are at increased risk for infections such as with . This can colonize their gut and cause various gastro-intestinal manifestations. Our survey investigated its prevalence in a nursing home in Iran. Faecal samples were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for identification of A, B and binary toxin genes. From 289 samples, 42(14.5%) isolates were found. Toxin genes were positive in 19 isolates (17 AþBþ and 2 isolates ABþ). The elderly are especially at risk and great attention should be paid to contamination within their nursing homes. This is not an isolated regional problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475521999221DOI Listing
July 2021

Francisella tularensis human infections in a village of northwest Iran.

BMC Infect Dis 2021 Mar 31;21(1):310. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

National Reference laboratory for Plague, Tularemia and Q fever, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging infectious diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Akanlu, Kabudar Ahang, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Recent seroepidemiological studies have suggested that tularemia could be an endemic bacterial zoonosis in Iran.

Methods: From January 2016 to June 2018, disease cases characterized by fever, cervical lymphadenopathy and ocular involvement were reported in Youzband Village of Kaleybar County, in the East Azerbaijan Province, northwestern Iran. Diagnostic tests included Francisella tularensis serology (including tube agglutination test and ELISA), PCR, and culture.

Results: Among 11 examined case-patients, the tularemia tube agglutination test was positive in ten and borderline in one. PCR detected the F. tularensis ISFtu2 elements and fopA gene in one rodent and a spring water sample from the same geographic area.

Conclusions: Based on the clinical manifestations of the disease suggesting an oropharyngeal form of tularemia, serology results in case patients, and F. tularensis detection in the local fauna and aquatic environment, the water supply of the village was the likely source of the tularemia outbreak. Intervention such as dredging and chlorination of the main water storage tank of the village and training of villagers and health care workers in preventive measures and treatment of the illness helped control the infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-021-06004-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010941PMC
March 2021

Prolonged viral shedding and antibody persistence in patients with COVID-19.

Microbes Infect 2021 May-Jun;23(4-5):104810. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Clinical Research Department, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 as a new global threat has affected global population for one year. Despite the great effort to eradicate this infection, there are still some challenges including different viral presentation, temporal immunity in infected individuals and variable data of viral shedding. We studied 255 COVID-19 suspected individuals to assess the viral shedding duration and also the antibody development against SARS-CoV-2 among the cases. Real Time RT-PCR assay was applied to determine the virus presence and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were evaluated using SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG kits. 113 patients were confirmed for COVID-19 infection. The patients were followed until negative PCR achieved. The median viral shedding among studied population was obtained 34.16 (±17.65) days which was not significantly associated with age, sex and underlying diseases. Shiver and body pain were found in prolonged form of the infection and also patients who had gastrointestinal problems experienced longer viral shedding. Moreover, IgG was present in 84% of patients after 150 days. According to this data, the median viral shedding prolongation was 34.16 days which indicates that 14 days isolation might not be enough for population. In addition, IgG profiling indicated that it is persistent in a majority of patients for nearly 6 months which has brought some hopes in vaccine efficacy and application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2021.104810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7963517PMC
July 2021

Enhancing the indicator for COVID-19 confirmed cases.

Iran J Microbiol 2020 Dec;12(6):505-507

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijm.v12i6.5023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884284PMC
December 2020

Identification of in Raw Milk of Livestock Animal in Iran.

Int J Microbiol 2021 18;2021:6632036. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

is the causative agent of Q fever in humans and animals. This study aimed to determine the frequency of in milk samples of dairy animals (goats, sheep, and cattle) in some selected regions in Iran, where there is no information about prevalence of . In this study, 162 individual milk samples were collected from 43 farms in three provinces (Tehran, Hamadan, and Mazandaran). Real-time PCR was used for the detection of IS1111a element of . In total, 23 of 162 samples (14.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 9.65-20.2%) were positive for by real-time PCR. was detected in 10.17% (95% CI: 4.74-20.46) of goat milk samples. In sheep milk samples, 18.6% (95% CI: 9.74-32.62) were positive, and was detected in 15% (95% CI: 8.1-26.11) of cattle milk samples. Molecular evidence of the presence of was seen in milk samples of dairy animals in all the studied regions. These findings demonstrated that infection, especially in raw milk samples, deserves more attention from the health care system and veterinary organization in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6632036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837759PMC
January 2021

Vector-borne diseases in Iran: epidemiology and key challenges.

Future Microbiol 2021 01;16(1):51-69

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging & Reemerging infectious diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Vector-borne diseases have become a global health concern in recent decades as a result of global warming, globalization, growth in international trade and travel, use of insecticide and drug resistance. This review study addressed the key vector-borne diseases and their current status in Iran to emphasize the requirements for further research on vector-borne diseases. The dispersion patterns of these diseases differ in various regions. Some of them such as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and Q fever are distributed all across Iran, whereas some others such as plague, leishmaniasis, tularemia, and malaria are restricted to specific areas. The high prevalence of vectors throughout the country necessitates enhancing the monitoring and surveillance of emerging and reemerging vector-borne diseases and their potential vectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2019-0306DOI Listing
January 2021

Francisella tularensis survey among ranchers and livestock in western Iran.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Feb 25;74:101598. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

National Reference Laboratory for Plague, Tularemia and Q fever, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging infectious diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Akanlu, Kabudar-Ahang, Hamadan, Iran; Department of Epidemiology and Biostatics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging infectious diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Tularemia is a zoonotic disease that transmitted to humans and domestic animals by wildlife, especially rodents. There are some evidences of the circulation of F. tularensis in rodents, livestock, human populations, and surface waters in western parts of Iran. In this study, we investigated the exposure of livestock and ranchers to F. tularensis in the endemic regions of western Iran. Blood samples were collected from 289 sheep, 103 cattle, and 51 ranchers in 2018. Animal sera were tested by standard tube agglutination method. The specific IgGs against F. tularensis were evaluated by ELISA in human sera. Moreover, the extracted DNAs from 50 sheep spleen samples were evaluated using TaqMan real-time PCR for the presence of ISFtu2 and FopA genes. All animal sera and spleen samples were negative for tularemia. Of the 51 human samples, two samples were seropositive and one sample showed a borderline status for tularemia. Serologic evidence of F. tularensis in the ranchers but negative results in the livestock indicates different transmission routes in human populations and domestic animals in western Iran. Therefore, drinking contaminated water, contact to wildlife or rodents and arthropod bite should be considered as probable routes in the suspicious areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2020.101598DOI Listing
February 2021

Plague reservoir species throughout the world.

Integr Zool 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Plague has been known since ancient times as a re-emerging infectious disease, causing considerable socioeconomic burden in regional hotspots. To better understand the epidemiological cycle of the causative agent of the plague, its potential occurrence, and possible future dispersion, one must carefully consider the taxonomy, distribution, and ecological requirements of reservoir-species in relation either to natural or human-driven changes (e.g. climate change or urbanization). In recent years, the depth of knowledge on species taxonomy and species composition in different landscapes has undergone a dramatic expansion, driven by modern taxonomic methods such as synthetic surveys that take into consideration morphology, genetics, and the ecological setting of captured animals to establish their species identities. Here, we consider the recent taxonomic changes of the rodent species in known plague reservoirs and detail their distribution across the world, with a particular focus on those rodents considered to be keystone host species. A complete checklist of all known plague-infectable vertebrates living in plague foci is provided as a Supporting Information table.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1749-4877.12511DOI Listing
December 2020

How Can the Epidemic Curve of COVID-19 in Iran Be Interpreted?

J Res Health Sci 2020 Oct 4;20(3):e00491. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Iran is one of the countries most affected by COVID-19. This review provides possible interpretations of the observed trend of COVID-19 in Iran.

Study Design: A rapid review METHODS: We reviewed the daily new cases of COVID-19 based on hospitalized and outpatients, reported deaths, and diagnostic testing in Iran.

Results: Iran reported its first peak in the number of cases in late March, 2020. From the 1 April to 3 May 2020, the downward trend in the number of cases was started. The death trend also showed a peak in early April as well as a downward trend in late April. During May, the number of death cases showed a stable trend with a daily number of deaths ranging between 50 and 75 cases. Then the number of deaths gradually increased.

Conclusion: The epidemic curve in Iran is a function of different factors such number of total tests, change in mitigation policies, and heterogeneities among different provinces in the country. Therefore it should be interpreted under the light of the effect of such factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jrhs.2020.27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585769PMC
October 2020

In Honor of Dr. Abdul Hussein Taba: Iranian Physician and Former Director of the Eastern Mediterranean Region of the World Health Organization.

Arch Iran Med 2020 10 1;23(10):707-711. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

The honorable Abdul Hussein Tabatabaei was born in 1911 in Iran and received his medical education in the United Kingdom. Famously known as Dr. A.H. Taba, he was a well-respected man for his significant impact on the improvement of the national and global healthcare services and support for social justice. Before joining the World Health Organization (WHO), he was twice elected to the Iranian national assembly and served as the under-secretary of health services in Iran. Later, he joined the WHO and was elected as the Director of the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) in Alexandria in 1957 - a position he maintained for 25 years. During his tenure as the Regional Director, he rendered valuable assistance to the development and expansion of major health issues such as development and expansion of the health workforce, improvement of the national health services and controlling of various communicable diseases in the member countries and across the WHO regional offices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2020.90DOI Listing
October 2020

Challenges for management of the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran.

Glob Epidemiol 2020 Nov 30;2:100035. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloepi.2020.100035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7525261PMC
November 2020

Infection of hard ticks in the Caspian Sea littoral of Iran with Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever borreliae.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2020 11 1;11(6):101500. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran; National Reference Laboratory for Plague, Tularemia and Q Fever, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Akanlu, Kabudar Ahang, Hamadan, Iran.

The Caspian Sea littoral of Iran is home to various hard tick species, including Ixodes ricinus, the notorious vector of Lyme borreliosis (LB) in Eurasia. Here, in this area, we examined I. ricinus and other hard ticks, along with common rodents and small mammals for LB and relapsing fever (RF) borreliae infection. Ticks were collected from various mammalian hosts, including sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses, dogs, donkeys, rodents, and hedgehogs. Rodents and small mammals were live-captured from different habitats. A real-time PCR for 16S rRNA sequence revealed borrelial DNA in 71 out of 501 (≈14 %) specimens belonging to I. ricinus and Rhipicephalus ticks. None of the rodents and small mammals showed borrelial infection in the viscera. PCR amplification and sequencing of a 600-bp sequence of the flaB identified Borrelia bavariensis, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia valaisiana, and the RF Borrelia, B. miyamotoi in I. ricinus ticks. The RF-like Borrelia in Rhipicephalus ticks shared the highest identity (98.97 %) with an isolate infecting Haemaphysalis megaspinosa ticks in Japan. Our phylogeny and BLAST analysis suggest the range extension of the European I. ricinus-associated borreliae into the north of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2020.101500DOI Listing
November 2020

The Urgency of Conducting Serological Studies for COVID-19.

J Res Health Sci 2020 May 30;20(2):e00479. Epub 2020 May 30.

Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: COVID-19 has been the most priority of the world since the early 2020s. We aimed to investigate the importance, urgency and value of serological tests for monitoring and evaluation of COVID-19.

Study Design: Rapid review.

Methods: This study was conducted through a review of seroepidemiological studies to evaluate their strength and weakness in monitoring and predicting the epidemic situation of COVID-19.

Results: Conducting serological studies is an important measure to determine the status of the COVID-19 in affected countries. These studies may also be used to estimate cumulative incidence of the disease, and to get an impression about the level of the epidemic.

Conclusion: If an accurate serological test is available it can be used for seroepidemiological studies and epidemic investigation in special context, but given the current situation, it may not be possible to be used for screening the normal population and in care and treatment. This research highlighted the importance and urgency of conducting serological studies for monitoring the COVID-19 situation and evaluation of the interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jrhs.2020.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585750PMC
May 2020

Morphological and molecular identification of Culicidae mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Lorestan province, Western Iran.

Heliyon 2020 Aug 3;6(8):e04480. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Culicidae mosquitoes are main vectors of arboviruses that cause arboviral diseases in humans. Studies on fauna, ecology, biology, resting behaviors of Culicidae mosquitoes are important and greatly impacts the control of arboviral diseases that are transmitted by vectors. The aim of the present study was to determine fauna of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) based on morphological and molecular (genomic) identification and their habitats in Lorestan province, Western Iran. Meanwhile mosquito samples were examined for arbovirus infection. Culicidae mosquitoes were caught in 2015 and 2016 from human homes, animal dwellings, storehouses and pit shelters in Lorestan province, Western Iran, using an oral aspirator (hand catch), total catch, human and animal bait and light trap methods. The samples were identified on the genus and species. Six species of Culex and eight species of Anopheles were caught. One complex species ( complex) and a hybrid between biotype and biotype were identified. Among all of the trapped mosquitoes (4211), 94.68% were from genus Culex mosquitoes (3987), which indicate that this genus is the dominant in Lorestan province, Western Iran. Anopheles comprised of 201 individuals out of the total catch. Arboviruses were not detected in these samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399246PMC
August 2020

Estimating COVID-19-Related Infections, Deaths, and Hospitalizations in Iran Under Different Physical Distancing and Isolation Scenarios.

Int J Health Policy Manag 2020 Aug 1. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Iran is one of the first few countries that was hit hard with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We aimed to estimate the total number of COVID-19 related infections, deaths, and hospitalizations in Iran under different physical distancing and isolation scenarios.

Methods: We developed a susceptible-exposed-infected/infectious-recovered/removed (SEIR) model, parameterized to the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. We used the model to quantify the magnitude of the outbreak in Iran and assess the effectiveness of isolation and physical distancing under five different scenarios (A: 0% isolation, through E: 40% isolation of all infected cases). We used Monte-Carlo simulation to calculate the 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

Results: Under scenario A, we estimated 5 196 000 (UI 1 753 000-10 220 000) infections to happen till mid-June with 966 000 (UI 467 800-1 702 000) hospitalizations and 111 000 (UI 53 400-200 000) deaths. Successful implantation of scenario E would reduce the number of infections by 90% (ie, 550 000) and change the epidemic peak from 66 000 on June 9, to 9400 on March 1, 2020. Scenario E also reduces the hospitalizations by 92% (ie, 74 500), and deaths by 93% (ie, 7800).

Conclusion: With no approved vaccination or therapy available, we found physical distancing and isolation that include public awareness and case-finding and isolation of 40% of infected people could reduce the burden of COVID-19 in Iran by 90% by mid-June.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/ijhpm.2020.134DOI Listing
August 2020

Molecular Identification of Species in (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Western Iran.

J Arthropod Borne Dis 2020 Mar 31;14(1):8-16. Epub 2020 Mar 31.

Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis are common in some areas of Iran and consider as health problems. has been incriminated as a suspected vector for the both form of leishmaniasis.

Methods: This study was carried out in 4 western provinces of Iran. Sand flies were collected using sticky traps and light traps from indoor and outdoor resting places. Nested PCR was employed to detect parasites among collected sand flies.

Results: Seven hundred and twenty two females were collected and pooled in 179 batches. Results of nested PCR showed, out of 9 samples from East Azerbaijan Province, only one sample was infected by . Of 34 individual and pooled samples from Kermanshah Province, only one pooled sample was infected with and among 30 individual and pooled samples in Fars Province, five specimens were infected by , , and Furthermore out of 108 individual and pooled samples from Khuzestan Province, 10 samples showed infection with and .

Conclusion: The results of this study showed that is more active in hot zones than in moderate zones and this species may be considered as a permissive species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/jad.v14i1.2699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7382699PMC
March 2020

Cases of Mediterranean spotted fever in southeast of Iran.

Iran J Microbiol 2020 Jun;12(3):256-260

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

In this study the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and management of five patients diagnosed with Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) from southeast of Iran are presented. All patients but one had recent tick-bite histories which were noticeable as black eschars (tache noire). Patients' samples were tested by real-time PCR and serology (IFA). The disease was confirmed by fourfold rising of IgG antibodies against . This is the first report of MSF cases in Iran.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340602PMC
June 2020

Estimation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Burden and Potential for International Dissemination of Infection From Iran.

Ann Intern Med 2020 07;173(1):73-74

Modeling in Health Research Center, Institute for Futures Studies in Health, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran (A.A.H.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/L20-0592DOI Listing
July 2020

One Health operational framework for action for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, focusing on zoonotic diseases.

East Mediterr Health J 2020 Jun 24;26(6):720-725. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt.

Human health is intrinsically linked to the health of animals and to the environment, and efforts by just one sector alone cannot prevent or adequately address the complex problems at the human-animal-environment interface. Countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region, as any other region, face the threat of emerging and remerging zoonoses. However, the challenges in this Region are high given the lack of resources, poor health systems, and political factors. Hence, adopting the One Health approach becomes urgent to assist those countries. Subsequently, based on analysis of One Health capacities in the Region and in close consultation with representatives and subject matter experts from countries in the Region, a framework for action towards effectively implementing the One Health approach was developed. The framework capitalizes on current opportunities in the region and provide countries with a list of practical key activities towards optimal use of their resources and strengthening their capabilities to tackle concurrent and future health challenges at the interface. Strong governance structures and building on existing mechanisms are crucial for achieving effective disease surveillance and response. Additionally, using intersectoral approaches for risk assessment and risk mitigation for health issues at the human-animal-environment interface can improve efficiency and result in more successful outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/emhj.20.017DOI Listing
June 2020

Is reporting many cases of COVID-19 in Iran due to strength or weakness of Iran's health system?

Iran J Microbiol 2020 Apr;12(2):73-76

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Centre for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244828PMC
April 2020

Do the current cases reported to the WHO provide a realistic incidence rate of countries infected with COVID-19?

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2020 10;10(1):1751917. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Research Institute for Health Development, Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2020.1751917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178870PMC
April 2020

A very French connection, a brief discourse in commemoration of life and services of the late Louis Pierre Joseph Delpy on his 120 birthday anniversary.

Vet Res Forum 2019 15;10(4):271-275. Epub 2019 Dec 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute (RVSRI) turned 95 years old in 2015. Majority of the animal infectious diseases such as rinderpest and anthrax that used to frequently strike the historic Persia are now gone for good or under control owing to the pioneering researches conducted at the institute in the early-mid 20 century in the field of vaccine manufacturing. The earliest such scientific contributions, were truly made by the French eminent veterinarian Dr. Louis Pierre Joseph Delpy who joined the institute in 1931. In his 18 year-long directorship tenure he taught his colleagues fundamentals of vaccinology, basics of modern epidemiology, essentials of infectious disease control disciplines, the art of scientific writing and much more things that changed the institute for ever. This paper reviews the events and turning points in the first 25 years of service of the institute in a chronological way and remarks Delpy's principle involvements in all of these on the occasion of the 120 anniversary of his birth. At the entrance of the institute headquarter building where his bronze bust is placed, visitors can see a memorial etched plate that reads "
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30466/vrf.2019.111960.2661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7065586PMC
December 2019
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