Publications by authors named "Ehsan Ahmadpour"

91 Publications

Nanoliposomes increases Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis and apoptotic activities of metronidazole.

Acta Trop 2021 Sep 29;224:106156. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Trichomoniasis, caused by Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis), is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. As current trichomoniasis chemotherapies have many side effects, we examined the Anti-Trichomonas effects of nano-liposomal metronidazole (NLMTZ) compared to metronidazole (MTZ) in vitro. Liposomes were produced using the thin film hydration-sonication technique with a slight modification coated with MTZ. The average hydrodynamic diameter of monodispersed NLMTZ was evaluated by DLS and the morphological measurements were performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of NLMTZ and MTZ (5, 10, 20 and 40 µg/mL) on T. vaginalis trophozoites (10 cells/mL) in trypticase-yeast extract-maltose (TYM) medium were evaluated in different exposure times. Then, cell viability, IC, SEM analysis and the expression of the metacaspase gene were assessed by qRT-PCR. Growth inhibition of MTZ in a concentration of 40 μg/mL was 39.34% after 3 h, whereas NLMTZ caused 51% growth inhibition after 3 h and lysed Trichomonas completely after 12 h. The IC values were estimated at 31.51 and 15.90 μg/mL after a 6 h exposure for MTZ and NLMTZ, respectively. Moreover, both T. vaginalis treated with MTZ and NLMTZ had high levels of metacaspase mRNA expression relative to the control groups (P< 0.05). A significant difference was observed between the apoptotic intensities of T. vaginalis treated with MTZ and NLMTZ (P< 0.05). This study showed that nano-liposomal MTZ is a potentially excellent approach for the treatment of trichomoniasis in vitro, although further studies are needed before consideration of clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106156DOI Listing
September 2021

A novel enhanced dot blot immunoassay using colorimetric biosensor for detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Sep 1;79:101708. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

This study reports development of a novel point of care assay, namely an enhanced immuno-dot blot assay, for discrimination of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and anti-Toxoplasma IgM antibodies. This method has been designed based on formation of a sandwich complex between a gold nanoprobe (chitosan gold nanoparticle-anti-human IgG or anti-IgM) and anti- Toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA) which holds anti-TLA antibodies, either IgG or IgM. Briefly, anti-human IgG or anti-IgM antibody was conjugated to chitosan gold nanoparticles via glutaraldehyde chemistry. Then, lysate antigen was immobilized on the surface of nitrocellulose membrane, which followed by addition of the sera sample and gold nanoprobes. The positive signals were readily detectable via observation with naked eye. This positive color change was further intensified via gold enhancement chemistry. The intensity of biosensor signal was proportional to the concentration of active antibodies on the surface of nanoparticles, titer of T. gondii antibodies in the sera samples and concentration of Toxoplasma lysate antigen coated on the nitrocellulose membrane. A minimum concentration to use the antibodies for conjugation, to detect titer of Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, and the concentration of TLA coated in nitrocellulose membrane were 0.5 mg/mL, 2 IU/mL, 10 IU/mL, and 20 μg/mL, respectively. This enhanced immuno-dot blot assay offers a simple diagnostic technique without expensive equipment requirement for distinguishing of anti- T. gondii IgM and IgG antibodies in field conditions, pregnant women, and immunocompromised patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2021.101708DOI Listing
September 2021

Predicting the environmental suitability for onchocerciasis in Africa as an aid to elimination planning.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 07 28;15(7):e0008824. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Health Policy Planning and Management, University of Health and Allied Sciences, Ho, Ghana.

Recent evidence suggests that, in some foci, elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa may be feasible with mass drug administration (MDA) of ivermectin. To achieve continental elimination of transmission, mapping surveys will need to be conducted across all implementation units (IUs) for which endemicity status is currently unknown. Using boosted regression tree models with optimised hyperparameter selection, we estimated environmental suitability for onchocerciasis at the 5 × 5-km resolution across Africa. In order to classify IUs that include locations that are environmentally suitable, we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to identify an optimal threshold for suitability concordant with locations where onchocerciasis has been previously detected. This threshold value was then used to classify IUs (more suitable or less suitable) based on the location within the IU with the largest mean prediction. Mean estimates of environmental suitability suggest large areas across West and Central Africa, as well as focal areas of East Africa, are suitable for onchocerciasis transmission, consistent with the presence of current control and elimination of transmission efforts. The ROC analysis identified a mean environmental suitability index of 0·71 as a threshold to classify based on the location with the largest mean prediction within the IU. Of the IUs considered for mapping surveys, 50·2% exceed this threshold for suitability in at least one 5 × 5-km location. The formidable scale of data collection required to map onchocerciasis endemicity across the African continent presents an opportunity to use spatial data to identify areas likely to be suitable for onchocerciasis transmission. National onchocerciasis elimination programmes may wish to consider prioritising these IUs for mapping surveys as human resources, laboratory capacity, and programmatic schedules may constrain survey implementation, and possibly delaying MDA initiation in areas that would ultimately qualify.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008824DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8318275PMC
July 2021

Scolicidal and Apoptotic Activities of 5-hydroxy-1, 4-naphthoquinone as a Potent Agent against Protoscoleces.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 2021 Jun 28;14(7). Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Cystic hydatid disease (CHD) is a zoonotic disease with different clinical stages caused by the larval stage of the cestode . It is important to highlight as a public health problem in various regions of the world. In the current study, the efficacy and apoptotic activity of the liposomal system containing juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) were assessed against protoscoleces (PSCs) in vitro. To this aim, firstly, liposomal vesicles were prepared by the thin-film method. Their physico-chemical features were assessed using Zeta-Sizer and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Subsequently, various concentrations (50, 100, 200, 400, and 800 μg/mL) of juglone nanoliposomes at different exposure times (15, 30, 60, and 120 min) were used against PSCs. Results showed that juglone nanoliposomes at all tested concentrations induced scolicidal effect, however, 800 μg/mL and 400 μg/mL of juglone nanoliposomes could reach 100% mortality in 60 and 120 min, respectively. Additionally, we found that caspase-3 mRNA expression was higher in PSCs treated with juglone nanoliposomes compared to control groups ( < 0.001). Therefore, juglone nanoliposomes are suggested to have a more potent apoptotic effect on PSCs. Generally, optimized doses of juglone nanoliposomes could display significant scolicidal effects. Moreover, further in vivo studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of this nanoliposome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14070623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308472PMC
June 2021

The role of IL-12 in stimulating NK cells against Toxoplasma gondii infection: a mini-review.

Parasitol Res 2021 Jul 10;120(7):2303-2309. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that can remarkably infect, survive, and replicate in almost all mammalian cells and can cause severe neurological and ocular damage in immunocompromised individuals. It is known that Natural Killer cells (NK cells), as a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte, have critical protective roles in innate immunity during the T. gondii infection through releasing interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is a pivotal critical cytokine for the generation of IFN-γ-producing NK cells. Several studies have shown cytokines' impact on NK cell activation; and IL-2 has an important role with a potent stimulatory factor for NK cells. In this review, we summarized the mechanism of interleukin-12 production stimulation by T. gondii tachyzoites and discussed several factors affecting this mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-021-07204-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Expression analysis of circulating miR-146a and miR-155 as novel biomarkers related to effective immune responses in human cystic echinococcosis.

Microb Pathog 2021 Aug 20;157:104962. Epub 2021 May 20.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Cystic echinococcosis, an important zoonotic disease, is caused by Echinococcus granulosus. MicroRNAs are a small group of single-stranded noncoding RNAs, which play an effective role in biological processes. This study aimed at comparing the expression levels of miR-146a and miR-155 in the plasma of patients with hydatidosis and healthy individuals. A group of 20 patients with hydatid cyst formed a study group and 20 healthy individuals with no known chronic diseases formed a control group. Plasma samples were collected from hydatidosis patients as well as sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers. After that, RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis were done and the expression levels of miR-146a and miR-155 were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for both groups. The results indicated that the level of miR-146a increased in all patients with hydatidosis compared to the control group. Also, the level of miR-155 increased in all hydatidosis patients, but no correlation was observed in the level of miR-155 between the two groups. The results also revealed that miR-146a and miR-155 upregulation in the plasma leads to the development of novel biomarkers for echinococcosis. One of the reasons for the increase of miRNAs in hydatidosis may be their role in modulating the immune system. These miRNAs are likely to be considered as one of the most important biomarkers in determining the severity of hydatidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104962DOI Listing
August 2021

Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic and wild felids as public health concerns: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 05 4;11(1):9509. Epub 2021 May 4.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Felidae as definitive hosts for Toxoplasma gondii play a major role in transmission to all warm-blooded animals trough oocysts dissemination. Therefore the current comprehensive study was performed to determine the global status of T. gondii infection in domestic and wild felids aiming to provide comprehensive data of interest for further intervention approaching the One Health perspective. Different databases were searched by utilizing particular key words for publications related to T. gondii infecting domestic and wild feline host species, worldwide, from 1970 to 2020. The review of 337 reports showed that the seroprevalence of T. gondii in domestic cats and wild felids was estimated in 37.5% (95% CI 34.7-40.3) (I = 98.3%, P < 0.001) and 64% (95% CI 60-67.9) (I = 88%, P < 0.0001), respectively. The global pooled prevalence of oocysts in the fecal examined specimens from domestic cats was estimated in 2.6% (95% CI 1.9-3.3) (I = 96.1%, P < 0.0001), and that in fecal samples from wild felids was estimated in 2.4% (95% CI 1.1-4.2) (I = 86.4%, P < 0.0001). In addition, from 13,252 examined soil samples in 14 reviewed studies, the pooled occurrence of T. gondii oocysts was determined in 16.2% (95% CI 7.66-27.03%). The observed high rates of anti-T. gondii antibodies seroprevalence levels and oocyst excretion frequency in the felids, along with soil (environmental) contamination with oocysts may constitute a potential threat to animal and public health, and data will result of interest in further prophylaxis programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89031-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097069PMC
May 2021

Development of Optical Biosensor Using Protein A-Conjugated Chitosan-Gold Nanoparticles for Diagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis.

Biosensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 25;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz 51666-14766, Iran.

Human echinococcosis is a serious parasitic diseasethat still affects millions of people in many parts of the world. Since it can offer a critical threat to people's health, it is important to discover a rapid, convenient, and economical method for detection. Herein, we propose a novel point of care assay, namely, an enhanced immuno-dot-blot assay for diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (hydatidosis). This method is based on the formation of a sandwich complex between a goldnanoprobe (chitosan-gold nanoparticleprotein A) and hydatid cyst antigen (Ag B), which holds anti-Ag B antibodies. Briefly, protein A was conjugated to chitosan-gold nanoparticles via glutaraldehyde chemistry. Then, Ag B was immobilized on the surface of a nitrocellulose membrane, which was followed by the addition of the sera sample and gold nanoprobes. The positive signals were easily detectable by naked eye. The signal intensity of this biosensor was proportional to the concentration of active anti- antibodies on the surface of the nanoparticles, titer of antibodies in the sera samples, and concentration of Ag B coated on the nitrocellulose membrane. The minimum concentration to use the protein A for conjugation to detect titer of anti- IgGand the concentration of Ag B coated in nitrocellulose membrane were 0.5 and 0.3 mg/mL, respectively. This enhanced immuno-dot-blot assay offers a simple diagnostic technique withoutthe need for expensive equipment for diagnosis of echinococcosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bios11050134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8145565PMC
April 2021

MicroRNA-365 promotes apoptosis in human melanoma cell A375 treated with hydatid cyst fluid of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto.

Microb Pathog 2021 Apr 17;153:104804. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Hydatid cyst fluid (HCF)-based therapeutics has experimentally targeted approaches for treating human cancer cell lines. MicroRNA-365 (miR-365) has been reported to be an important tumor suppressor miRNA in cancers. However, it remains unknown, how miR-365 plays a pivotal role in inducing apoptosis in HCF-treated cancer cells in vitro. The fertile/infertile HCF was aspirated from liver of infected sheep and in terms of molecular taxonomy was identified as G1 genotype of Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto. A375 human melanoma cancer cells were cultured into two groups: fertile and infertile HCF-treated A375 cells. To assess the cytotoxicity of various concentrations of HCF on melanoma cells, cell viability was determined by using MTT assay. The IC50 value of HCF on A375 cells was determined 85 μg/mL. Caspase-3 enzymatic activity was evaluated by fluorometric assay in the HCF-treated melanoma cells. In addition, the mRNA expression of Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase-9 and miR-365 were determined by qRT-PCR. Findings of MTT assay showed that concentrations 85 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL of fertile HCF have the highest mortality (50%-52%) on A375 cells during 24 h. The fold change of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Caspase-9, miR-365 and Caspase-3 activity was higher in the fertile HCF-treated melanoma cells compared to infertile fluid treated A375 cells and human normal epithelial cell (as control cell). In conclusion, we over-expressed the miR-365 in melanoma A375 cells, via treatment of fertile HCF. Our findings suggested that inducing high expression of miR-365 might be a negative regulator of melanoma growth through activation of pro-apoptotic Bax, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 that are essential to intrinsic apoptotic pathway. These findings provide new insights into the use of Echinococcus HCF-derived metabolites in the design of drug therapies and in vivo tumor cell vaccine to combat melanoma progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104804DOI Listing
April 2021

Immunogenicity of in-silico designed multi-epitope DNA vaccine encoding SAG1, SAG3 and SAG5 of Toxoplasma gondii adjuvanted with CpG-ODN against acute toxoplasmosis in BALB/c mice.

Acta Trop 2021 Apr 21;216:105836. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

The causative agent of toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), is able to influence the health of humans and other vertebrates. Toxoplasma may cause severe illness in the fetus and immunocompromised individuals. The high incidence and intense damages of Toxoplasma infection clearly shows the need to achieve the safe and suitable vaccine. In this study, an immunoinformatics approach was employed to design a multi-epitope DNA vaccine encoding the T. gondii SAG1, SAG3 and SAG5. The bioinformatic outputs supported the immunogenic and non-allergic natures of multi-epitope vaccine. Thereafter, the protective efficacy of the vaccine was evaluated with/without CpG-ODN adjuvant in a laboratory animal model. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with multi-epitope DNA vaccine. The in vivo findings indicated that the multi-epitope DNA vaccine elicited significant production of IgG antibodies (472.90 ± 2.74 ng/ml) as well as IFN-γ (173.71 ± 26.39 pg/ml) (p < 0.001). Moreover, a significant reduced parasite-burden (17,470 per mg of spleen) and prolonged survival time (9 days) were observed in the immunized groups compared to the controls (p < 0.05). The low values of IL-4 (22.5 ± 0.16 pg/ml) were detected in vaccinated mice compared to the control (PBS) (p > 0.05). In addition, CpG-ODN as an adjuvant increased the immune efficacy of the multi-epitope DNA vaccine. In multi-epitope vaccine+CpG-ODN group, the values of IgG antibodies (535.90 ±7.29 ng/ml) and IFN-γ (358.21 ± 32.70 pg/ml) were significanly higher than the multi-epitope vaccine group. Meanwhile, an increased survival time (10 days) and fewer parasite load (15,485 per mg of spleen) were observed in multi-epitope vaccine+CpG-ODN group. The results revealed that the DNA vaccine containing epitopes of SAG1, SAG3 and SAG5 adjuvanted with CpG-ODN might be a new model for further investigations against acute T. gondii infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105836DOI Listing
April 2021

Protective effect of a DNA vaccine cocktail encoding ROP13 and GRA14 with Alum nano-adjuvant against Toxoplasma gondii infection in mice.

Int J Biochem Cell Biol 2021 03 7;132:105920. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that can cause serious public health problems. The development of a safe and effective vaccine against T. gondii is urgently needed to prevent and control the spread of toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immune responses induced by a pcGRA14 + pcROP13 vaccine cocktail in BALB/c mice. All groups were immunized intramuscularly three times at two-week intervals. The production of anti-Toxoplasma gondii lysate antigen (TLA) antibodies, lymphocyte proliferation, serum levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokines and the survival time were monitored after vaccination and challenged with the virulent RH strain of T. gondii. The results showed that immunization with the pcGRA14 + pcROP13 DNA vaccine significantly increased the production of specific IgG antibodies and cytokines against toxoplasmosis. Interestingly, high levels of IgG2a and IFN-γ were found in animals vaccinated with DNA vaccine cocktail. Furthermore, immunized mice challenged with the RH strain of T. gondii showed prolonged survival time when compared to control groups (P <0.05). The present study demonstrates the potential of a DNA cocktail vaccine expressing pcGRA14 and pcROP13 in developing specific immune responses and providing effective protection against T. gondii infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2021.105920DOI Listing
March 2021

Toxoplasma gondii infection as a potential risk for chronic liver diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2020 Dec 16;149:104578. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Infectious Diseases Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii, the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, can cause serious public health problems. Although Toxoplasma gondii tends more to neurotropic and ocular organs, some existing evidence suggest that this disease might induce serious pathological effects on liver. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between chronic liver diseases and toxoplasmosis. Meanwhile, it attempted to assess whether patients with toxoplasmosis are susceptible to chronic liver diseases. To achieve this aim, the published studies related to the subject were systematically searched in five major electronic databases between the January 1, 1950 and October 1, 2019. The meta-analysis was carried out using the StatsDirect statistical software and a p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant for any test. Out of 691 identified studies, 10 studies met our inclusion criteria and entered this systematic review. The pooled prevalence rates of Toxoplasma gondii in patients with liver diseases (35.97%; 95% CI: 28.38-43.93) were higher than those in the control group (18.24%; 95% CI: 13.85-23.09). The meta-analysis indicated that the common Odd Ratio by a random effect model was 2.7 (95% CI: 2.30-3.24), revealing a significant association between chronic liver diseases and anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibody. The results of this systematic review confirmed the positive connection between toxoplasmosis and chronic liver diseases. Nonetheless, more studies are needed to clarify the detailed association between these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104578DOI Listing
December 2020

Status of human toxocariasis, a neglected parasitic zoonosis in Iran: a systematic review from past to current.

Trop Doct 2020 Oct 17;50(4):285-291. Epub 2020 Jun 17.

Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, 48432Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Although human toxocariasis can lead to serious complications including neurological, ocular and visceral complications, there is a lack of comprehensive epidemiological information about the seroprevalence of species in humans. In the present study, we analysed and reviewed the overall seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in Iran. The data collection was systematically undertaken on published articles using the PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases. A total of 27 studies from the past two decades reporting seroprevalence of human toxocariasis met our eligibility criteria. The pooled proportion of infection was estimated as 6.58% (95% confidence interval = 3.98-9.77). A wide variation between different studies was observed (Q statistic = 799.37, df = 26,  < 0.0001, and I = 96.7%). The seroprevalence rate of toxocariasis in the Iranian population is relatively high; contamination of the environment by eggs from the host as well as from household dogs and cats should be blamed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475520931545DOI Listing
October 2020

Pediculosis capitis among school-age students worldwide as an emerging public health concern: a systematic review and meta-analysis of past five decades.

Parasitol Res 2020 Oct 15;119(10):3125-3143. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy.

Pediculosis by Pediculus humanus capitis is still an important health issue in school-age students worldwide. Although pediculicidal agents effectively kill head lice, the re-infestation rate is still high. This study was conducted to provide a summary of evidence about the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among school-age students worldwide. Different databases including MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for publications related to pediculosis capitis in school-age students from 1977 to 2020. All peer-reviewed original research articles describing pediculosis capitis among school-age students were included. Statistical heterogeneity of the different years among studies was assessed using the standard chi squared and I tests. Due to the significant heterogeneity, a random effect model was adopted to estimate the pooled, continent, and gender-specific prevalence of pediculosis. Two hundred and one papers met the inclusion criteria of this review and entered into the meta-analysis including 1,218,351 individuals. Through a random effect model, the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among school students was estimated as 19% (CI 95% = 0.18-0.20%, I = 99.89%). The prevalence of pediculosis capitis among boys was 7% (CI 95% = 0.05-0.10) compared to 19% (CI 95% = 0.15-0.24) in girls. The highest prevalence was in Central and South America (33%, CI 95% = 0.22-0.44, I = 99.81%) and the lowest was in Europe (5%, CI 95% = 4-6, I = 99.28%). Relatively high pediculosis capitis prevalence among school-age students observed in this study emphasizes the need for implementing screening and prophylaxis tailored to the local context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06847-5DOI Listing
October 2020

Current situation and future prospects of Echinococcus granulosus vaccine candidates: A systematic review.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2021 May 20;68(3):1080-1096. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Infectious and Tropical Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Cystic echinococcosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease, represents a threat for livestock and humans, manifests as a quiescent, subclinical and chronic hydatid cyst infection. The disease imposes high expenditures and economic losses in medical and veterinary. Prophylactic vaccination would be one of the effective preventive health care against echinococcosis. During the last decades, many studies have characterized the protective antigens of Echinococcus granulosus and their role in immunization of various animal host species. Herein, we aimed to systematically evaluate and represent the best antigens as possible vaccine candidates for cystic echinococcosis. Data were systematically searched from five databases including ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Web of Science, up to 1 February 2020. Two reviewers independently screened and assessed data extraction and quality assessment. A total of 47 articles were eligible for inclusion criteria in the current study. The most common antigens used for vaccination against E. granulosus were EG95 and antigen B. Freund's adjuvant and Quil A have been predominantly utilized. In addition, regarding the antigen delivery, animal models, measurement of immune responses and reduction in hydatid cyst have been discussed in the text. The data demonstrated that DNA vaccines with antigen B and recombinant protein vaccines based on EG95 antigen have the best results and elicited protective immune responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13772DOI Listing
May 2021

Isolation and Genotypic Characterization of Based on GRA6 Gene from Environmental Soil Samples in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran.

Iran J Parasitol 2020 Apr-Jun;15(2):158-167

Toxoplasmosis Research Center (TRC), Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Soil is one of the environmental sources of oocysts. The other hand, genotype of the parasite is one of the important factors for its pathogenicity. Due to the importance of toxoplasmosis on public health, this study aimed to isolation and genotyping of in environmental soil samples of Mazandaran Province, north of Iran.

Methods: Overall, 192 soil samples were collected from different areas in Mazandaran Province from Apr to Sep 2014. The flotation method was used for recovering oocysts. Then, soil samples were investigated for DNA detection of using nested PCR of RE gene, genotyping with Semi-nested PCR of GRA6 gene and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Results were analyzed using Chi-squared test. A significant difference was considered with a <0.05.

Results: From 192 soil samples, DNA was detected in 150 samples (78.1%). Then genotype of 23 samples was determined (91.3% type I and 8.7% type II).

Conclusion: Prevalence of in soil samples of Mazandaran province, north of Iran is high and GRA6 type I is predominant. Soil can be the most important source of severe toxoplasmosis in this province.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7311813PMC
June 2020

High Parasitic Contamination of Soil Samples in the North of Iran: A Potential Risk of Parasitic Infection for Tourists.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2021 ;21(3):439-444

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran.

Background: Soil-transmitted parasites (STPs) are significant intestinal parasites that infect humans and animals and impose considerable burdens on human society and animal husbandry industries. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the prevalence of parasitic elements of soil samples collected from the north of Iran.

Methods: A total of 256 soil samples were collected from public parks, public places, vegetable gardens, sand heaps, and shadow areas near houses in the north of Iran and examined using the sucrose flotation method.

Results: Out of 256 examined samples, 131 (51.2%) showed parasitic contamination, including larvae (43%), oocysts (14.1%), and different eggs (6.6%). According to the results, the most and least common parasites observed in the samples were larvae (43%), as well as Toxascaris leonina, and Trichuris trichiura (0.4%), respectively. Moreover, the most and least contaminated locations were sand heaps (62.5%) and shadow areas near houses (45.6%), respectively. Regarding cities, Behshahr (68.3%) and Sari (67.5%) had the highest contaminated soil samples, whereas Chalus (37.5%) showed the lowest contamination. On the other hand, rural samples showed more contamination compared to urban areas (P< 0.05).

Conclusion: The findings of the present study indicate that the overall prevalence of STPs in examined areas and highly contaminated soil samples can be considered as a potential source of human contamination particularly tourists with STPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200602150446DOI Listing
September 2021

Recent advances on innate immune pathways related to host-parasite cross-talk in cystic and alveolar echinococcosis.

Parasit Vectors 2020 May 6;13(1):232. Epub 2020 May 6.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) are life-threatening parasitic infections worldwide caused by Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) and E. multilocularis, respectively. Very little is known about the factors affecting innate susceptibility and resistance to infection with Echinococcus spp. Although benzimidazolic drugs against CE and AE have definitively improved the treatment of these cestodes; however, the lack of successful control campaigns, including the EG95 vaccine, at a continental level indicates the importance of generating novel therapies. This review represents an update on the latest developments in the regulatory functions of innate immune pathways such as apoptosis, toll-like receptors (TLRs), and inflammasomes against CE and AE. We suggest that apoptosis can reciprocally play a bi-functional role among the host-Echinococcus metabolite relationships in suppressive and survival mechanisms of CE. Based on the available information, further studies are needed to determine whether the orchestrated in silico strategy for designing inhibitors and interfering RNA against anti-apoptotic proteins and TLRs would be effective to improve new treatments as well as therapeutic vaccines against the E. granulosus and E. multilocularis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04103-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204293PMC
May 2020

Cryptosporidiosis in HIV-positive patients and related risk factors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Parasite 2020 30;27:27. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 5166-15731 Tabriz, Iran.

Cryptosporidium is one of the major causes of diarrhea in HIV-positive patients. The aim of this study is to systematically review and meta-analyze the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in these patients. PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Cochrane and Ovid databases were searched for relevant studies dating from the period of 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2017. Data extraction for the included studies was performed independently by two authors. The overall pooled prevalence was calculated and subgroup analysis was performed on diagnostic methods, geographical distribution and study population. Meta-regression was performed on the year of publication, proportion of patients with diarrhea, and proportion of patients with CD4 < 200 cells/mL. One hundred and sixty-one studies and 51,123 HIV-positive participants were included. The overall pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in HIV-positive patients was 11.2% (CI95%: 9.4%-13.0%). The pooled prevalence was estimated to be 10.0% (CI95%: 8.4%-11.8%) using staining methods, 13.5% (CI95%: 8.9%-19.8%) using molecular methods, and 26.3% (CI95%: 15.0%-42.0%) using antigen detection methods. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium in HIV patients was significantly associated with the country of study. Also, there were statistical differences between the diarrhea, CD4 < 200 cells/mL, and antiretroviral therapy risk factors with Cryptosporidiosis. Thus, Cryptosporidium is a common infection in HIV-positive patients, and safe water and hand-hygiene should be implemented to prevent cryptosporidiosis occurrence in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2020025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191976PMC
December 2020

Global assessment of genetic paradigms of Pvmdr1 mutations in chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax isolates.

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2020 05;114(5):339-345

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Chloroquine (CQ) is generally prescribed as the front-line antimalarial drug of choice to treat Plasmodium vivax infections; however, some clinical CQ-resistant P. vivax isolates have been indigenously reported around the world during the last decade.

Methods: In this study, P. vivax isolates (n=52) were obtained from autochthonous samples in southeast Iran during 2015-2017. The genomic DNA of samples was extracted, amplified (nested PCR) and sequenced by targeting the multidrug-resistance 1 gene. To verify the global genetic diversity of CQ-resistant P. vivax strains, the sequences of Pvmdr1 originating from Asia and the Americas were retrieved.

Results: A total of 46 haplotypes were grouped into three distinct geographical haplogroups. The haplotype diversity and occurrence rates of Pvmdr1 976F/1076L mutations indicate that the efficacy of CQ is being compromised in Mexico, China, Nicaragua, Thailand, Brazil (2016), Ethiopia, Mauritania (2012) and southwest India in the near future. The cladistic phylogenetic tree showed that Pvmdr1 sequences isolated from the southeast Asian clade has a partial sister relationship with the American clade.

Conclusions: The current findings will serve as a basis to develop appropriate malaria control strategies and public health policies in symptomatic imported malaria cases or plausible CQ-resistant P. vivax strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/traa002DOI Listing
May 2020

Serum profile of IL-1β and IL-17 cytokines in patients with visceral leishmaniasis.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Apr 7;69:101431. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran. Electronic address:

Leishmania is an intracellular protozoan parasite, mainly infects macrophages of mammalian tissues. Inflammatory related cytokines have a crucial role in the pathogenesis of leishmaniasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum concentrations of IL-1β and IL-17 in patients with active visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and control group. Serum concentrations of both IL-1β and IL-17 cytokines were assessed by ELISA in Leishmania infantum infected patients (n = 25) and healthy individuals (n = 25) from Meshkin-Shahr, northwest of Iran. Mean serum concentrations of IL-1β in the patients and control groups were 47.34 ± 23.82, and 20.49 ± 9.38, respectively, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Furthermore, mean IL-17 concentration in patients with VL (243.96 ± 73.46) was twice higher comparing to control group (106.38 ± 129.06) (p < 0.001). Several cytokines are involved in the regulation of immunity against VL. The present data has shown that, increased serum concentrations of IL-1β and IL-17 are present in the patients with VL. Further investigations are needed to enhance our knowledge about the regulatory role of these cytokines in leishmaniasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2020.101431DOI Listing
April 2020

Corrigendum to: Transfusion-Transmitted Malaria: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Open Forum Infect Dis 2020 Jan 24;7(1):ofz540. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Division of Infection and Global Health Research, School of Medicine, University of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland, UK.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/ofid/ofz283.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofz540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6979001PMC
January 2020

Toxoplasma gondii surface antigen 1 (SAG1) as a potential candidate to develop vaccine against toxoplasmosis: A systematic review.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Apr 7;69:101414. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.. Electronic address:

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that infects a broad range of animal species and humans. As the main surface antigen of the tachyzoite, SAG1 is involved in the process of recognition, adhesion and invasion of host cells. The aim of the current systematic review study is to clarify the latest status of studies in the literature regarding SAG1-associated recombinant proteins or SAG1-associated recombinant DNAs as potential vaccines against toxoplasmosis. Data were systematically collected from six databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, EBSCO and Scopus, up to 1st of January 2019. A total of 87 articles were eligible for inclusion criteria in the current systematic review. The most common antigens used for experimental cocktail vaccines together with SAG1 were ROP2 and SAG2. In addition, the most parasite strains used were RH and ME49. Freund's adjuvant and cholera toxin have been predominantly utilized. Furthermore, regarding the animal models, route and dose of vaccination, challenge methods, measurement of immune responses and cyst burden have been discussed in the text. Most of these experimental vaccines induce immune responses and have a high degree of protection against parasite infections, increase survival rates and duration and reduce cyst burdens. The data demonstrated that SAG1 antigen has a high potential for use as a vaccine and provided a promising approach for protecting humans and animals against toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2020.101414DOI Listing
April 2020

A serological investigation and genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii among Iranian blood donors indicates threat to health of blood recipients.

Transfus Apher Sci 2020 Jun 9;59(3):102723. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Sari, Iran; Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Science, Mazandaran, Sari, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease in animals and human caused by the intracellular obligatory protozoan named Toxoplasma gondii. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sero-molecular prevalence and genotyping T. gondii among healthy blood donors in north of Iran.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 400 blood donors participated from all Blood Transfusion Organization (BTO) in Mazandaran province during October and November 2014. The blood samples were investigated for seroprevalence, DNA detection and genotyping of T. gondii using ELISA, nested-PCR, and Multilocus nested-PCR-RFLP methods respectively.

Results: Among all of blood donors, 294 (73.5 %) and 9 (2.2 %) cases were seropositive for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies. T. gondii DNA was detected in 7 samples. Four genotype of T. gondii were identified in blood donors samples (Genotype ToxoDB#1, #2, #10 and #27), which 50 % of T. gondii strains were highly pathogenic.

Conclusions: Taking into account survive T. gondii in blood transfusion bag, the high prevalence of T. gondii and existence of pathogenic genotypes in Iranian blood donors, it seems that T. gondii screening should be performed at the BTO to prevent complications of toxoplasmosis in blood recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2020.102723DOI Listing
June 2020

How Molecular Epidemiology Can Affect Tuberculosis Control in the Middle East Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2021 ;21(1):28-37

Department of Medical Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Background: Nowadays, due to the incidence of specific strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and also an increase in the rate of drug resistant-TB, the mortality rate has been increased by this disease. The identification of common strains in the region, as well as the sources of transmission, is essential to control the disease, which is possible by using molecular epidemiology.

Objectives: In this survey, the studies utilizing the spoligotyping method in Muslim Middle East countries are reviewed to determine their role in the control of TB.

Methods: All studies conducted from 2005 to June 2016 were considered systematically in three electronic databases out of which 23 studies were finally selected.

Results: The average rate of clustering was 84% and the rate of recent transmission varied from 21.7% to 92.4%. The incidence of Beijing strains has been found to be rising in the abovementioned countries. In Iran and Saudi Arabia known as immigration and labour-hosting countries, respectively, rapid transmittable and drug-resistant Beijing strains were higher than those in other Muslim Middle East countries.

Conclusion: Considering the incidence of highly virulent strains, due to the increase in immigration and people infected with HIV, tuberculosis, especially drug-resistant form, careful monitoring is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526520666200106123619DOI Listing
September 2021

Interactions between hydatid cyst and regulated cell death may provide new therapeutic opportunities.

Parasite 2019 29;26:70. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 5166/15731 Tabriz, Iran - Department of Parasitology and Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 5166/15731 Tabriz, Iran.

Cystic echinococcosis and alveolar echinococcosis are chronic zoonotic infections, transmitted throughout the world. Development of the cestode larval stages in the liver and lungs causes damage to intermediate hosts, including humans. Several pathways leading to the suppression of host immune response and the survival of the cysts in various hosts are known. Immune response modulation and regulated cell death (RCD) play a fundamental role in cyst formation, development and pathogenesis. RCD, referring to apoptosis, necrosis and autophagy, can be triggered either via intrinsic or extrinsic cell stimuli. In this review, we provide a general overview of current knowledge on the process of RCD during echinococcosis. The study of interactions between RCD and Echinococcus spp. metacestodes may provide in-depth understanding of echinococcosis pathogenesis and open new horizons for human intervention and treatment of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2019070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6884020PMC
May 2020

Global status of Toxoplasma gondii infection and associated risk factors in people living with HIV.

AIDS 2020 03;34(3):469-474

Research Center for Evidence Based Medicine (RCEBM), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: Toxoplasma infection remains as the most common cause of focal brain lesions among people living with HIV (PLHIV) despite the decline in opportunistic infections with the introduction of antiretroviral treatment. This study was conducted to provide a summary of evidence about the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and prevalence of active T. gondii infection and associated risk factors among PLHIV.

Design: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were followed. Scopus, PubMed, Science Direct and EMBASE were searched from 1997 to July 2018. All peer-reviewed original research articles describing T. gondii infection among PLHIV with different diagnostic methods were included.

Methods: Incoherence and heterogeneity between studies were quantified by I index and Cochran's Q test. Publication and population bias were assessed with funnel plots and Egger's regression asymmetry test. All statistical analyses were performed using StatsDirect.

Results: In total, 111 studies from 37 countries assessing 66 139 blood samples were included in this study. The pooled prevalence of T. gondii infection among PLHIV was 3.24% by IgM and 26.22% by molecular methods using the random-effects model. Pooled seroprevalence of T. gondii by IgG was 44.22%. There was a relationship between Toxoplasma prevalence and sex, raw meat consumption, contact with cat and knowledge about toxoplasmosis.

Conclusion: High Toxoplasma seroprevalence among PLHIV observed in this study emphasizes the need for implementing screening and prophylaxis tailored to the local context. Owing to the serious and significant clinical manifestations of the parasite in case of reactivation, early identification of seropositivity for initiating prophylaxis among those with a CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/ml is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002424DOI Listing
March 2020

Parasite-derived microRNAs in plasma as novel promising biomarkers for the early detection of hydatid cyst infection and post-surgery follow-up.

Acta Trop 2020 Feb 1;202:105255. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Immunology Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Currently, cystic echinococcosis (CE) follow-up is a serious concern among surgeons. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, endogenous, non-coding RNAs which are present in human body fluids in a highly stable form. Recently, it is observed that Echinococcus granulosus expresses a large number of miRNAs in its developmental stages. The current study aimed at evaluating the capacity of parasitic miRNAs to serve as plasma biomarkers for hydatid cysts before and after CE surgery. Hydatidosis patients were identified using radiological and histopathological examinations. Following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, the expression levels of parasite-derived miRNAs including egr-miR-71 and egr-let-7 were quantitatively evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in 30 hydatid cyst-infected individuals before surgery and an equal number of healthy controls. Then, three- and six-month follow-ups were performed after cystectomy. To analyze parasite-derived miRNAs, the relative fold change between uninfected and infected samples was determined and normalized to hsa-miR-16-5p as the housekeeping internal control. RT-PCR demonstrated that egr-miR-71 and egr-let-7 were specifically amplified in all the plasma samples from the infected individuals with hydatid cyst; yet they were significantly down-regulated at three and six months' post-surgery (P < 0.05). The egr-miR-71 had a higher level of expression in larval stage compared with egr-let-7. The results of the current study indicated that hydatid cyst-derived miRNAs including egr-miR-71 and egr-let-7 can be detected in human plasma. Considering the changes in the expression levels of these miRNAs after three and six months, it seems that these miRNAs, especially egr-miR-71, could serve as novel promising biomarkers for the early diagnosis and monitoring of hydatidosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105255DOI Listing
February 2020

Anti-Toxoplasma Activities of Zea Mays and Eryngium Caucasicum Extracts, In Vitro and In Vivo.

J Pharmacopuncture 2019 Sep 30;22(3):154-159. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide health problem that caused by intracellular apicomplexan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Considering that the available drugs for toxoplasmosis have serious host toxicity, the aim of the current study was to survey the in vitro and in vivo anti-Toxoplasma activity of Zea mays (Z. mays) and Eryngium caucasicum (E. caucasicum) extracts.

Methods: Four concentrations (5, 10, 25, and 50 mg mL) of Z. mays and E. caucasicum methanolic extracts for 30, 60, 120, and 180 min were incubated with infected macrophages and then the viability of RH strain of T. gondii tachyzoites was evaluated by trypan blue staining method. Also, we evaluated the survival rate of acutely infected mice with the extracts (100 and 200 mg kg day) intraperitoneally for 5 days after infection with 2× 104 tachyzoites of T. gondii.

Results: The anti-Toxoplasma effect of the methanolic extracts were extremely significant compared to the negative control group in all exposure times (P < 0.05). The Z. mays (10, 25 and 50 mg mL) killed 100% of the parasites after 180 and 120 min exposure, respectively. Also, high toxoplasmacidal activity was observed with E. caucasicum extract. Furthermore, treatment of experimentally infected mice with the Z. mays (100, 200 mg kg day) and E. caucasicum (100 mg kg day) significantly increased their survival rate compared to untreated infected control (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: These extracts are promising candidates for further medicine development on toxoplasmosis. However, further investigations are necessary to clarify effective fractions of the Z. mays and E. caucasicum extracts and the mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3831/KPI.2019.22.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6820479PMC
September 2019

Targeting Strategies in Therapeutic Applications of Toxoplasmosis: Recent Advances in Liposomal Vaccine Delivery Systems.

Curr Drug Targets 2020 ;21(6):541-558

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Toxoplasma gondii is a prevalent parasitic pathogen that infected over one-third of the global population. Toxoplasmosis is diagnosed by isolating the parasite and detecting host antibodies. In contrast, the main problem with diagnosis relates to the sensitivity and specificity of the tests. Currently, treatment with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine is recommended, despite their side effects and toxicity to humans. Moreover, the absence of a vaccine to completely protect against this infection is the main obstacle to the effective treatment and prevention of toxoplasmosis. Recently, nanoparticles and nanomaterials have been studied as delivery systems for the immunization and treatment of T. gondii infections. One of the most important applications of liposomes is drug and vaccine delivery, due to their biodegradability, low inherent toxicity, and immunogenicity. Liposomes are flexible delivery systems and immunological adjuvants able not only to load diverse antigens, such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates but also to combine them with immunostimulators. Liposomes have the incredible potential within the development of modern types of vaccines and numerous endeavors have been made to improve the effectiveness of vaccines in recent years. In this review, we concentrate on the viable targeting strategies of liposome-based vaccine delivery systems to prevent, control and treat toxoplasmosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389450120666191023151423DOI Listing
February 2021
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