Publications by authors named "Egon Deyaert"

7 Publications

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Allosteric modulation of the GTPase activity of a bacterial LRRK2 homolog by conformation-specific Nanobodies.

Biochem J 2020 04;477(7):1203-1218

VIB-VUB Center for Structural Biology, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.

Mutations in the Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated protein leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) commonly lead to a reduction of GTPase activity and increase in kinase activity. Therefore, strategies for drug development have mainly been focusing on the design of LRRK2 kinase inhibitors. We recently showed that the central RocCOR domains (Roc: Ras of complex proteins; COR: C-terminal of Roc) of a bacterial LRRK2 homolog cycle between a dimeric and monomeric form concomitant with GTP binding and hydrolysis. PD-associated mutations can slow down GTP hydrolysis by stabilizing the protein in its dimeric form. Here, we report the identification of two Nanobodies (NbRoco1 and NbRoco2) that bind the bacterial Roco protein (CtRoco) in a conformation-specific way, with a preference for the GTP-bound state. NbRoco1 considerably increases the GTP turnover rate of CtRoco and reverts the decrease in GTPase activity caused by a PD-analogous mutation. We show that NbRoco1 exerts its effect by allosterically interfering with the CtRoco dimer-monomer cycle through the destabilization of the dimeric form. Hence, we provide the first proof of principle that allosteric modulation of the RocCOR dimer-monomer cycle can alter its GTPase activity, which might present a potential novel strategy to overcome the effect of LRRK2 PD mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20190843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7135905PMC
April 2020

Structure and nucleotide-induced conformational dynamics of the Roco protein.

Biochem J 2019 01 7;476(1):51-66. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

VIB-VUB Center for Structural Biology, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium

The LRR (leucine-rich repeat)-Roc (Ras of complex proteins)-COR (C-terminal of Roc) domains are central to the action of nearly all Roco proteins, including the Parkinson's disease-associated protein LRRK2 (leucine-rich repeat kinase 2). We previously demonstrated that the Roco protein from (CtRoco) undergoes a dimer-monomer cycle during the GTPase reaction, with the protein being mainly dimeric in the nucleotide-free and GDP (guanosine-5'-diphosphate)-bound states and monomeric in the GTP (guanosine-5'-triphosphate)-bound state. Here, we report a crystal structure of CtRoco in the nucleotide-free state showing for the first time the arrangement of the LRR-Roc-COR. This structure reveals a compact dimeric arrangement and shows an unanticipated intimate interaction between the Roc GTPase domains in the dimer interface, involving residues from the P-loop, the switch II loop, the G4 region and a loop which we named the 'Roc dimerization loop'. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is subsequently used to highlight structural alterations induced by individual steps along the GTPase cycle. The structure and HDX-MS data propose a pathway linking nucleotide binding to monomerization and relaying the conformational changes via the Roc switch II to the LRR and COR domains. Together, this work provides important new insights in the regulation of the Roco proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20180803DOI Listing
January 2019

A homologue of the Parkinson's disease-associated protein LRRK2 undergoes a monomer-dimer transition during GTP turnover.

Nat Commun 2017 10 18;8(1):1008. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

VIB-VUB Center for Structural Biology, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels, Belgium.

Mutations in LRRK2 are a common cause of genetic Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 is a multi-domain Roco protein, harbouring kinase and GTPase activity. In analogy with a bacterial homologue, LRRK2 was proposed to act as a GTPase activated by dimerization (GAD), while recent reports suggest LRRK2 to exist under a monomeric and dimeric form in vivo. It is however unknown how LRRK2 oligomerization is regulated. Here, we show that oligomerization of a homologous bacterial Roco protein depends on the nucleotide load. The protein is mainly dimeric in the nucleotide-free and GDP-bound states, while it forms monomers upon GTP binding, leading to a monomer-dimer cycle during GTP hydrolysis. An analogue of a PD-associated mutation stabilizes the dimer and decreases the GTPase activity. This work thus provides insights into the conformational cycle of Roco proteins and suggests a link between oligomerization and disease-associated mutations in LRRK2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01103-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5714945PMC
October 2017

The LRR-Roc-COR module of the Chlorobium tepidum Roco protein: crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis.

Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun 2017 Sep 21;73(Pt 9):520-524. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Structural Biology Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.

Roco proteins are characterized by the presence of a Roc-COR supradomain harbouring GTPase activity, which is often preceded by an LRR domain. The most notorious member of the Roco protein family is the Parkinson's disease-associated LRRK2. The Roco protein from the bacterium Chlorobium tepidum has been used as a model system to investigate the structure and mechanism of this class of enzymes. Here, the crystallization and crystallographic analysis of the LRR-Roc-COR construct of the C. tepidum Roco protein is reported. The LRR-Roc-COR crystals belonged to space group P222, with unit-cell parameters a = 95.6, b = 129.8, c = 179.5 Å, α = β = γ = 90°, and diffracted to a resolution of 3.3 Å. Based on the calculated Matthews coefficient, Patterson map analysis and an initial molecular-replacement analysis, one protein dimer is present in the asymmetric unit. The crystal structure of this protein will provide valuable insights into the interaction between the Roc-COR and LRR domains within Roco proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2053230X17011955DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5619744PMC
September 2017

Structural model of the dimeric Parkinson's protein LRRK2 reveals a compact architecture involving distant interdomain contacts.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2016 07 29;113(30):E4357-66. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 72076 Tübingen, Germany; Center for Ophthalmology, Institute for Ophthalmic Research, Eberhard Karls University, 72076 Tübingen, Germany;

Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a large, multidomain protein containing two catalytic domains: a Ras of complex proteins (Roc) G-domain and a kinase domain. Mutations associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) have been identified in both catalytic domains, as well as in several of its multiple putative regulatory domains. Several of these mutations have been linked to increased kinase activity. Despite the role of LRRK2 in the pathogenesis of PD, little is known about its overall architecture and how PD-linked mutations alter its function and enzymatic activities. Here, we have modeled the 3D structure of dimeric, full-length LRRK2 by combining domain-based homology models with multiple experimental constraints provided by chemical cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry, negative-stain EM, and small-angle X-ray scattering. Our model reveals dimeric LRRK2 has a compact overall architecture with a tight, multidomain organization. Close contacts between the N-terminal ankyrin and C-terminal WD40 domains, and their proximity-together with the LRR domain-to the kinase domain suggest an intramolecular mechanism for LRRK2 kinase activity regulation. Overall, our studies provide, to our knowledge, the first structural framework for understanding the role of the different domains of full-length LRRK2 in the pathogenesis of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1523708113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4968714PMC
July 2016

Structural and functional insights into tRNA binding and adenosine N1-methylation by an archaeal Trm10 homologue.

Nucleic Acids Res 2016 Jan 15;44(2):940-53. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

Structural Biology Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel, Belgium Structural Biology Research Center, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel, Belgium

Purine nucleosides on position 9 of eukaryal and archaeal tRNAs are frequently modified in vivo by the post-transcriptional addition of a methyl group on their N1 atom. The methyltransferase Trm10 is responsible for this modification in both these domains of life. While certain Trm10 orthologues specifically methylate either guanosine or adenosine at position 9 of tRNA, others have a dual specificity. Until now structural information about this enzyme family was only available for the catalytic SPOUT domain of Trm10 proteins that show specificity toward guanosine. Here, we present the first crystal structure of a full length Trm10 orthologue specific for adenosine, revealing next to the catalytic SPOUT domain also N- and C-terminal domains. This structure hence provides crucial insights in the tRNA binding mechanism of this unique monomeric family of SPOUT methyltransferases. Moreover, structural comparison of this adenosine-specific Trm10 orthologue with guanosine-specific Trm10 orthologues suggests that the N1 methylation of adenosine relies on additional catalytic residues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkv1369DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4737155PMC
January 2016

SAXS analysis of the tRNA-modifying enzyme complex MnmE/MnmG reveals a novel interaction mode and GTP-induced oligomerization.

Nucleic Acids Res 2014 May 14;42(9):5978-92. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

Structural Biology Research Center, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel, Belgium Structural Biology Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel, Belgium

Transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) modifications, especially at the wobble position, are crucial for proper and efficient protein translation. MnmE and MnmG form a protein complex that is implicated in the carboxymethylaminomethyl modification of wobble uridine (cmnm(5)U34) of certain tRNAs. MnmE is a G protein activated by dimerization (GAD), and active guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP) hydrolysis is required for the tRNA modification to occur. Although crystal structures of MnmE and MnmG are available, the structure of the MnmE/MnmG complex (MnmEG) and the nature of the nucleotide-induced conformational changes and their relevance for the tRNA modification reaction remain unknown. In this study, we mainly used small-angle X-ray scattering to characterize these conformational changes in solution and to unravel the mode of interaction between MnmE, MnmG and tRNA. In the nucleotide-free state MnmE and MnmG form an unanticipated asymmetric α2β2 complex. Unexpectedly, GTP binding promotes further oligomerization of the MnmEG complex leading to an α4β2 complex. The transition from the α2β2 to the α4β2 complex is fast, reversible and coupled to GTP binding and hydrolysis. We propose a model in which the nucleotide-induced changes in conformation and oligomerization of MnmEG form an integral part of the tRNA modification reaction cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku213DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4027165PMC
May 2014
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