Publications by authors named "Egal Gorse"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Role of liquid biopsies in colorectal cancer.

Curr Probl Cancer 2018 11 29;42(6):593-600. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Department of GI Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide, with a global incidence of over 1 million cases. In the era of personalized medicine, tumor sampling is essential for characterizing the molecular profile of individual tumors. This provides pivotal information regarding optimal sequencing of therapy and emergence of drug resistance, allowing for timely therapy adjustment. However, tumor tissue sampling offers static information in a single time point and area of disease at the time of biopsy, which may not entirely represent the heterogeneity of molecular alterations. Moreover, tumor biopsies often involve invasive procedures with potential risks to patients. Less invasive, safer, and real-time methods such as liquid biopsies have generated increasing interest as a surrogate of solid tumor biopsies. Liquid biopsy allows for noninvasive survey with detection of cell-free circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) or circulating tumor cells. Blood-based assays are the most widely studied. Additionally, the quantity of ctDNA detected has been shown to correlate with tumor burden and enables assessment of tumor heterogeneity. In this article, we discuss the concept of liquid biopsies including ctDNA and circulating tumor cell, and their current application in the diagnosis and management of CRC. We suggest that liquid biopsies can be successfully used to characterize the molecular profile of CRC, monitor disease, detect minimal residual disease after surgery, and identify therapeutic targets and mechanisms of drug resistance. This strategy could potentially imply an early change in treatment, sparing unnecessary side effects, and minimizing health costs. Combined radiological and liquid biopsy assessments will likely become more standard in CRC oncology. However, large prospective studies are needed to definitively establish the role of liquid biopsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2018.08.004DOI Listing
November 2018

Cancer cell chemokines direct chemotaxis of activated stellate cells in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Lab Invest 2017 03 16;97(3):302-317. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA.

The mechanisms by which the extreme desmoplasia observed in pancreatic tumors develops remain unknown and its role in pancreatic cancer progression is unsettled. Chemokines have a key role in the recruitment of a wide variety of cell types in health and disease. Transcript and protein profile analyses of human and murine cell lines and human tissue specimens revealed a consistent elevation in the receptors CCR10 and CXCR6, as well as their respective ligands CCL28 and CXCL16. Elevated ligand expression was restricted to tumor cells, whereas receptors were in both epithelial and stromal cells. Consistent with its regulation by inflammatory cytokines, CCL28 and CCR10, but not CXCL16 or CXCR6, were upregulated in human pancreatitis tissues. Cytokine stimulation of pancreatic cancer cells increased CCL28 secretion in epithelial tumor cells but not an immortalized activated human pancreatic stellate cell line (HPSC). Stellate cells exhibited dose- and receptor-dependent chemotaxis in response to CCL28. This functional response was not linked to changes in activation status as CCL28 had little impact on alpha smooth muscle actin levels or extracellular matrix deposition or alignment. Co-culture assays revealed CCL28-dependent chemotaxis of HPSC toward cancer but not normal pancreatic epithelial cells, consistent with stromal cells being a functional target for the epithelial-derived chemokine. These data together implicate the chemokine CCL28 in the inflammation-mediated recruitment of cancer-associated stellate cells into the pancreatic cancer parenchyma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2016.146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5334280PMC
March 2017

Pancreatic Cancer Cell Migration and Metastasis Is Regulated by Chemokine-Biased Agonism and Bioenergetic Signaling.

Cancer Res 2015 Sep;75(17):3529-42

Department of Microbiology & Molecular Genetics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. MCW Cancer Center, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) invariably succumb to metastatic disease, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate PDAC cell movement and metastasis remain little understood. In this study, we investigated the effects of the chemokine gene CXCL12, which is silenced in PDAC tumors, yet is sufficient to suppress growth and metastasis when re-expressed. Chemokines like CXCL12 regulate cell movement in a biphasic pattern, with peak migration typically in the low nanomolar concentration range. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that the biphasic cell migration pattern induced by CXCL12 reflected a biased agonist bioenergetic signaling that might be exploited to interfere with PDAC metastasis. In human and murine PDAC cell models, we observed that nonmigratory doses of CXCL12 were sufficient to decrease oxidative phosphorylation and glycolytic capacity and to increase levels of phosphorylated forms of the master metabolic kinase AMPK. Those same doses of CXCL12 locked myosin light chain into a phosphorylated state, thereby decreasing F-actin polymerization and preventing cell migration in a manner dependent upon AMPK and the calcium-dependent kinase CAMKII. Notably, at elevated concentrations of CXCL12 that were insufficient to trigger chemotaxis of PDAC cells, AMPK blockade resulted in increased cell movement. In two preclinical mouse models of PDAC, administration of CXCL12 decreased tumor dissemination, supporting our hypothesis that chemokine-biased agonist signaling may offer a useful therapeutic strategy. Our results offer a mechanistic rationale for further investigation of CXCL12 as a potential therapy to prevent or treat PDAC metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-2645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4560104PMC
September 2015