Publications by authors named "Efthymios D Avgerinos"

86 Publications

Open Surgical Secondary Interventions are More Durable than Endovascular Interventions for Lower Extremity Bypass Stenosis or Occlusion.

Vasc Endovascular Surg 2021 Jul 14:15385744211028749. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Lower extremity bypasses often require secondary interventions to maintain patency. Our objectives were to characterize effectiveness of secondary interventions to maintain or restore bypass graft patency, and to compare outcomes of open and endovascular interventions. We reviewed patients who underwent lower extremity bypass at our institution from 2007 to 2010. We recorded the index bypass and subsequent ipsilateral interventions performed through 2018 or until loss of secondary patency. Patient, procedure, and anatomic data were collected. Endovascular intervention was compared with open/hybrid intervention. For outcome analysis, patency measures were defined relative to the time of the secondary intervention rather than the time of the index bypass. 174 secondary interventions (56 open/hybrid, 118 endovascular; 42 for graft occlusion, and 132 for stenosis) treating 228 lesions in 97 bypasses were available for study. The index bypass was most commonly performed for tissue loss (71.1%), utilized a tibial artery target (57.7%), and used single-segment great saphenous vein (59.8%) rather than alternative vein (32.0%) or prosthetic (8.2%). A higher portion of open/hybrid interventions (51.8%) were done for graft occlusion than endovascular interventions (11.0%, < .001). Mean follow-up for secondary interventions was 3.5 years. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model identified female gender, prior MI, anticoagulation, occlusion, and endovascular intervention as predictors of loss of primary patency. Intervention for occlusion predicted poorer primary and secondary patency. Endovascular intervention was associated with poorer primary patency as compared to open intervention and a trend toward poorer secondary patency. Both open and endovascular secondary interventions on lower extremity bypasses are low-risk procedures that offer acceptable patency. Although more commonly performed in the setting of graft occlusion, open surgical interventions show improved durability compared to endovascular interventions. Some patients, including those with occluded grafts, may benefit from more liberal use of open surgical intervention to restore bypass patency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15385744211028749DOI Listing
July 2021

Randomized Trial Comparing Standard Versus Ultrasound-Assisted Thrombolysis for Submassive Pulmonary Embolism: The SUNSET sPE Trial.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Jun;14(12):1364-1373

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objectives: The aim of this trial was to determine whether ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis (USAT) is superior to standard catheter-directed thrombolysis (SCDT) in pulmonary arterial thrombus reduction for patients with submassive pulmonary embolism (sPE).

Background: Catheter-directed therapy has been increasingly used in sPE and massive pulmonary embolism as a decompensation prevention and potentially lifesaving procedure. It is unproved whether USAT is superior to SCDT using traditional multiple-side-hole catheters in the treatment of patients with pulmonary embolism.

Methods: Adults with sPE were enrolled. Participants were randomized 1:1 to USAT or SCDT. The primary outcome was 48-hour clearance of pulmonary thrombus assessed by pre- and postprocedural computed tomographic angiography using a refined Miller score. Secondary outcomes included improvement in right ventricular-to-left ventricular ratio, intensive care unit and hospital stay, bleeding, and adverse events up to 90 days.

Results: Eighty-one patients with acute sPE were randomized and were available for analysis. The mean total dose of alteplase for USAT was 19 ± 7 mg and for SCDT was 18 ± 7 mg (P = 0.53), infused over 14 ± 6 and 14 ± 5 hours, respectively (P = 0.99). In the USAT group, the mean raw pulmonary arterial thrombus score was reduced from 31 ± 4 at baseline to 22 ± 7 (P < 0.001). In the SCDT group, the score was reduced from 33 ± 4 to 23 ± 7 (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in mean thrombus score reduction between the 2 groups (P = 0.76). The mean reduction in right ventricular/left ventricular ratio from baseline (1.54 ± 0.30 for USAT, 1.69 ± 0.44 for SCDT) to 48 hours was 0.37 ± 0.34 in the USAT group and 0.59 ± 0.42 in the SCDT group (P = 0.01). Major bleeding (1 stroke and 1 vaginal bleed requiring transfusion) occurred in 2 patients, both in the USAT group.

Conclusions: In the SUNSET sPE (Standard vs. Ultrasound-Assisted Catheter Thrombolysis for Submassive Pulmonary Embolism) trial, patients undergoing USAT had similar pulmonary arterial thrombus reduction compared with those undergoing SCDT, using comparable mean lytic doses and durations of lysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2021.04.049DOI Listing
June 2021

Association of Medicaid Expansion With In-Hospital Outcomes After Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair.

J Surg Res 2021 May 19;266:201-212. Epub 2021 May 19.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical School, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Objectives: Multiple studies have shown improved outcomes and higher utilization of care with the increase of insurance coverage. This study aims to assess whether Medicaid expansion (ME) has changed the utilization and outcomes of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair in the United States.

Design: Retrospective observational study.

Materials: Data of patients undergoing AAA repair in the Vascular Quality Initiative (2010-2017).

Methods: Interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis was utilized to evaluate changes in annual trends of postoperative outcomes after elective AAA repair before and after 2014. We also assessed if these trend changes were significant by comparing the changes in states which adopted ME in 2014 versus nonexpansion states (NME), and conducting a difference-in-difference analysis. Primary outcomes included in-hospital mortality and adverse events (bowel and leg ischemia, cardiac, renal, respiratory, stroke and return to the OR).

Results: A total of 19,143 procedures were included (Endovascular: 85.8% and open: 14.2%), of which 40.9% were performed in ME States. Compared to preexpansion trends (P1), there was a 2% annual increase in elective AAA repair in ME states (P1: -1.8% versus P2: +0.2%, P< 0.01) with no significant change in NME (P1: +0.3% versus P2: +0.2%, P = 0.97). Among elective cases, annual trends in the use of EVAR increased by 2% in ME states (95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.1, 4.1, P = 0.06), compared to a 3% decrease in NME States [95%CI = -5.8, -0.6, P = 0.01) (P < 0.01]. There was no association between ME and in-hospital mortality. Nonetheless, it was associated with a decrease in the annual trends of in-hospital complications (ME: -1.4% (-2.1,-0.8) versus NME: +0.2% (-0.2, +0.8), P < 0.01).

Conclusions: While no association between ME and increased survival was noted in states which adopted ME, there was a significant increase of elective AAA cases and EVAR utilization and a decrease in in-hospital complications in ME States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2021.02.018DOI Listing
May 2021

Association of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm and Simple Renal Cysts: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Division of Cardiology, Rocky Mountain Regional VA Medical Center, University of Colorado, Denver, CO. Electronic address:

Background-objective: Prior studies have suggested a higher prevalence of simple renal cysts (SRC) among patients with aortic disease, including abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). Thus, the aim of this study was to systematically review all currently available literature and investigate whether patients with AAA are more likely to have SRC.

Methods: This study was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. A meta-analysis was conducted with the use of random effects modeling and the I-square was used to assess heterogeneity. Odds ratios (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were synthesized to compare the prevalence of several patients' characteristics between AAA vs. no-AAA cases.

Results: Eleven retrospective studies, 9 comparative (AAA vs. no-AAA groups) and 3 single-arm (AAA group), were included in this meta-analysis, enrolling patients (AAA: N = 2,297 vs. no-AAA: N = 35,873) who underwent computed tomography angiography as part of screening or preoperative evaluation for reasons other than AAA. The cumulative incidence of SRC among patients with AAA and no-AAA was 55% (95% CI: 49%-61%) and 32% (95% CI: 22%-42%) respectively, with a statistically higher odds of SRC among patients with AAA (OR: 3.02; 95% CI: 2.01-4.56; P< 0.001). The difference in SRC prevalence remained statistically significant in a sensitivity analysis, after excluding the study with the largest sample size (OR: 2.71; 95% CI: 1.91-3.84; P< 0.001).

Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrated a 3-fold increased prevalence of SRC in patients with AAA compared to no-AAA cases, indicating that the pathogenic processes underlying SRC and AAA could share a common pathophysiologic mechanism. Thus, patients with SRC could be considered at high risk for AAA formation, potentially warranting an earlier AAA screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2021.01.075DOI Listing
February 2021

Poor runoff and distal coverage below the knee are associated with poor long-term outcomes following endovascular popliteal aneurysm repair.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Jul 20;74(1):153-160. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Heart and Vascular Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. Electronic address:

Objective: Reports of good short-term outcomes for endovascular repair of popliteal artery aneurysms have led to an increased use of the technique. However, data are lacking on long-term limb-related outcomes and factors associated with the failure of endovascular repair.

Methods: All patients who underwent endovascular popliteal aneurysm repair (EPAR) at a single institution from January 2006 to December 2018 were included in the study. Demographics, indications, anatomic and operative details, and outcomes were reviewed. Long-term patency, major adverse limb event-free survival (MALE-FS) and graft loss/occlusion were analyzed with multivariable cox regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves.

Results: We included 117 limbs from 101 patients with a mean follow-up of 55.6 months (range, 0.43-158 months). The average age was 73 ± 9.3 years. Thirty-two patients (29.1%) were symptomatic (claudication, rest pain, tissue loss, or rupture). The stent grafts crossed the knee joint in 91.4% of cases. In all, 36.8% of procedures used one stent graft, 41.0% used two stent grafts, and 22.2% of procedures used more than two stent grafts. The median arterial length covered was 100 mm, with an average length of stent overlap of 25 mm. Tapered configurations were used in 43.8% of cases. The majority of limbs (62.8%) had a three-vessel runoff, 20.2% had a two-vessel runoff, and 17% has a one-vessel runoff. The Kaplan-Meier estimates of graft occlusion at 1 and 3 years were 6.3% and 16.2%, respectively. The 1- and 3-year primary patency rates were 88.2% and 72.6%, and the 1- and 3-year major adverse limb event-free survival (MALE-FS) rates were 82% and 57.4%. The 1- and 3-year survival rates were 92.9% and 76.2%, respectively. On multivariable Cox regression, aneurysm size, one-vessel runoff, and coverage below the knee were associated with a lower 3-year MALE-FS. Coverage below the knee was also associated with a lower 3-year MALE-FS. Other anatomic or technical details were not associated with limb-related events or patency.

Conclusions: This study is the largest single center analysis to describe the predictors of poor outcomes after EPAR. EPAR is a safe and effective way to treat popliteal artery aneurysms. Factors associated with poor MALE-FS after EPAR include single-vessel tibial runoff and coverage below the knee.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.12.062DOI Listing
July 2021

Risk factors for acute kidney injury after pharmacomechanical thrombolysis for acute deep vein thrombosis.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 Jul 10;9(4):868-873. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Presbyterian University Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Background: Pharmacomechanical thrombolysis (PMT) is an established treatment for selected patients with acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Despite significant clinical success, hemolysis can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) with unknown longer term implications. Our aim was to characterize the rate of AKI after PMT and identify those patients at the greatest risk.

Methods: A retrospective medical record review of patients with acute DVT who had undergone PMT in our institution from 2007 to 2018 was performed. The baseline demographics, comorbidities, preoperative clinical characteristics, procedural details, postoperative hospital course, and follow-up data were reviewed. The primary outcome was postoperative AKI (≥1.5 times preoperative creatinine), and longer term renal impairment. Logistic regression modeling was used to identify associated factors.

Results: A total of 137 patients (mean age, 47 ± 16.6 years; 49.6% male) who had undergone PMT for treatment of acute DVT were identified (85.4% AngioJet system; Boston Scientific Corp, Marlborough, Mass). Of the 137 patients, 30 (21.9%) had developed AKI in the periprocedural period, 1 of whom had required hemodialysis in the perioperative period. The patients who had developed AKI had had significantly greater rates of preoperative coronary artery disease (23.1% vs 4.7%; P = .002), diabetes mellitus (19.2% vs 6.6%; P = .045), dyslipidemia (42.3% vs 17.9%; P = .008), and hypertension (53.6% vs 29.3%; P = .018). No significant difference was found in preoperative creatinine (0.99 vs 0.92 mg/dL; P = .65) or glomerular filtration rate (GFR; 96.9 vs 91.8 mL/min; P = .52) between the two groups. Multivariate analysis demonstrated bilateral DVT (odds ratio [OR], 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.47-12.86; P = .008), single-session PMT (OR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.02-9.11; P = .046), and female sex (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 1.01-8.04; P = .048) were significant predictors of AKI. Of the 30 patients, 10 had had normal renal function at discharge and 15 and 25 patients had had normal renal function at the first and subsequent clinical follow-up visits, respectively. The remaining five patients (3.6%) had progressed to moderate (GFR, <60 mL/min) or severe (GFR, <30 mL/min) renal insufficiency, with one requiring long-term hemodialysis.

Conclusions: The use of PMT for treatment of acute DVT conferred a risk of AKI that will progress to chronic renal failure in a small fraction of affected patients. Patients with bilateral extensive DVTs have a greater risk of AKI; thus, longer priming with a thrombolytic drip before PMT should be preferred for this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2020.11.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107181PMC
July 2021

Novel bypass risk predictive tool is superior to the 5-Factor Modified Frailty Index in predicting postoperative outcomes.

J Vasc Surg 2020 10;72(4):1427-1435.e1

Division of Vascular Surgery, Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa. Electronic address:

Objective: This study aimed to develop risk predictive models of 30-day mortality, morbidity, and major adverse limb events (MALE) after bypass surgery for aortoiliac occlusive disease (AIOD) and to compare their performances with a 5-Factor Frailty Index.

Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 2012-2017 Procedure Targeted Aortoiliac (Open) Participant Use Data Files were queried to identify all patients who had elective bypass for AIOD: femorofemoral bypass, aortofemoral bypass, and axillofemoral bypass (AXB). Outcomes assessed included mortality, major morbidity, and MALE within 30 days postoperatively. Major morbidity was defined as pneumonia, unplanned intubation, ventilator support for >48 hours, progressive or acute renal failure, cerebrovascular accident, cardiac arrest, or myocardial infarction. Demographics, comorbidities, procedure type, and laboratory values were considered for inclusion in the risk predictive models. Logistic regression models for mortality, major morbidity and MALE were developed. The discriminative ability of these models (C-indices) were compared with that of the 5-Factor Modified Frailty Index (mFI-5): a general frailty tool determined from diabetes, functional status, history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of congestive heart failure, and hypertension. Calculators were derived using the most significant variables for each of the three risk predictive models.

Results: A total of 2612 cases (mean age 65.0, 60% male) were identified, of which 1149 (44.0%) were femorofemoral bypass, 1138 (43.6%) were aortofemoral bypass, and 325 (12.4%) were axillofemoral bypass. Overall, the rates of mortality, major morbidity, and MALE were 2.0%, 8.5%, and 4.9%, respectively. Twenty preoperative risk factors were considered for incorporation in the risk tools. Apart from procedure type, age was the most statistically significant predictor of both mortality and morbidity. Preoperative anemia and critical limb ischemia were the most significant predictors of MALE. All three constructed models demonstrated significantly better discriminative ability (P < .001) on the outcomes of interest as compared with the mFI-5.

Conclusions: Our models outperformed the mFI-5 in predicting 30-day mortality, major morbidity, and adverse limb events in patients with AIOD undergoing elective bypass surgery. Calculators were created using the most statistically significant variables to help calculate individual patient's postoperative risks and allow for better informed consent and risk-adjusted comparison of provider outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.11.050DOI Listing
October 2020

Comparable Patency of Open and Hybrid Treatment of Venous Anastomotic Lesions in Thrombosed Haemodialysis Grafts.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 Dec 11;60(6):897-903. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Centre, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Arteriovenous graft (AVG) failures are typically associated with venous anastomotic (VA) stenosis. Current evidence regarding AVG thrombosis management compares surgical with purely endovascular techniques; few studies have investigated the "hybrid" intervention that combines surgical balloon thrombectomy and endovascular angioplasty and/or stenting to address VA obstruction. This study aimed to describe outcomes after hybrid intervention compared with open revision (patch venoplasty or jump bypass) of the VA in thrombosed AVGs.

Methods: Retrospective cohort study. Consecutive patients with a thrombosed AVG who underwent thrombectomy between January 2014 and July 2018 were divided into open and hybrid groups based on VA intervention; patients who underwent purely endovascular thrombectomy were excluded. Patient demographics, previous access history, central vein patency, AVG anatomy, type of intervention, and follow up data were recorded. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to analyse time from thrombectomy to first re-intervention (primary patency) and time to abandonment (secondary patency). Cox regression analysis was performed to evaluate predictors of failure.

Results: This study included 97 patients (54 females) with 39 forearm, 47 upper arm, and 11 lower extremity AVGs. There were 34 open revisions (25 patches, nine jump bypasses) and 63 hybrid interventions, which included balloon angioplasty ± adjunctive procedures (15 stents, five cutting balloons). Technique selection was based on physician preference. Primary patency for the open and hybrid groups was 27.8% and 34.2%, respectively, at six months and 17.5% and 12.9%, respectively, at 12 months (p = .71). Secondary patency was 45.1% and 38.5% for open and hybrid treatment, respectively, at 12 months (p = .87). An existing VA stent was predictive of graft abandonment (hazard ratio 4.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2-16.0; p = .024). Open vs. hybrid intervention was not predictive of failure or abandonment.

Conclusion: Hybrid interventions for thrombosed AVGs are not associated with worse patency at six and 12 months compared with open revision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.08.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906772PMC
December 2020

Propofol administration during catheter-directed interventions for intermediate-risk pulmonary embolism is associated with major adverse events.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2021 05 26;9(3):621-626. Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa. Electronic address:

Objective: Catheter-directed interventions (CDIs) have been increasingly used for selected patients with acute intermediate-risk (submassive) pulmonary embolism (sPE) to prevent decompensation, mortality, and potentially long-term sequelae. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the choice of anesthetic during these interventions has an effect on the postprocedural outcomes.

Methods: Patients who had undergone CDI for acute sPE from 2009 to 2019 were identified and grouped according to the intraprocedural use of propofol. The primary outcome was in-hospital intra- or postprocedural major adverse events, defined as the need for intubation, progression to massive pulmonary embolism, and in-hospital death. Major bleeding events (ie, intracerebral hemorrhage, transfusion of ≥2 U, the need for reintervention) were also assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the predictors of the studied outcomes.

Results: During the study period, 340 patients (age, 58.74 ± 15.22 years; 51.2% men) had undergone CDI for sPE (85 standard thrombolysis, 229 ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis, 26 suction thrombectomy). Propofol had been used for 36 patients (10.6%); the remaining 304 patients (89.4%) had received midazolam plus fentanyl, morphine, or hydromorphone for anesthesia. The baseline characteristics of both groups were similar, except for age, hypertension, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, and procedure type, with ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis the predominant procedure for the no-propofol group (74%). Overall, 18 patients had experienced ≥1 events of the composite outcome (ie, 10 intubations, 11 decompensations, 2 surgical conversions, 3 deaths). The propofol group had a significantly greater adverse event rate (13.8%; n = 5) compared with the no-propofol group (4.2%; n = 13; P = .015). On multivariate analysis, propofol was still a predictive factor for adverse events (odds ratio, 3.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-12.93; P = .03). A total of 16 patients had experienced major bleeding or other procedure-related events, including stroke in 4 (1.17%), coronary sinus perforation in 1, tricuspid valve rupture in 1, and the need for transfusion in 10 patients. The type of intervention (ie, standard thrombolysis, ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis, suction thrombectomy) was not a predictive factor for any studied outcome.

Conclusions: CDIs are low-risk procedures with minimal postoperative morbidity and mortality in the setting of acute sPE. However, the use of propofol for intraprocedural sedation should be avoided because it can have detrimental effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2020.08.026DOI Listing
May 2021

Complete Venous Ulceration Healing after Perforator Ablation Does Not Depend on Treatment Modality.

Ann Vasc Surg 2021 Jan 27;70:109-115. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Background: Venous leg ulceration (VLU) represents the most advanced form of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI). Persistent VLU that fails to respond to noninvasive treatment requires a minimally invasive endovascular treatment, which may include chemical (ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy [UGFS]) and thermal ablation (endovenous laser therapy [EVLT] or radiofrequency ablation [RFA]) targeting incompetent veins. Current guidelines suggest ablation of incompetent perforating veins (IPVs) juxtaposed to active or healed VLU; however, the ideal treatment modality is unknown. We hypothesize that similar to incompetent superficial vein treatment options therapies, VLU healing will be equivalent across minimally invasive IPV treatment options.

Methods: Using the Vascular Low Frequency Disease Consortium, adults with VLU across 11 medical centers were retrospectively reviewed (2013-2017). We included those who underwent IPV therapies. The primary outcome was complete ulcer healing over time compared with cumulative hazard curves, log-rank testing, and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression. Secondary outcomes included number of subsequent procedures, which were compared using negative binomial regression.

Results: Of the 832 adults with VLU, 158 (19%) were exclusively treated conservatively, and 232 (28%) underwent index treatment for IPV and constitute the full and final cohort. The mean age was 60 ± 14 years, 57% were men, and the mean ulcer area was 3.0 cm (interquartile range, 1-6 cm). Ninety-one (39%) were treated with EVLT, 127 (55%) RFA, and 14 (6%) UGFS. Patients treated with RFA were older (RFA 62 ± 14 years; EVLT 59 ± 14 years; UGFS 52 ± 9 years; P = 0.01), more likely to be men (RFA 68%, n = 86; EVLT 41%, n = 37; UGFS 64%, n = 9; P < 0.001), with a higher frequency of anticoagulation (RFA 36%, n = 46; EVLT 18%, n = 16; UGFS 14%, n = 2; P = 0.005). VLU did not significantly differ in size between groups (RFA 6.2 ± 8; EVLT 4.2 ± 5.4; UGFS 6.1 ± 8; P < 0.001). There were no differences in 1-year ulcer healing rates between groups (P = 0.18). The number of subsequent procedures did not differ by treatment modality (P = 0.47).

Conclusions: This multi-institutional retrospective study does not demonstrate any association of IPV treatment modality with differing rates of VLU healing or number of subsequent procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.06.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7744434PMC
January 2021

Cost-effectiveness analysis of immediate access arteriovenous grafts versus standard grafts for hemodialysis.

J Vasc Surg 2021 Feb 27;73(2):581-587. Epub 2020 May 27.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Objective: Immediate-access arteriovenous grafts (IAAVGs), or early cannulation arteriovenous grafts (AVGs), are more expensive than standard grafts (sAVGs) but can be used immediately after placement, reducing the need for a tunneled dialysis catheter (TDC). We hypothesized that a decrease in TDC-related complications would make IAAVGs a cost-effective alternative to sAVGs.

Methods: We constructed a Markov state-transition model in which patients initially received either an IAAVG or an sAVG and a TDC until graft usability; patients were followed through multiple subsequent access procedures for a 60-month time horizon. The model simulated mortality and typical graft- and TDC-related complications, with parameter estimates including probabilities, costs, and utilities derived from previous literature. A key parameter was median time to TDC removal after graft placement, which was studied under both real-world (7 days for IAAVG and 70 days for sAVG) and ideal (no TDC placed with IAAVG and 1 month for sAVG) conditions. Costs were based on current Medicare reimbursement rates and reflect a payer perspective. Both microsimulation (10,000 trials) and probabilistic sensitivity analysis (10,000 samples) were performed. The willingness-to-pay threshold was set at $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY).

Results: IAAVG placement is a dominant strategy under both real-world ($1201.16 less expensive and 0.03 QALY more effective) and ideal ($1457.97 less expensive and 0.03 QALY more effective) conditions. Under real-world parameters, the result was most sensitive to the time to TDC removal; IAAVGs are cost-effective if a TDC is maintained for ≥23 days after sAVG placement. The mean catheter time was lower with IAAVG (3.9 vs 8.7 months; P < .0001), as was the mean number of access-related infections (0.55 vs 0.74; P < .0001). Median survival in the model was 29 months. Overall mortality was similar between groups (76.3% vs 76.7% at 5 years; P = .33), but access-related mortality trended toward improvement with IAAVG (6.1% vs 6.8% at 5 years; P = .052).

Conclusions: The Markov decision analysis model supported our hypothesis that IAAVGs come with added initial cost but are ultimately cost-saving and more effective. This apparent benefit is due to our prediction that a decreased number of catheter days per patient would lead to a decreased number of access-related infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.05.038DOI Listing
February 2021

Duplex Criteria for Iliocaval Stent Obstruction: Sounds of a Cry for Validated Data.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 09 15;60(3):451. Epub 2020 May 15.

Division of Vascular Surgery, Stony Brook Medicine, Stony Brook, NY, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.04.013DOI Listing
September 2020

Iliofemoral lysis for DVT remains ATTRACTive.

Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2020 Apr;10(2):104-106

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/cdt.2019.08.08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225440PMC
April 2020

Outcomes of catheter-directed thrombolysis vs. standard medical therapy in patients with acute submassive pulmonary embolism.

Pulm Circ 2020 Jan-Mar;10(1):2045894019898368. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Heart and Vascular Institute, Pittsburgh, USA.

Background: Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDL) is increasingly being used for the treatment of submassive and massive pulmonary embolism. Although this therapy has been shown to be effective at reducing right ventricle strain, the impact on clinical outcomes remains unclear. We therefore aimed to evaluate the outcomes of CDL compared to standard anticoagulation for submassive pulmonary embolism patients in a large cohort.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of consecutive patients with a primary diagnosis of submassive pulmonary embolism admitted to an intensive care unit within our health system between June 2014 and April 2016. We compared the outcome of patients treated with systemic anticoagulation (medical therapy) vs. catheter-based delivery of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (CDL). CDL patients were matched with medical therapy controls using a propensity-score matching algorithm based on the components of the simplified pulmonary embolism severity index (sPESI) score.

Results: Unadjusted mortality rates were 3.0% for CDL vs. 10.4% for medical therapy at 30 days and 8.1% for CDL vs. 22.9% for medical therapy at 1 year. In the propensity-score matched cohort, mortality rates were 3.1% for CDL vs. 6.1% for medical therapy at 30 days and 8.2% for CDL vs. 18.2% for medical therapy at 1 year. Length of stay was significantly shorter in the CDL group. The index admission bleeding and transfusion rates were not increased in the CDL group.

Conclusions: In patients presenting with acute submassive pulmonary embolism who are admitted to an intensive care unit, the group treated with CDL experienced reduced mortality at 30 days and 1 year when compared to medical therapy without increase in bleeding. Further randomized studies are required to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2045894019898368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7144676PMC
April 2020

Catheter interventions: an unresolved clinical controversy.

Lancet Haematol 2020 03;7(3):e189

Division of Vascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3026(20)30002-8DOI Listing
March 2020

Response to "Re. Proposed NICE Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Guidelines: Swinging the Pendulum too Far?"

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 04 31;59(4):678. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Athens Medical Centre, Vascular & Endovascular Surgery Clinic, 56, Kifissias Ave & Delfon Str., Athens, 15125, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.01.004DOI Listing
April 2020

Catheter directed interventions for pulmonary embolism: current status and future prospects.

Expert Rev Med Devices 2020 Feb 30;17(2):103-110. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

: Catheter directed interventions (CDIs) have evolved over the past decade in an attempt to reduce the complications of systemic thrombolysis, while providing equivalent therapeutic benefits.: CDIs include a wide array of catheters that incorporate ultrasound technology, the infusion of thrombolytics through multi-side hole catheters and suction thrombectomy systems. We present a contemporary review summarizing the different catheter directed interventions currently available for acute PE, their indications, technical considerations, clinical effectiveness, complication rates and long-term outcomes.: For intermediate high-risk PE patients without a contraindication for thrombolysis, CDIs should be considered in patients at risk for clinical decompensation. For high risk PE patients with a major contraindication to thrombolytic therapy, suction thrombectomy can be considered in places with appropriate clinical and technical expertise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17434440.2020.1714432DOI Listing
February 2020

Acute Kidney Injury after Complex Endovascular Aneurysm Repair.

Curr Pharm Des 2019 ;25(44):4686-4694

Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Paracelsus Medical University Nuremberg, General Hospital Nuremberg, Nuremberg, Germany.

Background: Complex endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm carries higher perioperative morbidity than standard infrarenal endovascular repair.

Objective: This study reviews the incidence and associated factors of acute kidney injury in complex aortic endovascular repair of juxtarenal, pararenal, and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms.

Methods: A literature review was performed for all studies on the endovascular repair of juxtarenal, pararenal, and thoracoabdominal aneurysms that evaluated rates of acute kidney injury as an outcome. Outcomes were further analyzed by the level of anatomic complexity and method of repair.

Results: 52 studies met inclusion criteria, with a total of 5454 individuals undergoing repair from 2004 to 2017. The overall rate of acute kidney injury ranged widely from 0 to 41%, with a rate of hemodialysis from 0 to 19% (temporary) and 0 to 14% (permanent). Increasing anatomic complexity was associated with higher rates of acute kidney injury. Mode of endovascular repair, learning curve effect, and preoperative chronic renal insufficiency did not demonstrate any associations with the outcome.

Conclusion: Published rates of acute kidney injury in complex aortic aneurysm repair vary widely with few definitively associated factors other than increasing anatomic complexity and operative time. Further study is needed for the identification of predictors related to postoperative acute kidney injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612825666191129095829DOI Listing
June 2020

External validation of the Vascular Study Group of New England carotid endarterectomy risk predictive model using an independent U.S. national surgical database.

J Vasc Surg 2020 06 30;71(6):1954-1963. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Objective: Previously, we described a Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) risk predictive model to predict composite adverse outcomes (postoperative death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or discharge to extended care facilities) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). The goal of this study was to externally validate this model using an independent database.

Methods: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) CEA-targeted database (2010-2014) was used to externally validate the risk predictor model of adverse outcomes after CEA previously created using the VSGNE carotid database. Emergent cases and those in which CEA was combined with another operation were excluded. Cases in which a discharge destination cannot be determined were also excluded. To assess the predictive power of our VSGNE prediction score within this sample, a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed. Risk scores for each NSQIP patient were also computed using beta weights from the VSGNE CEA model. To further assess the construct validity of our VSGNE prediction score, the observed proportion of adverse outcomes was examined at each level of our prediction scale and within five roughly equally sized risk groups formed on the basis of our VSGNE prediction scores.

Results: In this database, 10,889 cases met our inclusion criteria and were used in this analysis. The overall rate of adverse outcomes in this cohort was 8.5%. External validation of the VSGNE model on this sample showed moderately good predictive ability (area under the curve = 0.745). Patients in progressively higher risk groups, based on their VSGNE model scores, exhibited progressively higher rates of observed adverse outcomes, as predicted.

Conclusions: The VSGNE CEA risk predictive model was externally validated on an NSQIP CEA-targeted sample and showed a fairly accurate global predictive ability for adverse outcomes after CEA. Although this model has a good population concordance, the lack of cut point indicates that individual risk prediction requires more evaluation. Further studies should be geared toward identification of variables that make this risk predictive model more robust.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.04.495DOI Listing
June 2020

Re: Proposed NICE Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Guidelines: Swinging the Pendulum too Far?

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2020 01 25;59(1):153-154. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery and Munich Aortic Centre (MAC), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.10.001DOI Listing
January 2020

Standard vs ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis for acute pulmonary embolism: Awaiting the verdict.

Vasc Med 2019 12 18;24(6):547-548. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1358863X19878492DOI Listing
December 2019

Single- versus multiple-stage catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis does not have an impact on iliac vein stent length or patency rates.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2019 11 5;7(6):781-788. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa. Electronic address:

Background: Incomplete venous thrombolysis and residual nonstented iliac vein disease are known predictors of recurrent deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Controversy exists as to whether the number of thrombolysis sessions affects total stent treatment length or stent patency. The goal of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent single vs multiple catheter-directed lysis sessions with regard to stent extent and patency.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent thrombolysis and stenting for acute iliofemoral DVT between 2007 and 2018 were identified and divided into two groups on the basis of the number of treatments performed (one vs multiple sessions). Operative notes and venograms were reviewed to determine the number of lytic sessions performed and stent information, including size, location, total number, and length treated. End points included total stent length, 30-day and long-term patency, and post-thrombotic syndrome (Villalta score ≥5). The χ comparisons, logistic regression, and survival analysis were used to determine outcomes.

Results: There were 79 patients who underwent lysis and stenting (6 bilateral interventions; mean age, 45.9 ± 17 years; 48 female). Ten patients (12 limbs) underwent single-stage treatment with pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, and the remaining 69 (73 limbs) had two to four operating room sessions combining pharmacomechanical and catheter-directed thrombolysis. Patients who underwent a single-stage procedure were older and more likely to have a malignant disease. These patients received less tissue plasminogen activator compared with the multiple-stage group (17.2 ± 2.2 mg vs 27.6 ± 11.6 mg; P = .008). Average stent length was 8.8 ± 5.2 cm for the single-stage group vs 9.2 ± 4.6 cm for the multiple-stage group (P = .764). Patients who underwent a single-stage procedure had no difference in average length of stay from that of patients who underwent multiple sessions (8.5 days vs 5.9 days; P = .269). The overall 30-day rethrombosis rate was 7.3%. Two-year patency was 72.2% and 74.7% for the single and multiple stages, respectively (P = .909). The major predictors for loss of primary patency were previous DVT (hazard ratio [HR], 5.99; P = .020) and incomplete lysis (HR, 5.39; P = .014) but not number of procedures (HR, 0.957; P = .966). The overall post-thrombotic syndrome rate was 28.4% at 5 years and was also not associated with the number of treatment sessions.

Conclusions: Single- vs multiple-stage thrombolysis for DVT is not associated with a difference in extent of stent coverage. Patency rates remain high for iliac stenting irrespective of the number of lytic sessions, provided lysis is complete and the diseased segments are appropriately stented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2019.05.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917433PMC
November 2019

Outcomes of left renal vein stenting in patients with nutcracker syndrome.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2019 11 27;7(6):853-859. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Background: Nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is a rare condition that can be manifested with hematuria, flank pain, pelvic varicosities, or chronic pelvic congestion related to left renal vein (LRV) compression. Open surgery, specifically LRV transposition, has been the mainstay of treatment, but in the past few years, LRV stenting has emerged as a less invasive alternative without sufficient evidence to support it. This study aimed to assess outcomes of renal vein stenting in the treatment of NCS.

Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients with NCS who underwent LRV stenting between 2010 and 2018 was performed. End points were perioperative adverse outcomes, symptom relief, and stent patency. Symptom resolution was classified as complete, partial, and none on the basis of the interpretation of medical records on clinical follow-up. Standard descriptive statistics and survival analysis were used.

Results: Eighteen patients (17 female; mean age, 38.1 ± 16.9 years) diagnosed with NCS and treated with LRV stenting were identified. Five of these had a prior LRV transposition that had failed within a mean of 7.0 ± 4.9 months, manifested by symptom recurrence (or no improvement) along with imaging evidence of persistently severe renal vein stenosis. Twelve patients had coexisting pelvic congestion syndrome treated with gonadal vein embolization. The most frequent sign and symptom were hematuria (10/18 patients) and flank pain (15/18 patients), respectively. All patients received self-expanding stents (mean diameter, 12.8 ± 1.6 mm), the smaller ones typically placed in the previously transposed LRVs. No perioperative complications occurred. Nine patients were discharged on the same day; the remaining patients stayed longer for pain control (mean hospital stay, 1.0 ± 1.3 days). At an average follow-up of 41.4 ± 26.6 months, 13 (72.2%) patients had symptoms resolved or improved (9 complete, 4 partial). Three of the five patients whose symptoms remained unchanged had previous LRV transposition surgery, and two of these three patients eventually required renal autotransplantation. Six of 10 patients who presented with hematuria had it resolved. Three patients underwent a stent reintervention at 5.8 months, 16.8 months, and 51.7 months because of symptom recurrence or stent restenosis. The two early ones required balloon venoplasty and the third one restenting. Two-year primary and primary assisted patency was 85.2% and 100%, respectively. No stent migration occurred.

Conclusions: Endovascular treatment with renal vein stenting is safe, providing encouraging results with good midterm patency rates and symptom relief. Minimally invasive approaches may have a potential role in the treatment of NCS. Larger series and longer follow-up are needed to better assess the comparative performance against LRV transposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2019.06.016DOI Listing
November 2019

Impact of Medicaid Expansion of the Affordable Care on the Outcomes of Lower Extremity Bypass for Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease in the Vascular Quality Initiative Database.

Ann Surg 2019 10;270(4):647-655

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the utilization and outcomes of surgery after Medicaid Expansion (ME) for patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Summary Background Data: Recent studies have demonstrated increased insurance coverage and improved care with the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) state expansion of Medicaid.

Methods: Infrainguinal bypass procedures performed due to occlusive pathology in the Vascular Quality Initiative database between 2010 and 2017 were included. Primary outcomes including postoperative mortality and major adverse limb events (MALE) at 1-year of follow-up were analyzed using interrupted time-series analysis (ITS).

Results: Out of 26,446 infrainguinal bypass procedures, 13,955 (52.8%) were included in this analysis. ME states witnessed an annual decrease in infrainguinal surgery for acute ischemia [annual change in post vs pre-ME period (95% confidence interval): -4.3% (-7.5% to -1.0%), P = 0.02] and an increase in revascularization for claudication [3.7% (1.7%-5.6%), P = 0.01]. Among nonacute cases, elective procedures increased in ME states [3.9% (0.1%-7.7%), P = 0.05] along with a significant annual decrease in in-hospital mortality [-0.4% (-0.8 to -0.02), P = 0.04) and MALE at 1 year of follow up [-9.0% (-20.3 to 2.3), P = 0.09]. These results were statistically significant after comparing them with the annual trend changes in states which did not adopt ME.

Conclusions: The adoption of ME in 2014 was associated with significant increase in the use of infrainguinal bypass for nonsevere and elective cases, along with improved in-hospital mortality and MALE at 1 year. Longer follow-up is needed to evaluate the impact of ME on other aspects of care and longer term outcomes of PAD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003521DOI Listing
October 2019

Proposed NICE Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Guidelines: Swinging the Pendulum too Far?

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2019 11 1;58(5):637-638. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Department for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery and Munich Aortic Centre (MAC), Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.07.005DOI Listing
November 2019

Maturation of arteriovenous fistulas in patients with ventricular assist devices.

J Vasc Access 2020 Mar 31;21(2):176-179. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Objective: Postoperative renal dysfunction necessitating hemodialysis after implantation of ventricular assist devices presents a challenge with respect to establishment of hemodialysis access. Lack of pulsatile flow has led to concerns that arteriovenous fistulas will not mature. This study aims to evaluate arteriovenous fistula as a method of hemodialysis.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent implantation of a ventricular assist device between 1988 and 2016 with a subsequent need for hemodialysis were identified. Retrospective data were collected for patients requiring hemodialysis through an arteriovenous fistula or arteriovenous graft. Access flow rates and duration of patency are reported.

Results: Sixty-four patients were identified (10 required long-term hemodialysis, 5 via arteriovenous fistula, 1 via arteriovenous graft). All six patients receiving long-term hemodialysis access were on continuous-flow ventricular assist devices. Brachiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas were performed in all arteriovenous fistula patients, and the average preoperative vein diameter was 4.1 ± 0.9 mm. On 30-day follow-up, the average flow rate was 1262 ± 643 mL/min (880-2220). In arteriovenous fistula patients, one died at 30 days, one arteriovenous fistula required ligation for steal syndrome at 5 months, and one was abandoned after 10.7 months for low flow. Of remaining fistulas, one was converted to an arteriovenous graft at 1.7 years for malfunction (with 5.3 month patency), and one remains open at 4.0 years.

Conclusion: Arteriovenous fistulas should be considered in selected patients with ventricular assist devices as a means of long-term hemodialysis access to avoid use of catheters. Maturation and usage of primary arteriovenous fistulas is possible despite lack of pulsatile flow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1129729819865706DOI Listing
March 2020

Ablate early the superficial reflux but don't neglect deep reflux or obstruction.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2019 May;7(3):315-316

Department of Vascular Surgery, Attikon University Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2018.12.015DOI Listing
May 2019

Role of nutritional indices in predicting outcomes of vascular surgery.

J Vasc Surg 2019 08 25;70(2):569-579.e4. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Scholars in HeAlth Research Program, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; Vascular Medicine Program, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Internal Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon. Electronic address:

Background: Malnutrition is frequent among vascular surgery patients, given their age, chronic comorbidities, and poor functional status, and it is believed to increase their operative risk. We aimed to assess the combined use of recent significant weight loss (>10% body mass) and serum albumin levels as a nutritional status index to predict outcomes.

Methods: We analyzed vascular surgery data from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database (2005-2012; N = 238,082) to compare operative death (in-hospital and 30-day operative death) across eight nutritional status groups based on weight loss (yes/no) and albumin category: very low albumin level (VL-Alb; <2.50 g/dL), low albumin level (L-Alb; 2.50-3.39 g/dL), normal albumin level (N-Alb; 3.40-4.39 g/dL), and high albumin level (H-Alb; 4.40-5.40 g/dL). Risk-adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals were estimated by multivariable logistic regression (N-Alb [no weight loss], reference).

Results: The study population included 113,936 patients for whom albumin level was available (age, 67 ± 13 years; 60.2% male). Operative death was documented in 5160 (4.53%) patients. The eight-category nutritional status was more predictive of operative death than age alone (C statistic, 0.74 vs 0.63). A high discrimination multivariable model for operative death was derived (C statistic, 0.851). Low albumin level was associated with increased death that worsened in case of weight loss: VL-Alb + WL, AOR = 3.83 (3.03-4.83); VL-Alb, AOR = 3.36 (3.06-3.69); L-Alb + WL, AOR = 2.46 (1.98-3.05); and L-Alb, AOR = 1.99 (1.84-2.15). Weight loss was associated with increased death even if albumin level was normal: N-Alb + WL, AOR = 1.77 (1.34-2.35); and H-Alb + WL, AOR = 1.91 (0.69-5.31). H-Alb was protective (AOR = 0.65 [0.55-0.76]).

Conclusions: Nutritional status predicts outcomes of vascular surgery. Serum albumin level and weight loss should be incorporated in patients' risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2018.10.116DOI Listing
August 2019

Catheter-directed thrombolysis versus suction thrombectomy in the management of acute pulmonary embolism.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2019 09 20;7(5):623-628. Epub 2019 Mar 20.

Heart and Vascular Institute, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Background: Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) is increasingly performed for acute pulmonary embolism (PE) because it is presumed to provide similar therapeutic benefits to systemic thrombolysis, while decreasing the dose of thrombolytic required and the associated risks. Contemporary suction thrombectomy (ST) devices have entered the market as minimal or no-lytic alternatives, but there is no evidence on their comparative effectiveness. This study aims to compare clinical outcomes of these two interventional alternatives.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent a ST catheter intervention for massive or submassive PE between 2011 and 2017 were identified. For each of these patients, a nearest-neighbor matching was implemented to identify at least three CDT patients who matched as closely as possible on the following six variables: PE type, age, gender, acute deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary disease, and year of procedure. The end point was clinical success defined as meeting all the following criteria: survival to hospital discharge without major bleeding (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and t-PA for Occluded Coronary Arteries moderate or severe), perioperative stroke or other major adverse procedure-related event, and decompensation for submassive or persistent shock for massive PE.

Results: Of 277 patients who received an intervention for acute PE, 54 CDT (63.5 ± 14.2 years of age; 18 massive PE) were matched with 18 ST (64.1 ± 14.1 years of age; 6 massive PE) patients. In the CDT group, 38 (70.4%) received ultrasound-assisted thrombolysis. The ST group had significantly more patients who had a major contraindication for lytics (1 [1.9%] for CDT vs 9 [50%] for ST; P < .001). There was no difference in major bleeding (8 [14.8%] for CDT vs 3 [16.7%] for ST; P > .999; Global Utilization of Streptokinase and t-PA for Occluded Coronary Arteries severe 1 [1.8%] for CDT vs 1 [5.6%] for ST; P > .999), stroke (3.7% for CDT vs 0 for ST; P = .408), or death (3.7% for CDT vs 16.7% for ST; P = .096). One patient in the ST group suffered tricuspid valve rupture and two patients in CDT group required surgical thrombectomy. Clinical success was not statistically different between groups (75.9% for CDT vs 61.1% for ST; P = .224). The association was similar when assessing the right/left ventricular ratio improvement (0.30 ± 0.19 for CDT vs 0.17 ± 0.16 for ST; P = .097), or the subgroup of patients with submassive PE (86.1% for CDT vs 66.7% for ST; P = .135).

Conclusions: CDT seems to have similar outcomes with ST in the management of acute PE, although larger, more homogenous data are needed. In our experience, ST should be viewed as a complementary alternative for patients with contraindication for thrombolytics or severely compromised hemodynamic profile and can yield good outcomes in an otherwise highly morbid population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2018.10.025DOI Listing
September 2019

Outcomes and predictors of failure of iliac vein stenting after catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute iliofemoral thrombosis.

J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord 2019 Mar 16;7(2):153-161. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Division of Vascular Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pa.

Objective: Iliac vein stenting is recommended to treat venous outflow obstruction after catheter-directed thrombolysis for acute iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis (DVT). Data on the outcome of proximal and distal stent extension are limited. Proximal stent extension to the vena cava may obstruct the contralateral iliac vein, whereas distal extension below the inguinal ligament contradicts common practice for arterial stents. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess outcomes and predictors of failure of iliac vein stents and contralateral iliac vein thrombosis, taking into consideration stent positioning.

Methods: Consecutive patients who underwent thrombolysis and stenting for DVT between May 2007 and September 2017 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. The intraoperative venograms were reviewed for proximal stent placement (covering >50% contralateral iliac vein orifice) and distal placement across the inguinal ligament. End points were ipsilateral DVT recurrence, post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS; Villalta score ≥5), and contralateral DVT. Patients with chronic contralateral DVT or contralateral iliac vein stenting at baseline were excluded from the contralateral DVT outcome evaluation. Survival analysis and Cox regression models were used to determine outcomes.

Results: Of 142 patients lysed, 73 patients (12 bilateral DVTs; mean age, 45.8 ± 17.2 years; 46 female patients) were treated with various combinations of thrombolytic techniques and at least one self-expanding iliac stent (77 stented limbs). Thirty-day recurrence developed in nine (12.3%) patients. The 3-year primary patency and secondary patency rates were 75.2% and 82.2%, respectively. The single predictor for loss of primary patency was incomplete thrombolysis (≤50%; hazard ratio [HR], 7.41; P = .002). Overall, 3 of 12 (25%) stents extending below the inguinal ligament occluded at 1 month, 2 months, and 9 months, respectively. The overall rate of PTS (Villalta score ≥5) in the stented cohort was 14.4% at 5 years. This was predicted by incomplete lysis (<50%; HR, 7.09; P = .040), stent extension below the inguinal ligament (HR, 6.68; P = .026), and male sex (HR, 6.02; P = .041). Of the 17 stents that extended into the contralateral common iliac vein and 58 stents that did not, there were 1 (5.9%) and 5 (8.6%) contralateral DVTs (P = .588) at an average follow-up of 27.4 ± 33.7 and 22.2 ± 22.3 months (P = .552), respectively.

Conclusions: Iliac stenting after thrombolysis for acute DVT guarantees high patency and low PTS rates, provided adequate thrombus resolution has been achieved before stent placement. Stent placement below the inguinal ligament does not affect the patency but may be associated with a higher PTS rate. Stenting proximal to the iliocaval confluence, although a precipitating factor, may not independently increase the likelihood of contralateral DVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvsv.2018.08.014DOI Listing
March 2019