Publications by authors named "Eeva Tuppurainen"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Investigation of Post Vaccination Reactions of Two Live Attenuated Vaccines against Lumpy Skin Disease of Cattle.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Jun 8;9(6). Epub 2021 Jun 8.

MCI Santé Animale, Mohammedia 28810, Morocco.

Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) causes an economically important disease in cattle. The only method for successful control is early diagnosis and efficient vaccination. Adverse effects of vaccination such as local inflammation at the injection site and localized or generalized skin lesions in some vaccinated animals have been reported with live vaccines. The aim of this work was to compare the safety of two lumpy skin disease (LSD) vaccine strains, Kenyan (Kn) Sheep and Goat Pox (KSGP O-240) and LSDV Neethling (Nt) strain, and to determine the etiology of the post-vaccination (pv) reactions observed in cattle. Experimental cattle were vaccinated under controlled conditions with Nt- and KSGP O-240-based vaccines, using two different doses, and animals were observed for 3 months for any adverse reactions. Three out of 45 cattle vaccinated with LSDV Nt strain (6.7%) and three out of 24 cattle vaccinated with Kn strain (12.5%) presented LSD-like skin nodules, providing evidence that the post-vaccination lesions may not be strain-dependent. Lesions appeared 1-3 weeks after vaccination and were localized in the neck or covering the whole body. Animals recovered after 3 weeks. There is a positive correlation between the vaccine dose and the appearance of skin lesions in vaccinated animals; at the 105 dose, 12% of the animals reacted versus 3.7% at the 104 dose. Both strains induced solid immunity when protection was measured by neutralizing antibody seroconversion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9060621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8226854PMC
June 2021

Comparative Evaluation of Lumpy Skin Disease Virus-Based Live Attenuated Vaccines.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 May 8;9(5). Epub 2021 May 8.

Infectious Diseases in Animals, Exotic and Particular Diseases, Sciensano, Groeselenberg 99, B-1180 Brussels, Belgium.

Vaccines form the cornerstone of any control, eradication and preventative strategy and this is no different for lumpy skin disease. However, the usefulness of a vaccine is determined by a multiplicity of factors which include stability, efficiency, safety and ease of use, to name a few. Although the vaccination campaign in the Balkans against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) was successful and has been implemented with success in the past in other countries, data of vaccine failure have also been reported. It was therefore the purpose of this study to compare five homologous live attenuated LSDV vaccines (LSDV LAV) in a standardized setting. All five LSDV LAVs studied were able to protect against a challenge with virulent LSDV. Aside from small differences in serological responses, important differences were seen in side effects such as a local reaction and a Neethling response upon vaccination between the analyzed vaccines. These observations can have important implications in the applicability in the field for some of these LSDV LAVs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9050473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151199PMC
May 2021

An HRM Assay to Differentiate Sheeppox Virus Vaccine Strains from Sheeppox Virus Field Isolates and other Capripoxvirus Species.

Sci Rep 2019 04 30;9(1):6646. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Agricultural and Biotechnology laboratory, Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A1400, Vienna, Austria.

Sheep poxvirus (SPPV), goat poxvirus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) affect small ruminants and cattle causing sheeppox (SPP), goatpox (GTP) and lumpy skin disease (LSD) respectively. In endemic areas, vaccination with live attenuated vaccines derived from SPPV, GTPV or LSDV provides protection from SPP and GTP. As live poxviruses may cause adverse reactions in vaccinated animals, it is imperative to develop new diagnostic tools for the differentiation of SPPV field strains from attenuated vaccine strains. Within the capripoxvirus (CaPV) homolog of the variola virus B22R gene, we identified a unique region in SPPV vaccines with two deletions of 21 and 27 nucleotides and developed a High-Resolution Melting (HRM)-based assay. The HRM assay produces four distinct melting peaks, enabling the differentiation between SPPV vaccines, SPPV field isolates, GTPV and LSDV. This HRM assay is sensitive, specific, and provides a cost-effective means for the detection and classification of CaPVs and the differentiation of SPPV vaccines from SPPV field isolates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43158-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6491823PMC
April 2019

Serological and clinical evaluation of the Yugoslavian RM65 sheep pox strain vaccine use in cattle against lumpy skin disease.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2018 Dec 6;65(6):1657-1663. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Independent Veterinary Consultant, The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, UK.

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an emerging infectious disease of cattle. Since 2012, it has been seen throughout the Middle East region. The aim of this study was to compare the humoral response of three different dosages of the RM65 sheep pox (SPP) vaccine to assess the use of ten times sheep dose of the RM65 vaccine against lumpy skin disease, and to explore the possible causes of, and characterize the side effects caused by the RM65 vaccine. A blinded randomized collected study comprised 57 clinically normal, Holstein Friesian cattle which were randomly assigned into three experimental groups of 17 cattle according to the vaccine dose used (one, five and ten times the dose used for sheep in the field, and a control group of six cattle that did not receive the vaccine. Experimental animals were monitored closely for the development of any abnormality or side effects. Serum samples were collected for 6 weeks and were tested using serum neutralization assay. Decrease in total milk production was observed a week after vaccination and by the fifth week of the experiment, it had returned to prevaccination levels. Clinical side effects were seen in five animals that belong only to the group that received ten times of the SPP vaccine dose. Observed side effects included fever, decreased feed intake and milk production, as well as skin lesions. Skin nodules appeared between 7 and 17 days postvaccination, and remained for 11-17 days. Systemic reactions were likely to be associated with higher dosage and all affected cattle recovered uneventfully. Animals that received the highest dose (ten times the sheep dose) showed the best humoral response. The actual efficacy of the different concentration of the SPP RM65 should be evaluated based on a challenge experiment in a controlled environment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12923DOI Listing
December 2018

A gel-based PCR method to differentiate sheeppox virus field isolates from vaccine strains.

Virol J 2018 04 2;15(1):59. Epub 2018 Apr 2.

Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Agricultural and Biotechnology laboratory, Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A1400, Vienna, Austria.

Background: Sheeppox (SPP) and goatpox (GTP) caused by sheeppox virus (SPPV) and goatpox virus (GTPV), respectively of the genus Capripoxvirus in the family Poxviridae, are severely afflicting small ruminants' production systems in Africa and Asia. In endemic areas, SPP and GTP are controlled using vaccination with live attenuated vaccines derived from SPPV, GTPV or Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Sometimes outbreaks occur following vaccination. In order to successfully control the spread of the virus, it is essential to identify whether the animals were infected by the field strain and the vaccine did not provide sufficient protection. Alternatively, in some cases the vaccine strain may cause adverse reactions in vaccinated animals or in rare occasions, re-gain virulence. Thus, diagnostic tools for differentiation of virulent strains from attenuated vaccine strains of the virus are needed. The aim of this study was to identify an appropriate diagnostic target region in the capripoxvirus genome by comparing the genomic sequences of SPPV field isolates with those of the most widely used SPP vaccine strains.

Results: A unique 84 base pair nucleotide deletion located between the DNA ligase gene and the VARV B22R homologue gene was found only in SPPV vaccines derived from the Romanian and Yugoslavian RM/65 strains and absent in SPPV field isolates originated from various geographical locations of Asia and Africa. In addition, we developed and evaluated a conventional PCR assay, exploiting the targeted intergenic region to differentiate SPPV vaccine virus from field isolates. The assay produced an amplicon size of 218 bp for the vaccine strains, while the SPPV field isolates resulted in a 302 bp PCR fragment. The assay showed good sensitivity and specificity, and the results were in full agreement with the sequencing data of the PCR amplicons.

Conclusion: The developed assay is an improvement of currently existing diagnostic tools and, when combined with a capripox virus species-specific assay, will enhance SPP and GTP diagnosis and surveillance and facilitate epidemiological investigations in countries using live attenuated SPP vaccines. In addition, for laboratories with limited resources, the assay provides a simple and cost-effective alternative for sequencing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-018-0969-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5879731PMC
April 2018

Comparative innocuity and efficacy of live and inactivated sheeppox vaccines.

BMC Vet Res 2016 Jun 29;12(1):133. Epub 2016 Jun 29.

Research and Development Virology, Multi-Chemical Industry, Lot. 157, Z I, Sud-Ouest (ERAC) B.P.: 278, Mohammedia, 28810, Morocco.

Background: Sheeppox (SPP) is one of the priorities, high-impact animal diseases in many developing countries, where live attenuated vaccines are routinely used against sheeppox virus (SPPV). In an event of an SPP outbreak, historically disease-free countries would hesitate to use of live vaccines against SPPVdue to the safety and trade reasons. Currently no killed SPPV vaccines are commercially available. In this study, we developed an inactivated Romanian SPPVvaccine and assessed its efficacy and potency in comparison with a live attenuated Romanian SPPV vaccine. Four naïve sheep were vaccinated once with the Romanian SPPV live attenuated vaccine and16 sheep were vaccinated twice with the inactivated vaccine. All sheep in the live vaccine group were included in the challenge trial, which was conducted using a highly virulent Moroccan SPPV field strain. Eight sheep of the inactivated vaccine group were challenged and the remaining sheep were monitored for seroconversion. Experimental animals were closely monitored for the appearance of clinical signs, body temperature and inflammation at the injection site. Two naïve sheep were used as unvaccinated controls.

Results: The inactivated Romanian SPPV vaccine was found to be safe and confer a good protection, similar to the live vaccine. Specific antibodies appeared from seven days post vaccination and remained up to nine months.

Conclusion: This study showed that the developed inactivated Romanian SPPV vaccine has a potential to replace attenuated vaccine to control and prevent sheep pox in disease-free or endemic countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-016-0754-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4928353PMC
June 2016

Evaluation of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three capripoxvirus vaccine strains against lumpy skin disease virus.

Vaccine 2015 Jun;33(28):3256-61

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright GU24 0NF, Surrey, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

The safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of three commercially available vaccines against lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cattle have been evaluated using a combination of vaccine challenge experiments and the monitoring of immune responses in vaccinated animals in the field. The three vaccines evaluated in the study included two locally produced (Ethiopian) vaccines (lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) Neethling and Kenyan sheep and goat pox (KSGP) O-180 strain vaccines) and a Gorgan goat pox (GTP) vaccine manufactured by Jordan Bio-Industries Centre (JOVAC). The latter vaccine was evaluated for the first time in cattle against LSDV. The Ethiopian Neethling and KSGPO-180 vaccines failed to provide protection in cattle against LSDV, whereas the Gorgan GTP vaccine protected all the vaccinated calves from clinical signs of LSD. There was no significant difference in protective efficacy detected between two dosage levels (P=0.2, P=0.25, and P=0.1 for KSGP, Neethling and Gorgan vaccines, respectively). Additionally, the Gorgan GTP vaccinated cattle showed stronger levels of cellular immune responses measured using Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions at the vaccination site indicating higher levels of immunogenicity produced by the GTPV vaccine in cattle, as opposed to the other two vaccines. This study indicated, for the first time, that the Gorgan GTP vaccine can effectively protect cattle against LSDV and that the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine were not protective. The results emphasise the need for molecular characterization of the Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccine seed viruses used for vaccine production in Ethiopia. In addition, the potency and efficacy testing process of the Ethiopian LSD Neethling and KSGP O-180 vaccines should be re-evaluated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.035DOI Listing
June 2015

Capripox disease in Ethiopia: Genetic differences between field isolates and vaccine strain, and implications for vaccination failure.

Antiviral Res 2015 Jul 20;119:28-35. Epub 2015 Apr 20.

Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

Sheeppox virus (SPPV), goatpox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) of the genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) cause capripox disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. These viruses are not strictly host-specific and their geographical distribution is complex. In Ethiopia, where sheep, goats and cattle are all affected, a live attenuated vaccine strain (KS1-O180) is used for immunization of both small ruminants and cattle. Although occurrences of the disease in vaccinated cattle are frequently reported, information on the circulating isolates and their relation to the vaccine strain in use are still missing. The present study addressed the parameters associated with vaccination failure in Ethiopia. Retrospective outbreak data were compiled and isolates collected from thirteen outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle at various geographical locations and years were analyzed and compared to the vaccine strain. Isolates of GTPV and LSDV genotypes were responsible for the capripox outbreaks in small ruminants and cattle, respectively, while SPPV was absent. Pathogenic isolates collected from vaccinated cattle were identical to those from the non-vaccinated ones. The vaccine strain, genetically distinct from the outbreak isolates, was not responsible for these outbreaks. This study shows capripox to be highly significant in Ethiopia due to low performance of the local vaccine and insufficient vaccination coverage. The development of new, more efficient vaccine strains, a GTPV strain for small ruminants and a LSDV for cattle, is needed to promote the acceptance by farmers, thus contribute to better control of CaPVs in Ethiopia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.04.008DOI Listing
July 2015

Lumpy skin disease: an African cattle disease getting closer to the EU.

Vet Rec 2014 Sep;175(12):300-1

Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of the West Indes, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.g5808DOI Listing
September 2014

Characterization of sheep pox virus vaccine for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus.

Antiviral Res 2014 Sep 25;109:1-6. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK.

Lumpy skin disease is of significant economic impact for the cattle industry in Africa. The disease is currently spreading aggressively in the Near East, posing a threat of incursion to Europe and Asia. Due to cross-protection within the Capripoxvirus genus, sheep pox virus (SPPV) vaccines have been widely used for cattle against lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). In the Middle East and the Horn of Africa these vaccines have been associated with incomplete protection and adverse reactions in cattle post-vaccination. The present study confirms that the real identity of the commonly used Kenyan sheep and goat pox vaccine virus (KSGP) O-240 is not SPPV but is actually LSDV. The low level attenuation of this virus is likely to be not sufficient for safe use in cattle, causing clinical disease in vaccinated animals. In addition, Isiolo and Kedong goat pox strains, capable of infecting sheep, goats and cattle are identified for potential use as broad-spectrum vaccine candidates against all capripox diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.06.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4149609PMC
September 2014

Demonstration of lumpy skin disease virus infection in Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks using immunohistochemistry.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2014 Mar 25;5(2):113-20. Epub 2013 Nov 25.

Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Pretoria, South Africa.

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a member of the genus Capripoxvirus. Transmission of the virus has been associated with haematophagous insects such as Stomoxys calcitrans as well as Aedes and Culex species of mosquitoes. Recent studies have reported the transmission of the virus by Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, and Rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks and the presence of LSDV in saliva of A. hebraeum and R. appendiculatus ticks. The aim of this study was to determine which tick organs become infected by LSDV following intrastadial infection and transstadial persistence of the virus in A. hebraeum and R. appendiculatus ticks. Nymphal and adult ticks were orally infected by feeding them on LSDV-infected cattle. Partially fed adult ticks were processed for testing while nymphs were fed to repletion and allowed to moult to adults before being processed for testing. The infection in tick organs was determined by testing for the presence of the viral antigen using monoclonal antibodies with immunohistochemical staining. The viral antigen was detected in salivary glands, haemocytes, synganglia, ovaries, testes, fat bodies, and midgut. Since the virus was shown to be able to cross the midgut wall and infect various tick organs, this may indicate potential for biological development and transmission of LSDV in ticks. This study strengthens the previously reported evidence of the occurrence of LSDV in tick saliva.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.09.010DOI Listing
March 2014

Development of a cost-effective method for capripoxvirus genotyping using snapback primer and dsDNA intercalating dye.

PLoS One 2013 7;8(10):e75971. Epub 2013 Oct 7.

Animal Production and Health Laboratory, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria ; Institute of Applied Genetics and Cell Biology, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria ; Research and Diagnostic Laboratories, National Veterinary Institute, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia.

Sheep pox virus (SPPV), goat pox virus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) are very closely related viruses of the Capripoxvirus (CaPV) genus of the Poxviridae family. They are responsible for sheep pox, goat pox and lumpy skin disease which affect sheep, goat and cattle, respectively. The epidemiology of capripox diseases is complex, as some CaPVs are not strictly host-specific. Additionally, the three forms of the disease co-exist in many sub-Saharan countries which complicates the identification of the virus responsible for an outbreak. Genotyping of CaPVs using a low-cost, rapid, highly specific, and easy to perform method allows a swift and accurate identification of the causative agent and significantly assists in selecting appropriate control and eradication measures, such as the most suitable vaccine against the virus during the outbreaks. The objective of this paper is to describe the design and analytical performances of a new molecular assay for CaPV genotyping using unlabelled snapback primers in the presence of dsDNA intercalating EvaGreen dye. This assay was able to simultaneously detect and genotype CaPVs in 63 samples with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The genotyping was achieved by observing the melting temperature of snapback stems of the hairpins and those of the full-length amplicons, respectively. Fourteen CaPVs were genotyped as SPPVs, 25 as GTPVs and 24 as LSDVs. The method is highly pathogen specific and cross platform compatible. It is also cost effective as it does not use fluorescently labelled probes, nor require high-resolution melting curve analysis software. Thus it can be easily performed in diagnostic and research laboratories with limited resources. This genotyping method will contribute significantly to the early detection and genotyping of CaPV infection and to epidemiological studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0075971PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3792100PMC
June 2014

Transovarial passage and transmission of LSDV by Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus decoloratus.

Exp Appl Acarol 2014 Jan 24;62(1):67-75. Epub 2013 Aug 24.

Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, Private bag X04, Pretoria, 0110, South Africa,

Lumpy skin disease (LSD), an acute, sub-acute or inapparent disease of cattle, is caused by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), a member of the genus Capripoxvirus in the family Poxviridae. LSD is characterised by high fever, formation of circumscribed skin lesions and ulcerative lesions on the mucous membranes of the mouth, respiratory and digestive tracts. It is an economically important disease due to the permanent damage to hides, the reduction in productivity and trade restrictions imposed on affected areas. Transmission has been associated with blood-feeding insects such as stable flies (Stomoxysis calcitrans) and mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). Mechanical (intrastadial) and transstadial transmission by Amblyomma hebraeum and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus as well as transovarial transmission by R. decoloratus have been reported. In this study transovarial passage of LSDV to larvae and subsequent transmission to recipient animals were demonstrated. The finding of transovarial passage of LSDV in female ticks shows the potential for A. hebraeum, R. appendiculatus and R. decoloratus to be reservoir hosts for LSDV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10493-013-9722-6DOI Listing
January 2014

Detection of capripoxvirus DNA using a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.

BMC Vet Res 2013 May 1;9:90. Epub 2013 May 1.

The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey, UK.

Background: Sheep poxvirus (SPPV), Goat poxvirus (GTPV) and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) are the most serious poxviruses of ruminants. They are double stranded DNA viruses of the genus Capripoxvirus, (subfamily Chordopoxvirinae) within the family Poxviridae. The aim of this study was to develop a Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) assay for the detection of Capripoxvirus (CaPV) DNA.

Results: A single LAMP assay targeting a conserved region of the CaPV P32 gene was selected from 3 pilot LAMP assays and optimised by adding loop primers to accelerate the reaction time. This LAMP assay successfully detected DNA prepared from representative CaPV isolates (SPPV, GTPV and LSDV), and did not cross-react with DNA extracted from other mammalian poxviruses. The analytical sensitivity of the LAMP assay was determined to be at least 163 DNA copies/μl which is equivalent to the performance reported for diagnostic real-time PCR currently used for the detection of CaPV. LAMP reactions were monitored with an intercalating dye using a real-time PCR machine, or by agarose-gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, dual labelled LAMP products (generated using internal LAMP primers that were conjugated with either biotin or fluorescein) could be readily visualised using a lateral-flow device.

Conclusions: This study provides a simple and rapid approach to detect CaPV DNA that may have utility for use in the field, or in non-specialised laboratories where expensive equipment is not available.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-9-90DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3649941PMC
May 2013

Evidence of vertical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus in Rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2013 Jun 29;4(4):329-33. Epub 2013 Mar 29.

The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK.

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an economically important acute or sub-acute disease of cattle that occurs across Africa and in the Middle East. The aim of this study was to assess whether Rhipicephalus decoloratus ticks were able to transmit lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) transovarially. Uninfected, laboratory-bred R. decoloratus larvae were placed to feed on experimentally infected "donor" cattle. After completion of the life cycle on donor animals, fully engorged adult female ticks were harvested and allowed to lay eggs. Larvae that hatched from these eggs were then transferred to feed on uninfected "recipient" cattle. The latter became viraemic and showed mild clinical disease with characteristic skin lesions and markedly enlarged precrural and subscapular lymph nodes. This is the first report of transovarial transmission of poxviruses by R. decoloratus ticks, and the importance of this mode of transmission in the spread of LSDV in endemic settings requires further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2013.01.006DOI Listing
June 2013

Mathematical modelling and evaluation of the different routes of transmission of lumpy skin disease virus.

Vet Res 2012 Jan 11;43. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Koret School of Veterinary Medicine, Robert H, Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, the Hebrew University, Israel.

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a severe viral disease of cattle. Circumstantial evidence suggests that the virus is transmitted mechanically by blood-feeding arthropods. We compared the importance of transmission via direct and indirect contact in field conditions by using mathematical tools. We analyzed a dataset collected during the LSD outbreak in 2006 in a large dairy herd, which included ten separated cattle groups. Outbreak dynamics and risk factors for LSD were assessed by a transmission model. Transmission by three contact modes was modelled; indirect contact between the groups within a herd, direct contact or contact via common drinking water within the groups and transmission by contact during milking procedure. Indirect transmission was the only parameter that could solely explain the entire outbreak dynamics and was estimated to have an overall effect that was over 5 times larger than all other possible routes of transmission, combined. The R0 value induced by indirect transmission per the presence of an infectious cow for 1 day in the herd was 15.7, while the R0 induced by direct transmission was 0.36. Sensitivity analysis showed that this result is robust to a wide range of assumptions regarding mean and standard deviation of incubation period and regarding the existence of sub-clinically infected cattle. These results indicate that LSD virus spread within the affected herd could hardly be attributed to direct contact between cattle or contact through the milking procedure. It is therefore concluded that transmission mostly occurs by indirect contact, probably by flying, blood-sucking insects. This has important implications for control of LSD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1297-9716-43-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3268087PMC
January 2012

Validation of a high-throughput real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of capripoxviral DNA.

J Virol Methods 2012 Feb 25;179(2):419-22. Epub 2011 Nov 25.

Institute for Animal Health, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, United Kingdom.

Capripoxviruses, which are endemic in much of Africa and Asia, are the aetiological agents of economically devastating poxviral diseases in cattle, sheep and goats. The aim of this study was to validate a high-throughput real-time PCR assay for routine diagnostic use in a capripoxvirus reference laboratory. The performance of two previously published real-time PCR methods were compared using commercially available reagents including the amplification kits recommended in the original publication. Furthermore, both manual and robotic extraction methods used to prepare template nucleic acid were evaluated using samples collected from experimentally infected animals. The optimised assay had an analytical sensitivity of at least 63 target DNA copies per reaction, displayed a greater diagnostic sensitivity compared to conventional gel-based PCR, detected capripoxviruses isolated from outbreaks around the world and did not amplify DNA from related viruses in the genera Orthopoxvirus or Parapoxvirus. The high-throughput robotic DNA extraction procedure did not adversely affect the sensitivity of the assay compared to manual preparation of PCR templates. This laboratory-based assay provides a rapid and robust method to detect capripoxviruses following suspicion of disease in endemic or disease-free countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.11.015DOI Listing
February 2012

Use of the Capripoxvirus homologue of Vaccinia virus 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit (RPO30) gene as a novel diagnostic and genotyping target: development of a classical PCR method to differentiate Goat poxvirus from Sheep poxvirus.

Vet Microbiol 2011 Apr 17;149(1-2):30-9. Epub 2010 Oct 17.

Animal Production and Health Laboratory, FAO/IAEA Agriculture & Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A1400 Vienna, Austria.

Sheep poxvirus (SPPV), Goat poxvirus (GTPV) and Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) are Capripoxviruses (CaPVs) responsible for causing severe poxvirus disease in sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. Serological differentiation of CaPVs is not possible and strain identification has relied on the implicitly accepted hypothesis that the viruses show well defined host specificity. However, it is now known that cross infections can occur and authentication of identity based on the host animal species from which the strain was first isolated, is not valid and should be replaced with molecular techniques to allow unequivocal strain differentiation. To identify a diagnostic target for strain genotyping, the CaPV homologue of the Vaccinia virus E4L gene which encodes the 30 kDa DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit, RPO30 was analyzed. Forty-six isolates from different hosts and geographical origins were included. Most CaPVs fit into one of the three different groups according to their host origins: the SPPV, the GTPV and the LSDV group. A unique 21-nucleotide deletion was found in all SPPV isolates which was exploited to develop a RPO30-based classical PCR test to differentiate SPPV from GTPV that will allow rapid differential diagnosis of disease during CaPV outbreaks in small ruminants.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2010.09.038DOI Listing
April 2011

Real time PCR method for simultaneous detection, quantitation and differentiation of capripoxviruses.

J Virol Methods 2011 Jan 26;171(1):134-40. Epub 2010 Oct 26.

FAO/IAEA Agriculture & Biotechnology Laboratory, IAEA Laboratories Seibersdorf, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.

The genus Capripoxvirus (CaPV) comprises three members namely, sheep poxvirus (SPPV), goat poxvirus (GTPV) and lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) affecting sheep, goats and cattle, respectively. CaPV infections produce similar symptoms in sheep and goats, and the three viruses cannot be distinguished serologically. Since there are conflicting opinions regarding the host specificity of CaPVs, particularly for goatpox and sheeppox viruses, the development of rapid genotyping tools will facilitate more accurate disease diagnosis and surveillance for better management of capripox outbreaks. This paper describes a species-specific, real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on unique molecular markers that were found in the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) gene sequences of CaPVs, that uses dual hybridization probes for their simultaneous detection, quantitation and genotyping. The assay can differentiate between CaPV strains based on differences in the melting point temperature (Tm) obtained after fluorescence melting curve analysis (FMCA). It is highly sensitive and presents low intra- and inter-run variation. This real time PCR assay will make a significant contribution to CaPV diagnosis and to the better understanding of the epidemiology of CaPVs by enabling rapid genotyping and gene-based classification of viral strains and unequivocal identification of isolates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2010.10.014DOI Listing
January 2011

Capripoxvirus G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: a host-range gene suitable for virus animal origin discrimination.

J Gen Virol 2009 Aug 1;90(Pt 8):1967-1977. Epub 2009 Apr 1.

CIRAD, UMR Contrôle des Maladies, F-34398 Montpellier, France.

The genus Capripoxvirus within the family Poxviridae comprises three closely related viruses, namely goat pox, sheep pox and lumpy skin disease viruses. This nomenclature is based on the animal species from which the virus was first isolated, respectively, goat, sheep and cattle. Since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. We describe here the suitability of the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) gene for use in host-range grouping of capripoxviruses. The analysis of 58 capripoxviruses showed three tight genetic clusters consisting of goat pox, sheep pox and lumpy skin disease viruses. However, a few discrepancies exist with the classical virus-host origin nomenclature: a virus isolated from sheep is grouped in the goat poxvirus clade and vice versa. Intra-group diversity was further observed for the goat pox and lumpy skin disease virus isolates. Despite the presence of nine vaccine strains, no genetic determinants of virulence were identified on the GPCR gene. For sheep poxviruses, the addition or deletion of 21 nucleic acids (7 aa) was consistently observed in the 5' terminal part of the gene. Specific signatures for each cluster were also identified. Prediction of the capripoxvirus GPCR topology, and its comparison with other known mammalian GPCRs and viral homologues, revealed not only a classical GPCR profile in the last three-quarters of the protein but also unique features such as a longer N-terminal end with a proximal hydrophobic alpha-helix and a shorter serine-rich C-tail.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.010686-0DOI Listing
August 2009

Serological survey for potential disease agents of free-ranging cervids in six selected national parks from Germany.

J Wildl Dis 2006 Oct;42(4):836-43

Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research Berlin, Alfred-Kowalke-Str. 17, D-10315 Berlin, Germany.

A total of 164 blood samples, collected from free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and fallow deer (Dama dama) in six German national parks (NP) between 2000 and 2002, were assayed for antibodies against nine viral disease agents. Antibodies were only detected against the alpha-herpesviruses; specifically, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) (22 of 157, 14%), cervid herpesvirus-1 (17 of 157, 10.8%), and caprine herpesvirus-1 (11 of 159, 6.9%). Titers ranged from 4 to 102. Most of the seropositive sera, and those with the highest antibody titers, were from red and roe deer in the Harz and Hochharz NP, which are connected and allow migration between the two. The distribution and specificity of antibodies detected in individual deer suggests that the three alpha-herpesviruses are circulating in these deer populations. No antibodies were detected against bovine viral diarrhea virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, bovine leukemia virus, bluetongue virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, or sheep and goat poxvirus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/0090-3558-42.4.836DOI Listing
October 2006
-->