Publications by authors named "Eero Pukkala"

436 Publications

Living alone as a risk factor for cancer incidence, case-fatality and all-cause mortality: A nationwide registry study.

SSM Popul Health 2021 Sep 11;15:100826. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Psychology and Logopedics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland.

Lack of social contacts has been associated with an increased risk of cancer mortality, but it is not known whether living alone increases the risk of cancer incidence or case fatality. We examined the association between living alone with cancer incidence, case-fatality and all-cause mortality in eight most common cancers. All patients with their first cancer diagnosis in 2000-2017 were identified from the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry. Information on living arrangements was derived from Statistics Finland. The incidence analyses were conducted using Poisson regression. The total Finnish population served as the population at risk. Fine-Gray model was used to estimate case-fatality and Cox proportional regression model all-cause mortality. In men, we found an association between history of living alone and excess lung cancer incidence but living alone seemed to be associated with lower incidence of prostate cancer and skin melanoma. In women, living alone was more consistently associated with higher incidence of all studied cancers. Cancer patients living alone had an 11%-80% statistically significantly increased case-fatality and all-cause mortality in all studied cancers in men and in breast, colorectal and lung cancer in women. Living alone is consistently associated with increased cancer incidence risk in women but only in some cancers in men. Both men and women living alone had an increased risk of all-cause mortality after cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219898PMC
September 2021

Incidence of extraovarian clear cell cancers in women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis: A cohort study.

PLoS One 2021 29;16(6):e0253270. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Finnish Cancer Registry-Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Endometriosis is associated with increased risk of clear cell ovarian cancer and has even suggested being an etiological factor for this cancer. Association between endometriosis and extraovarian clear cell cancers is unclear. This study aimed to assess the association between surgically diagnosed endometriosis and risk of extraovarian clear cell cancers according to the type of endometriosis (i.e., ovarian, peritoneal, and other endometriosis) and the site of clear cell cancer.

Methods: In this register-based historic cohort study we identified all women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Registry 1987-2012. Data on extraovarian clear cell cancers of these women were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry. The follow-up started January 1st, 2007 or at endometriosis diagnosis (if later), and ended at emigration, death or on the December 31st, 2014. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated for each site of clear cell carcinoma (intestine, kidney, urinary tract, gynecological organs other than ovary), using the Finnish female population as reference.

Results: The endometriosis cohort consisted of 48,996 women, including 22,745 women with ovarian and 19,809 women with peritoneal endometriosis. Altogether 23 extraovarian clear cell cancers were observed during 367,386 person-years of follow-up. The risk of extraovarian clear cell cancer was not increased among all women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis (standardized incidence ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.56-1.33) nor in different types of endometriosis. The incidence of clear cell cancer in any specific site was not increased either.

Conclusions: The risk of extraovarian clear cell cancers in women with surgically diagnosed endometriosis is similar to that in the general population in Finland.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253270PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8241117PMC
June 2021

Cancer incidence among musicians: 45 years of follow-up in four Nordic countries.

Acta Oncol 2021 Jul 23;60(7):835-841. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

International Agency for Research on Cancer/World Health Organization (IARC/WHO), Lyon, France.

Background: There are studies suggesting that participation in musical activities may protect from cancer. On the other hand, some musicians have a lifestyle that might increase the risk of cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the cancer pattern of musicians in four Nordic countries.

Material And Methods: This study combines census and cancer registry data from 1961 to 2005 for 13 million people from Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) analyses were conducted with the cancer incidence rates for entire national populations used as reference rates.

Results: There were 11,401 male and 3105 female musicians with 2039 cancer cases. The SIR for all sites combined was 1.02 (95% confidence interval 0.97-1.07) in men and 1.04 (0.94-1.15) in women. In male musicians, there were statistically significant excesses in oropharyngeal cancer (4.36, 2.73-6.60), esophageal cancer (2.08, 1.51-2.81), liver cancer (1.81, 1.26-2.52), and skin melanoma (1.40, 1.10-1.75). The risk was decreased in lip cancer (0.13, 0.02-0.48), stomach cancer (0.66, 0.50-0.82), and lung cancer (0.77, 0.65-0.90). In female musicians, there were no statistically significant SIRs in any of the cancer types studied, but the risk of breast cancer was significantly elevated in the age category of 70+ (1.52, 1.04-2.15). The overall SIR was stable over the 45 year period of observation, but strong decreases were observed in the SIRs of esophageal cancer, liver cancer, laryngeal cancer, and skin melanoma.

Conclusion: Musicians have characteristics of indoor workers such as low incidence of lip cancer and high incidence of skin melanoma. The low incidence of lung cancer suggests that the prevalence of smoking among musicians is lower than in the general population while the elevated risk of alcohol-related cancer types suggest that drinking is likely more common among musicians. The cancer risk for all sites combined is still similar to that of the general population in the four countries studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2021.1924403DOI Listing
July 2021

Impact of parity on the incidence of ovarian cancer subtypes: a population-based case-control study.

Acta Oncol 2021 Jul 17;60(7):850-855. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Parity is known to have a protective effect as regards ovarian cancer, but its effect on the different histological subtypes of ovarian cancer is not well known. The impact of parity on the incidence of ovarian cancer subtypes was studied.

Material And Methods: All Finnish women diagnosed 1994-2013 with ovarian cancer for the first time were included. Altogether, 5412 cases of ovarian cancer were identified in the Finnish Cancer Registry and stratified according to morphology into serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and others. Five age-matched controls were randomly selected for each case from the Finnish National Population Registry. Data on postmenopausal hormonal therapy were derived from the Registry of Prescribed drugs and used as cofactors. Multivariate conditional logistic regression for matched case-control data was used to examine the associations between parity parameters and ovarian cancer risk.

Results: Parous women had lower risk than nulliparous women in getting ovarian cancer of any type under age of 55 years. The odds ratio (OR) for serous cancer was 0.65 (95% confidence interval 0.56-0.77), for mucinous cancer 0.66 (0.52-0.83), for endometrioid cancer 0.52 (0.40-0.68), for clear-cell cancer 0.30 (0.19-0.46) and for other types 0.59 (0.43-0.80). In women aged 55 or older, the respective ORs were 0.86 (0.75-0.99), 0.78 (0.57-1.07), 0.61 (0.47-0.79), 0.44 (0.29-0.66) and 0.74 (0.57-0.95), adjusted for hormone therapy. Number of childbirths was associated with a trend toward reduction of risk, especially in serous and clear-cell cancers. Higher age at first birth was associated with higher risk of clear-cell cancer but otherwise age at first or last birth did not have an impact on the incidence of cancer subtypes.

Conclusions: Childbirths decrease the risk of all histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer in women in premenopausal and postmenopausal age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2021.1919754DOI Listing
July 2021

Antihypertensive Drug Use and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Death among Finnish Ovarian Cancer Patients-A Nationwide Cohort Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;13(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, 33520 Tampere, Finland.

Ovarian cancer (OC) has a poor prognosis. Hypertension may be a prognostic factor for OC, but it is unclear whether antihypertensive (anti-HT) drug use of modifies OC prognosis. We performed a population-based analysis assessing the effect of anti-HT drug use on OC mortality. A cohort of 12,122 women identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry with OC in 1995-2013 was combined with information on their anti-HT drug use during the same time period. Use of each anti-HT drug was analysed as a time-dependent variable. Analyses were run for five, ten and full follow-up (19-year) mortality with cardiovascular morbidity risk evaluated in competing risk analysis. No anti-HT drug group was associated with OC survival within five years after OC diagnosis. At ten years, a dose-dependent association was observed between pre-diagnostic ACE-inhibitor use and improved OC survival. With full follow-up, post-diagnostic high-intensity use associated with reduced OC death risk for multiple anti-HT drug groups. In competing risk analysis, only the post-diagnostic use of ACE-inhibitors associated with increased OC survival. Anti-HT drugs were not associated with survival benefits within five years after OC diagnosis. ACE-inhibitors may confer survival benefits in women with OC, but further confirmatory studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123393PMC
April 2021

Causes of death among women with breast cancer: A follow-up study of 50 481 women with breast cancer in Finland.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 22. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Our study aims to assess mortality from causes other than breast cancer among women with breast cancer with focus on indications of joint aetiology. Data on female breast cancer patients were obtained from the Finnish Cancer Registry and their underlying causes of death in 54 categories from the Statistics Finland. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for 50 481 patients diagnosed between 1971 and 2000 and followed until December 2012, stratified by histology, age at diagnosis and time since diagnosis. The expected numbers of deaths were based on respective mortality rates among the Finnish general population. Hazard ratio (HR) was estimated from Poisson regression model to compare risks of cause of death by histology. 41% of 30 841 deaths were due to causes other than breast cancer. Significant excess mortality was observed for stomach cancer (SMR 1.43, 95% CI 1.26-1.62), circulatory system diseases (SMR 1.17, 95% CI 1.14-1.20) and suicide (SMR 1.51, 95% CI 1.28-1.78). In an age-adjusted analysis, significantly higher relative risk of stomach cancer mortality was observed for lobular vs ductal subtype (HR 2.00, 95% CI 1.32-3.02). Significantly increased SMRs were observed for cancers of respiratory organs among premenopausal women, and for other respiratory system diseases, dementia and Alzheimer disease among postmenopausal women. We conclude that female breast cancer patients are at increased risk of death from causes other than the breast cancer diagnosis including circulatory and respiratory system diseases and cancer of stomach, ovary and respiratory systems. The excess mortality because of different causes varies based on menopausal status and histology. There might be shared aetiological factors between the diagnosis of breast cancer and the causes of death among these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33607DOI Listing
April 2021

The Iranian Study of Opium and Cancer (IROPICAN): Rationale, Design, and Initial Findings.

Arch Iran Med 2021 03 1;24(3):167-176. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Biology, School of Computer, Mathematical, and Natural Sciences, Morgan State University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) recently classified opium use as a Group 1 carcinogen. However, much remains to be studied on the relation between opium and cancer. We designed the Iranian Opium and Cancer (IROPICAN) study to further investigate the association of opium use and cancers of the head and neck, bladder, lung, and colon and rectum. In this paper, we describe the rationale, design, and some initial results of the IROPICAN Study.

Methods: The IROPICAN is a multi-center case-control study conducted in 10 provinces of Iran. The cases were all histologically confirmed and the controls were selected from hospital visitors who were free of cancer, were not family members or friends of the cancer patients, and were visiting the hospital for reasons other than their own ailment. The questionnaires included detailed questions on opium use (including age at initiation, duration, frequency, typical amount, and route), and potential confounders, such as tobacco use (e.g., cigarettes, and water-pipe), and dietary factors. Biological samples, including blood and saliva, were also collected.

Results: The validation and pilot phases showed reasonably good validity, with sensitivities of 70% and 69% for the cases and controls, respectively, in reporting opium use. The results also showed excellent reliability, with intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.96 for ever opium use and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.80, 0.92) for regular opium use. In the main phase, we recruited 3299 cancer cases (99% response rate) and 3477 hospital visitor controls (89% response rate). The proportion of ever-use of opium was 40% among cases and 18% among controls.

Conclusion: The IROPICAN study will serve as a major resource in studies addressing the effect of opium on risk of cancers of the head and neck, bladder, lung, and colon and rectum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.27DOI Listing
March 2021

COVID-19 Pandemic and Helsinki University Hospital Personnel Psychological Well-Being: Six-Month Follow-Up Results.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 03 4;18(5). Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Acute Psychiatry and Consultations, HUS Helsinki University Hospital, 00029 Helsinki, Finland.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an unequally distributed extra workload to hospital personnel and first reports have indicated that especially front-line health care personnel are psychologically challenged. A majority of the Finnish COVID-19 patients are cared for in the Helsinki University Hospital district. The psychological distress of the Helsinki University Hospital personnel has been followed via an electronic survey monthly since June 2020. We report six-month follow-up results of a prospective 18-month cohort study. Individual variation explained much more of the total variance in psychological distress (68.5%, 95% CI 65.2-71.9%) and negative changes in sleep (75.6%, 95% CI 72.2-79.2%) than the study survey wave (1.6%, CI 0.5-5.5%; and 0.3%, CI 0.1-1.2%). Regional COVID-19 incidence rates correlated with the personnel's psychological distress. In adjusted multilevel generalized linear multiple regression models, potentially traumatic COVID-19 pandemic-related events (OR 6.54, 95% CI 5.00-8.56) and front-line COVID-19 work (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.37-2.39) was associated with personnel psychological distress but age and gender was not. While vaccinations have been initiated, creating hope, continuous follow-up and psychosocial support is still needed for all hospital personnel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967532PMC
March 2021

A cohort study on adult hematological malignancies and brain tumors in relation to magnetic fields from indoor transformer stations.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2021 Apr 15;233:113712. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MF) have been classified as possibly carcinogenic. This classification was mainly based on studies indicating increased risk of leukemia in children living near power lines. Increased risks of adult hematological malignancies and brain tumors have also been reported, but the results are mixed. We assessed incidence of adult hematological malignancies and brain tumors associated with residential MF exposure. All cohort members had lived in buildings with indoor transformer stations (TS). MF exposure was assessed based on apartment location. Out of the 256,372 individuals, 9,636 (165,000 person-years of follow-up) living in apartments next to TSs were considered as exposed. Associations between MF exposure and neoplasms were examined using Cox proportional hazard models. The hazard ratio (HR) for MF exposure ≥ 1 month was below one for most hematological neoplasms (HR for any hematological neoplasm: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.54-1.03), and decreased with increasing duration of exposure (HR for exposure ≥ 10 years: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.22-0.99). However, the HR for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) was 2.86 (95% CI: 1.00-8.15), based on 4 exposed cases; the risk increased with duration of exposure (HR for exposure ≥3 years: 3.61; 95% CI: 1.05-12.4) and was particularly associated with childhood exposure (2 exposed cases, HR for exposure during the first two years of life: 11.5; 95% CI: 1.92-68.9). The HR for meningioma was 0.46 (95% CI: 0.19-1.11), with no evidence of exposure-response gradient with increasing duration of exposure. The HR for glioma was 1.47 (95% CI: 0.84-2.57). The hypothesis of a positive association between ELF MFs and adult hematological malignancies was supported only for ALL. The results suggested decreased rather than increased risk of most hematological neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2021.113712DOI Listing
April 2021

Mortality, Reoperation, and Hospital Stay Within 90 Days of Primary and Secondary Antireflux Surgery in a Population-Based Multinational Study.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jun 13;160(7):2283-2290. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Absolute rates and risk factors of short-term outcomes after antireflux surgery remain largely unknown. We aimed to clarify absolute risks and risk factors for poor 90-day outcomes of primary laparoscopic and secondary antireflux surgery.

Methods: This population-based cohort study included patients who had primary laparoscopic or secondary antireflux surgery in the 5 Nordic countries in 2000-2018. In addition to absolute rates, we analyzed age, sex, comorbidity, hospital volume, and calendar period in relation to all-cause 90-day mortality (main outcome), 90-day reoperation, and prolonged hospital stay (≥2 days over median stay). Multivariable logistic regression provided odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), adjusted for confounders.

Results: Among 26,193 patients who underwent primary laparoscopic antireflux surgery, postoperative 90-day mortality and 90-day reoperation rates were 0.13% (n = 35) and 3.0% (n = 750), respectively. The corresponding rates after secondary antireflux surgery (n = 1 618) were 0.19% (n = 3) and 6.2% (n = 94). Higher age (56-80 years vs 18-42 years: OR, 2.66; 95% CI 1.03-6.85) and comorbidity (Charlson Comorbidity Index ≥2 vs 0: OR, 6.25; 95% CI 2.42-16.14) increased risk of 90-day mortality after primary surgery, and higher hospital volume suggested a decreased risk (highest vs lowest tertile: OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.22-1.57). Comorbidity increased the risk of 90-day reoperation. Higher age and comorbidity increased risk of prolonged hospital stay after both primary and secondary surgery. Higher annual hospital volume decreased the risk of prolonged hospital stay after primary surgery (highest vs lowest tertile: OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.67-0.80).

Conclusion: These findings suggest that laparoscopic antireflux surgery has an overall favorable safety profile in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease, particularly in younger patients without severe comorbidity who undergo surgery at high-volume centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.02.022DOI Listing
June 2021

Malignant Eccrine Porocarcinoma in Finland During 2007 to 2017.

Acta Derm Venereol 2021 Jan 5;101(1):adv00363. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

The Central Hospital of Tavastia Proper, FIN-13530 Hämeenlinna, Finland.

Malignant eccrine porocarcinoma is a rare skin adnexal cancer arising from the sweat glands. Little is known about the epidemiology and incidence of eccrine porocarcinoma. This registry-based study examined the epidemiology and incidence data for eccrine porocarcinoma from the Finnish Cancer Registry. The study included all persons diagnosed with eccrine porocarcinoma in 2007 to 2017. There were 69 cases in the study period; 34 (49%) male and 35 (51%) female patients. Mean age at diagnosis was 75.5 years. Incidence for men was 0.06 per 100,000 person-years and for women 0.04 per 100,000 person-years adjusted for age according to the World Standard Population. Incidence increased with age. There was one eccrine porocarcinoma-specific death among the 69 patients. The incidence of eccrine porocarcinoma in Finland is therefore low. The mean age at time of diagnosis and the location of eccrine porocarcinoma are consistent with previous reports. The survival of patients with eccrine porocarcinoma is high.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-3718DOI Listing
January 2021

Personnel Well-Being in the Helsinki University Hospital during the COVID-19 Pandemic-A Prospective Cohort Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 10 28;17(21). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Helsinki and Acute Psychiatry and Consultations, HUS Helsinki University Hospital, 00029 HUS Helsinki, Finland.

In March 2020, strict measures took place in Finland to limit the COVID-19 pandemic. Majority of Finnish COVID-19 patients have been located in southern Finland and consequently cared for at the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS) Helsinki University Hospital. During the pandemic, HUS personnel's psychological symptoms are followed via an electronic survey, which also delivers information on psychosocial support services. In June 2020, the baseline survey was sent to 25,494 HUS employees, 4804 (19%) of whom answered; altogether, 62.4% of the respondents were nursing staff and 8.9% were medical doctors. While the follow-up continues for a year and a half, this report shares the sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents and the first results of psychological symptoms from our baseline survey. Out of those who were directly involved in the pandemic patient care, 43.4% reported potentially traumatic COVID-19 pandemic-related events (PTEs) vs. 21.8% among the others ( < 0.001). While over a half of the personnel were asymptomatic, a group of respondents reported PTEs and concurrent depression, insomnia, and anxiety symptoms. This highlights the need to ensure appropriate psychosocial support services to all traumatized personnel; especially, nursing staff may require attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217905DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662585PMC
October 2020

Laryngeal and Pharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma After Antireflux Surgery in the 5 Nordic Countries.

Ann Surg 2020 Oct 16. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: The aim of this study was to clarify whether antireflux surgery prevents laryngeal and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Summary Background Data: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) seems to increase the risk of laryngeal and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

Methods: All-Nordic (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) population-based cohort study of adults with documented GERD in 1980 to 2014. First, cancer risk after antireflux surgery was compared to the expected risk in the corresponding background population by calculating standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Second, cancer risk among antireflux surgery patients was compared to nonoperated GERD patients using multivariable Cox regression, providing hazard ratios (HR) with 95% CIs, adjusted for sex, age, calendar period, and diagnoses related to tobacco smoking, obesity, and alcohol overconsumption.

Results: Among 814,230 GERD patients, 47,016 (5.8%) underwent antireflux surgery. The overall SIRs and HRs of the combined outcome laryngeal or pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 39) were decreased after antireflux surgery [SIR = 0.62 (95% CI 0.44-0.85) and HR = 0.55 (95% CI 0.38-0.80)]. The point estimates were further decreased >10 years after antireflux surgery [SIR = 0.48 (95% CI 0.26-0.80) and HR = 0.47 (95% CI 0.26-0.85)]. The risk estimates of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma were particularly decreased >10 years after antireflux surgery [SIR = 0.28 (95% CI 0.08-0.72) and HR = 0.23 (95% CI 0.08-0.69)], whereas no such decrease over time after surgery was found for pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Analyses of patients with severe GERD (reflux esophagitis or Barrett esophagus) showed similar results.

Conclusion: Antireflux surgery may decrease the risk of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and possibly also of pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004423DOI Listing
October 2020

Breast cancer incidence in the regions of Belarus and Ukraine most contaminated by the Chernobyl accident: 1978 to 2016.

Int J Cancer 2021 04 29;148(8):1839-1849. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Section of Environment and Radiation, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Even 30 years after the accident, an association between breast cancer incidence and ionizing radiation exposure from Chernobyl fallout remains uncertain. We studied breast cancer incidence in the most contaminated regions of Belarus (Gomel and Mogilev) and Ukraine (Kyiv, Zhytomyr and Chernihiv) before (1978-1986) and after (1987-2016) the accident. Breast cancer cases and female population size data were received from the national cancer registries and the state departments of statistics. The study included 85 132 breast cancers with 150 million person-years at risk. We estimated annual rayon (district)-average absorbed doses to the breast from external and internal irradiation of the adult female population over the period of 1986-2016. We studied an association between rayon-average cumulative absorbed breast dose with 5-year lag, that is, excluding the exposure in 5 years prior to breast cancer diagnosis, and breast cancer incidence using negative binomial regression models. Mean (median) cumulative breast dose in 2016 was 12.3 (5.0) milligray (mGy) in Belarus and 5.7 (2.3) mGy in Ukraine, with the maximum dose of 55 mGy and 54 mGy, respectively. Breast cancer incidence rates statistically significantly increased with calendar year and attained age, and were higher in urban than in rural residents. Adjusting for time, age and urbanicity effects, we found no evidence of increasing incidence with rayon-average 5-year lagged cumulative breast dose. Owing to ecological study design limitations, a case-control study covering this area with individually reconstructed absorbed breast doses is needed testing for association between low-dose protracted radiation exposure and breast cancer risk after Chernobyl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33346DOI Listing
April 2021

Incidence of Lichen Planus and Subsequent Mortality in Finnish Women.

Acta Derm Venereol 2020 Oct 28;100(17):adv00303. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, HUCH Hyvinkää Hospital, FI-05850 Hyvinkää, Finland. E-mail:

The incidence pattern of lichen planus (LP) and LP-related mortality are unknown. The aim of this study was to assess these factors, based on Finnish nationwide registry data including 13,378 women with LP diagnosed during 1969 to 2012. The incidence rate for LP in 2003 to 2012 was 28 per 100,000 woman-years age-adjusted to the European Standard Population. Mortality was assessed using the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) with national mortality rates as the reference. All-cause mortality was increased (SMR 1.07, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.02-1.11), with excess mortality from Hodgkin lymphoma (SMR 6.73, 95% CI 1.83-17.2), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SMR 1.68, 95% CI 1.11-2.44), cancer of the oral cavity (SMR 10.5, 95% CI 5.99-17.0), cancer of the tongue (SMR 7.25, 95% CI 3.13-14.3), infections (SMR 1.78, 95% CI 1.14-2.64), respiratory diseases (SMR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.57), and diseases of the digestive system (SMR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.75). In conclusion, LP is a common disease and patients seem to have an impaired long-term prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-3664DOI Listing
October 2020

Angiotensin Receptor Blockers Associated with Improved Breast Cancer Survival-A Nationwide Cohort Study from Finland.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 11 11;29(11):2376-2382. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Background: Breast cancer incidence has been associated with hypertension, which might worsen disease prognosis, but few nationwide studies have investigated the association between antihypertensive drug use and breast cancer prognosis.

Methods: A cohort of 73,170 women diagnosed with breast cancer during 1995-2013 identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry was combined with information on antihypertensive drug use during the same time period from a national prescription database. Antihypertensive drugs were analyzed in groups categorized by mechanism of action. Usage of antihypertensive drugs, statins, antidiabetic, and anticoagulative drugs was analyzed as time-dependent exposure to model for simultaneous use of multiple drug groups. Influence of protopathic bias was evaluated in lag-time analyses.

Results: In prediagnostic use, only angiotensin receptor (ATR)-blockers were associated with decreased risk of breast cancer death as compared with nonusers (HR: 0.76, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.69-0.82), and there was an inverse association with cumulative dose of use. Postdiagnostic use of ATR-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors, beta-blockers, and calcium-channel blockers was dose dependently associated with better breast cancer survival compared with nonusers. The risk decrease was strongest for ATR-blockers (HR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.63-0.75) and remained for exposures occurring up to 3 years earlier.

Conclusions: Only ATR-blockers were associated with improved breast cancer survival in both prediagnostic and postdiagnostic use. The association was dose dependent and supported by a biological rationale as a causal explanation. In postdiagnostic use, similar reduction was found also for other antihypertensives, supporting a prognostic role of hypertension control.

Impact: Inhibition of angiotensin receptor subtype 1 (AT) could be a promising novel way to affect breast cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0711DOI Listing
November 2020

Relative and absolute cancer risks among Nordic kidney transplant recipients-a population-based study.

Transpl Int 2020 12 25;33(12):1700-1710. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Clinical Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.

Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have an increased cancer risk compared to the general population, but absolute risks that better reflect the clinical impact of cancer are seldom estimated. All KTRs in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Finland, with a first transplantation between 1995 and 2011, were identified through national registries. Post-transplantation cancer occurrence was assessed through linkage with cancer registries. We estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIR), absolute excess risks (AER), and cumulative incidence of cancer in the presence of competing risks. Overall, 12 984 KTRs developed 2215 cancers. The incidence rate of cancer overall was threefold increased (SIR 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2-3.4). The AER of any cancer was 1560 cases (95% CI: 1468-1656) per 100 000 person-years. The highest AERs were observed for nonmelanoma skin cancer (838, 95% CI: 778-901), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (145, 95% CI: 119-174), lung cancer (126, 95% CI: 98.2-149), and kidney cancer (122, 95% CI: 98.0-149). The five- and ten-year cumulative incidence of any cancer was 8.1% (95% CI: 7.6-8.6%) and 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0-17.6%), respectively. Excess cancer risks were observed among Nordic KTRs for a wide range of cancers. Overall, 1 in 6 patients developed cancer within ten years, supporting extensive post-transplantation cancer vigilance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tri.13734DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7756726PMC
December 2020

Opium use and the risk of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

Int J Cancer 2021 03 9;148(5):1066-1076. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Scant evidence exists to support the association of opium use with head and neck cancer, limited to the larynx and oral cavity. In a multicenter case-control study-Iran Opium and Cancer study, we recruited 633 cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) (254 lip and oral cavity, 54 pharynx, 327 larynx and 28 other subsites within the head and neck) and 3065 frequency-matched controls from April 2016 to April 2019. Odds ratios (ORs) for opium use and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained using mixed-effects logistic regression because of heterogeneity among centers. The adjusted OR (95% CI) for regular opium use was 3.76 (2.96-4.79) for all HNSCC combined. Strong dose-response effects were observed by frequency or amount of use, and duration of use. Regular opium uses significantly increased the risk of HNSCC of the pharynx, larynx and other subsites within the head and neck with OR (95% CI) of 2.90 (1.40-6.02), 6.55 (4.69-9.13) and 5.95 (2.41-14.71), respectively. The observed associations were significant even among never tobacco smokers (including cigarette and water-pipe smoking). Moreover, by the multiplicative interaction scale, the effect of opium use could be varied by cigarette smoking on HNSCC, 8.16 (6.20-10.74). For the first time, the current study showed opium users have an increased risk of several anatomic subsites of HNSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33289DOI Listing
March 2021

Antireflux surgery and risk of lung cancer by histological type in a multinational cohort study.

Eur J Cancer 2020 10 30;138:80-88. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: Airway micro-aspiration might contribute to the proposed associations between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and some lung diseases, including lung cancer. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that antireflux surgery decreases the risk of small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung differently depending on their location in relation to micro-aspiration.

Methods: Population-based cohort study including patients having undergone antireflux surgery during 1980-2014 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden. Patients having undergone antireflux surgery were compared with two groups: 1) the corresponding background population, by calculating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and 2) non-operated GERD-patients, by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs using multivariable Cox regression with adjustment for sex, age, calendar period, country, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obesity diagnosis or type 2 diabetes.

Results: Among all 812,617 GERD-patients, 46,996 (5.8%) had undergone antireflux surgery. The SIRs were statistically significantly decreased for small cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.77) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.92), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.06). The HRs were also below unity for small cell carcinoma (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.90) and squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.62-1.03), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.84-1.26). Analyses restricted to patients with objective GERD (reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus) showed similar results.

Conclusions: This all-Nordic study indicates that patients who undergo antireflux surgery are at decreased risk of small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, but not of adenocarcinoma of the lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.07.018DOI Listing
October 2020

Antireflux surgery and risk of lung cancer by histological type in a multinational cohort study.

Eur J Cancer 2020 10 30;138:80-88. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Cancer and Pharmaceutical Sciences, King's College London, UK. Electronic address:

Introduction: Airway micro-aspiration might contribute to the proposed associations between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and some lung diseases, including lung cancer. This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that antireflux surgery decreases the risk of small cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the lung differently depending on their location in relation to micro-aspiration.

Methods: Population-based cohort study including patients having undergone antireflux surgery during 1980-2014 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden. Patients having undergone antireflux surgery were compared with two groups: 1) the corresponding background population, by calculating standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and 2) non-operated GERD-patients, by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% CIs using multivariable Cox regression with adjustment for sex, age, calendar period, country, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obesity diagnosis or type 2 diabetes.

Results: Among all 812,617 GERD-patients, 46,996 (5.8%) had undergone antireflux surgery. The SIRs were statistically significantly decreased for small cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.41-0.77) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.92), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (SIR = 0.90, 95% CI 0.76-1.06). The HRs were also below unity for small cell carcinoma (HR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.44-0.90) and squamous cell carcinoma (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.62-1.03), but not for adenocarcinoma of the lung (HR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.84-1.26). Analyses restricted to patients with objective GERD (reflux oesophagitis or Barrett's oesophagus) showed similar results.

Conclusions: This all-Nordic study indicates that patients who undergo antireflux surgery are at decreased risk of small cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung, but not of adenocarcinoma of the lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.07.018DOI Listing
October 2020

Cancer Risk After Bariatric Surgery in a Cohort Study from the Five Nordic Countries.

Obes Surg 2020 10 13;30(10):3761-3767. Epub 2020 Jun 13.

Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Retzius väg 13a, 171 77, Stockholm, Sweden.

Purpose: Obesity increases the risk of several cancers, but the influence of bariatric surgery on the risk of individual obesity-related cancers is unclear. This study aimed to assess the impact of bariatric surgery on cancer risk in a multi-national setting.

Materials And Methods: This cohort study included all adults with an obesity diagnosis identified from national patient registries in all Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden) from 1980 to 2012. Cancer risk in bariatric surgery patients was compared with non-operated patients with obesity. Multivariable Cox regression provided adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Age, sex, calendar year, country, length of follow-up, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and alcohol-related diseases were evaluated as confounders.

Results: Among 482,572 participants with obesity, 49,096 underwent bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery was followed by a decreased overall cancer risk in women (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.80-0.92), but not in men (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.01). The risk reduction was observed only within the first five post-operative years. Among specific tumours, HRs decreased for breast cancer (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.69-0.95), endometrial cancer (HR 0.69, 95% CI 0.56-0.84) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.97) in female bariatric surgery patients, while the risk of kidney cancer increased in both sexes (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.13-1.84).

Conclusion: Bariatric surgery may decrease overall cancer risk in women within the first five years after surgery. This decrease may be explained by a decreased risk of breast and endometrial cancer and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04751-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7467909PMC
October 2020

Occupational Noise Exposure and Vestibular Schwannoma: A Case-Control Study in Sweden.

Am J Epidemiol 2020 11;189(11):1342-1347

It has been suggested that the association between self-reported occupational noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma (VS), found in several studies, represents recall bias. Therefore, we aimed to study the relationship in a large case-control study using occupational noise measurements. We performed a case-control study using data from Sweden for 1,913 VS cases diagnosed in 1961-2009 and 9,566 age- and sex-matched population controls. We defined occupational history by linkage to national censuses from 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. We estimated occupational noise exposure for each case and control using a job-exposure matrix. There was no association between occupational noise exposure and VS. Among subjects assessed as ever exposed to occupational noise levels of ≥85 dB (214 cases and 1,142 controls), the odds ratio for VS per 5 years of exposure was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.17). Workers with noise levels of ≥85 dB for at least 15 years (5-year latency period), showed no increased risk of VS (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.73, 1.31) compared with those who had never been exposed to noise levels of 75 dB or higher. In summary, our large study does not support an association between occupational noise exposure and VS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa091DOI Listing
November 2020

Patients With APECED Have Increased Early Mortality Due to Endocrine Causes, Malignancies and infections.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 06;105(6)

Children's Hospital, Pediatric Research Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Context: Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an autoimmune endocrinopathy with severe and unpredictable course. The impact of APECED on mortality has not been determined.

Objective: To assess overall and cause-specific mortality of patients with APECED.

Design And Setting: A follow-up study of Finnish patients with APECED from 1971 to 2018. Causes and dates of death were collected from Finnish registries.

Patients: Ninety-one patients with APECED.

Main Outcome Measure: Overall and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) determined by comparing the observed numbers of death and those expected on the basis of respective population death rates in Finland.

Results: The overall disease mortality was significantly increased (29 deaths, SMR 11; 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.2-16; P < 0.001). The relative risk (SMR) was highest in the youngest age groups but the absolute excess risk was similar (about 10 per 10 000 person-years) in all age categories. The highest SMRs were seen for endocrine and metabolic diseases (SMR 570; 95% CI, 270-1000; P < 0.001) and for oral and esophageal malignancies (SMR 170; 95% CI, 68-360; P < 0.001). Mortality was also increased for infections, diseases of digestive system, alcohol-related deaths, and for accidents. Due to the small number of cases we were unable to evaluate whether mortality was affected by disease severity.

Conclusions: Patients with APECED have significantly increased mortality in all age groups. Highest SMRs are found for causes that are directly related to APECED but also for infections. Increased alcohol- and accident-related deaths may be influenced by psychosocial factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150614PMC
June 2020

Vaccination With Moderate Coverage Eradicates Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses If a Gender-Neutral Strategy Is Applied.

J Infect Dis 2020 08;222(6):948-956

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of girls with very high (>90%) coverage has the potential to eradicate oncogenic HPVs, but such high coverage is hard to achieve. However, the herd effect (HE) depends both on the HPV type and the vaccination strategy.

Methods: We randomized 33 Finnish communities into gender-neutral HPV16/18 vaccination, girls-only HPV16/18 vaccination, and hepatitis B virus vaccination arms. In 2007-2010, 11 662 of 20 513 of 40 852 of 39 420 resident boys/girls from 1992 to 1995 birth cohorts consented. In 2010-2014, cervicovaginal samples from vaccinated and unvaccinated girls at age 18.5 years were typed for HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/66/68. Vaccine efficacy for vaccinated girls, HE for unvaccinated girls, and the protective effectiveness (PE) for all girls were estimated. We extended the community-randomized trial results about vaccination strategy with mathematical modeling to assess HPV eradication.

Results: The HE and PE estimates in the 1995 birth cohort for HPV18/31/33 were significant in the gender-neutral arm and 150% and 40% stronger than in the girls-only arm. Concordantly, HPV18/31/33 eradication was already predicted in adolescents/young adults in 20 years with 75% coverage of gender-neutral vaccination. With the 75% coverage, eventual HPV16 eradication was also predicted, but only with the gender-neutral strategy.

Conclusions: Gender-neutral vaccination is superior for eradication of oncogenic HPVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7430169PMC
August 2020

Characteristics of finasteride users in comparison with nonusers: A Nordic nationwide study based on individual-level data from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden.

Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2020 04 11;29(4):453-460. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Purpose: Published epidemiological studies on the association between finasteride use and the risk of male breast cancer have been inconclusive due to methodological limitations including a few male breast cancer cases included. Determinants of male breast cancer have been studied, but it remains unexplored whether these are also related to finasteride use and thereby constitute potential confounders. This study aimed to assess whether there are differences between finasteride users and nonusers with regard to numerous potential confounders.

Methods: In total, 246 508 finasteride users (≥35 years) were identified in the prescription registries of Denmark (1995-2014), Finland (1997-2013), and Sweden (2005-2014). An equal number of nonusers were sampled. The directed acyclic graph (DAG) methodology was used to identify potential confounders for the association between finasteride and male breast cancer. A logistic regression model compared finasteride users and nonusers with regard to potential confounders that were measurable in registries and population surveys.

Results: Finasteride users had higher odds of testicular abnormalities (odds ratio [OR] 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.36-1.44), obesity (1.31; 1.23-1.39), exogenous testosterone (1.61; 1.48-1.74), radiation exposure (1.22; 1.18-1.27), and diabetes (1.07; 1.04-1.10) and lower odds of occupational exposure in perfume industry or in high temperature environments (0.93; 0.87-0.99), living alone (0.89; 0.88-0.91), living in urban/suburban areas (0.97; 0.95-0.99), and physical inactivity (0.70; 0.50-0.99) compared to nonusers.

Conclusions: Systematic differences between finasteride users and nonusers were found emphasizing the importance of confounder adjustment of associations between finasteride and male breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pds.4947DOI Listing
April 2020

Smoking-adjusted risk of kidney cancer by occupation: a population-based cohort study of Nordic men.

Acta Oncol 2020 May 3;59(5):582-587. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.

Evidence suggests that among some occupational groups, there is an elevated risk of kidney cancer. This might, however, derive from a difference in smoking habits across occupational groups. The objective of this study was to determine smoking-adjusted occupational variation in the incidence of kidney cancer in Nordic males. The source population for this study consisted of 7.4 million men from Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Data on occupation were obtained from national censuses conducted in the years 1960-1990. Data on cancer cases came from national cancer registries. A proxy for the occupation-specific smoking prevalence among all Nordic men was calculated based on the occupation-specific smoking prevalence and lung cancer incidence data for Finnish men. Smoking-adjusted standardized incidence ratio (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for each occupational group. The highest SIR estimates were observed in dentists (1.32, 95%CI 1.06-1.62), journalists (1.20, 95%CI 1.00-1.42), physicians (1.19, 95%CI 1.03-1.36), public safety workers (1.18, 95%CI 1.10-1.26), administrators (1.17, 95%CI 1.13-1.22), military personnel (1.16, 95%CI 1.05-1.28), and religious workers (1.17, 95%CI 1.09-1.26). The lowest SIR was observed among forestry workers (0.82, 95%CI 0.76-0.88). Tobacco smoking plays an important role in the occupational variation in the risk of kidney cancer. The smoking-adjusted incidence of kidney cancer was increased in dentists, physicians, journalists, administrators, and public safety workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1714722DOI Listing
May 2020

Excess mortality from breast cancer in female breast cancer patients with severe mental illness.

Psychiatry Res 2020 04 27;286:112801. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Tampere University, Faculty of Social Sciences, P.O. Box 100, 33014, Tampere, Finland; Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Unioninkatu 22, Helsinki 00130, Finland.

Women with a history of severe mental illness (SMI) have elevated breast cancer mortality. Few studies have compared cancer-specific mortality in women with breast cancer with or without SMI to reveal gaps in breast cancer treatment outcomes. We compared breast-cancer specific mortality in women with or without SMI and investigated effects of stage at presentation, comorbidity, and differences in cancer treatment. Women with their first breast cancer diagnosis in 1990-2013 (n = 80,671) were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry, their preceding hospital admissions due to SMI (n = 4,837) from the Hospital Discharge Register and deaths from the Causes of Death Statistics. Competing risk models were used in statistical analysis. When controlling for age, year of cancer diagnosis, and comorbidity, breast cancer mortality was significantly elevated in patients with SMI. Relative mortality was highest in breast cancer patients with non-affective psychosis, partly explained by stage at presentation. Mortality was also significantly elevated in breast cancer patients with a substance use disorder and mood disorder. Patients with SMI received radiotherapy significantly less often than patients without SMI. Our findings emphasize the need to improve early detection of breast cancer in women with SMI and the collaboration between mental health care and oncological teams.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112801DOI Listing
April 2020

Cancer incidence among seafarers and fishermen in the Nordic countries.

Scand J Work Environ Health 2020 09 9;46(5):461-468. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Danish Cancer Society, Strandboulevarden 49, 2100 København Ø, Denmark.

Objectives Maritime workers may be exposed to several occupational hazards at sea. The aim of this study was to assess cancer incidence among seafarers and fishermen in the Nordic countries and identify patterns in morbidity in the context of existing studies in this field. Methods A cohort of 81 740 male seafarers and 66 926 male fishermen was established from census data on 15 million citizens in the five Nordic countries. Using personal identity codes, information on vital status and cancer was linked to members of the cohort from the national population and cancer registries for the follow-up period 1961-2005. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were calculated applying national cancer incidence rates for each country and pooling results. Results The overall incidence of cancer was increased among the male seafarers [SIR 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.23]. Significant excesses were observed for multiple cancer sites among the seafarers, while results for the fishermen were mixed. Lip cancer incidence was increased among both maritime populations. For mesothelioma (SIR 2.17, 95% CI 1.83-2.56 seafarers) and non-melanoma skin cancer (SIR 1.23, 95% CI 1.14-1.32 seafarers), incidence was increased among the seafarers. Conclusion In our cohort, seafaring was associated with a higher overall incidence of cancer compared to the general population. While the majority of cancers could not be linked to specific occupational factors, increases in mesothelioma, lip and non-melanoma-skin cancer indicate previous exposure to asbestos, ultraviolet radiation and potentially also chemicals with dermal carcinogenic properties at sea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5271/sjweh.3879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737810PMC
September 2020

Hospital Volume of Antireflux Surgery in Relation to Endoscopic and Surgical Re-interventions.

Ann Surg 2020 Jan 6. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that higher hospital volume decreases endoscopic and surgical re-intervention rates after antireflux surgery.

Background: Antireflux surgery for gastro-esophageal reflux disease is followed by varying rates of re-interventions. Whether hospital volume influences re-intervention rates is uncertain.

Methods: This population-based cohort study used nationwide data from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden for patients having undergone primary antireflux surgery. Hospitals were divided into tertiles based upon annual volume, that is, 3 equal-sized groups. The outcomes were 30-day surgical re-intervention, endoscopic re-intervention, and secondary antireflux surgery. Multivariable Cox regression provided hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of the first outcome occurrence. Incidence rate ratios were calculated to count all outcome occurrences. All risk estimates were adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, type of antireflux surgery, year of surgery, and country.

Results: Among 33,060 patients and a median follow-up of 12 years after antireflux surgery, the frequencies of 30-day re-intervention, endoscopic re-intervention, and secondary antireflux surgery were 1.2%, 4.6%, and 7.0%, respectively. When comparing the highest with the lowest tertiles, higher hospital volume did not decrease HRs of 30-day re-intervention (adjusted HR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.73-1.77), endoscopic re-intervention (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.96-1.51), or secondary antireflux surgery (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), but rather increased point estimates. The incidence rate ratios showed similar patterns.

Conclusions: Higher hospital volume of primary antireflux surgery may not decrease risk of endoscopic or surgical re-intervention, suggesting that centralization will not decrease rates of postoperative complications or recurrence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003776DOI Listing
January 2020

Epidemiology, risk of malignancy and patient survival in primary sclerosing cholangitis: a population-based study in Finland.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2020 Jan 4;55(1):74-81. Epub 2020 Jan 4.

Department of Gastroenterology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

There are only a few and mostly small population-based epidemiological studies of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). We aimed to estimate prevalence and incidence rates of PSC, and survival and malignancy risk for PSC patients in a large population-based study. We retrieved 632 PSC patients from 1990 to 2015 in the Hospital District of Helsinki and Uusimaa (HUS), comprising 29% of the Finnish population. Mortality information of the PSC patients was obtained from the national Population Registry, malignancy information from the Finnish Cancer Registry and the causes of death from the Statistics Finland. Standardized incidence ratio and standardized mortality ratio (SMR) were calculated for predefined malignancy types. The crude incidence of PSC in the HUS area was 1.58/100,000 person-years, and the point prevalence in 2015 was 31.7/100,000 inhabitants. The mean time from diagnosis to death was 21.9 years. The risk for any malignancy was three-fold and the risk for colorectal carcinoma was five-fold when comparing with the general population. During the first year after diagnosis of PSC, the risk for cholangiocarcinoma is 900-fold compared to the general population and after that 150-fold. SMR for all malignant neoplasms was 5.9 (95% CI 4.2-8.1). We found that the incidence of PSC in the HUS area in Finland is similar or higher than previously reported from other countries. The prevalence is markedly higher than reported elsewhere, probably due to the active search of the disease, suggesting that the disease is underdiagnosed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2019.1707277DOI Listing
January 2020
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