Publications by authors named "Eelko G Ter Schure"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Concomitant extracellular accumulation of alpha-keto acids and higher alcohols by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

J Biosci Bioeng 2002 ;93(2):117-24

Wageningen University, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Food and Bioprocess Engineering Group, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Alpha-keto acids are key intermediates in the formation of higher alcohols, important flavor components in soy sauce, and produced by the salt-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Unlike most of the higher alcohols, the alpha-keto acids are usually not extracellularly accumulated by Z. rouxii when it is cultivated with ammonium as the sole nitrogen source. To facilitate extracellular accumulation of the alpha-keto acids from aspartate-derived amino acid metabolism, the amino acids valine, leucine, threonine and methionine were exogenously supplied during batch and A-star cultivations of (routants of) Z. rouxii. It was shown that all alpha-keto acids from the aspartate-derived amino acid metabolism, except alpha-ketobutyrate, could be extracellularly accumulated. In addition, it appeared from the concomitant extracellular accumulation of alpha-keto acids and higher alcohols that in Z. rouxii, valine, leucine and methionine were converted via Ehrlich pathways similar to those in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Unlike these amino acids, threonine was converted via both the Ehrlich and amino acid biosynthetic pathways in Z. rouxii.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1389-1723(02)80002-0DOI Listing
November 2005

Bat2p is essential in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fusel alcohol production on the non-fermentable carbon source ethanol.

FEMS Yeast Res 2005 May;5(8):757-66

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are key substrates in the formation of fusel alcohols, important flavour components in fermented foods. The first step in the catabolic BCAA degradation is a transaminase step, catalyzed by a branched-chain amino acid transaminase (BCAAT). Saccharomyces cerevisiae possesses a mitochondrial and a cytosolic BCAAT, Bat1p and Bat2p, respectively. In order to study the impact of the BCAATs on fusel alcohol production derived from the BCAA metabolism, S. cerevisiae BCAAT-deletion mutants were constructed. The BCAA l-leucine was exogenously supplied during cultivations with mutants of S. cerevisiae. BAT1 deletion is not essential for fusel alcohol production, neither under glucose nor under ethanol growth conditions. The 3-methyl-1-butanol production rate of bat1Delta-cells on ethanol was decreased in comparison with that of wild-type cells, but the cells were still able to produce 3-methyl-1-butanol. However, drastic effects in fusel alcohol production were obtained in cells lacking BAT2. Although the constructed bat2Delta-single deletion strain and the bat1Deltabat2Delta-double deletion strain were still able to produce 3-methyl-1-butanol when grown on glucose, they were incapable of producing any 3-methyl-1-butanol when ethanol was the sole carbon source available. In the circumstances used, gene expression analysis revealed a strong upregulation of BAT2 gene activity in the wild type, when cells grew on ethanol as carbon source. Apparently, the carbon metabolism is able to influence the expression of BCAATs and interferes with the nitrogen metabolism. Furthermore, analysis of gene expression profiles shows that the expression of genes coding for other transaminases present in S. cerevisiae was influenced by the deletion of one or both BCAATs. Several transaminases were upregulated when a BCAAT was deleted. Strikingly, none of the known transaminases was significantly upregulated when BAT2 was deleted. Therefore we conclude that the expression of BAT2 is essential for 3-methyl-1-butanol formation on the non-fermentable carbon source, ethanol.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.femsyr.2005.02.005DOI Listing
May 2005

Identification of salt-induced genes of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae GeneFilters.

FEMS Yeast Res 2002 Dec;2(4):525-32

Department of Molecular Cell Biology and the Institute of Biomembranes, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, The Netherlands.

Yeast GeneFilters containing all Saccharomyces cerevisiae open reading frame (ORF) sequences were used to elucidate gene activity in the osmotolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Labelled cDNA derived from Z. rouxii was targeted to spotted S. cerevisiae ORFs. Approximately 90-100% homology of Z. rouxii genes with those of S. cerevisiae was required for definitive identification of the cDNAs hybridised to GeneFilter. Hybridised labelled cDNAs were visualised as small spots on the microarray, providing simultaneous information on homologous genes present in Z. rouxii and on their level of gene activity. Cross-hybridisation of the GeneFilters displayed 155 as yet unidentified genes of Z. rouxii hybridising to S. cerevisiae ORFs. From those 155 genes, the activity of 86 genes was influenced as a result of NaCl stress. In comparison with S. cerevisiae 24% of Z. rouxii genes revealed a different transcription behaviour following NaCl stress. All of these genes had no previously defined function in osmotic-stress response in Z. rouxii. Therefore, cross-hybridisation of GeneFilters proves to be an appropriate and straightforward method for screening transcripts in Z. rouxii, which provides an extension of the knowledge of genes present in a yeast genus other than S. cerevisiae.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1567-1364.2002.tb00119.xDOI Listing
December 2002

Repression of nitrogen catabolic genes by ammonia and glutamine in nitrogen-limited continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Microbiology (Reading) 1998 May;144 ( Pt 5):1451-1462

Unilever Research Laboratorium Vlaardingen, Olivier van Noortlaan120, 3133 AT Viaardingen, The Netherlands.

Growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on ammonia and glutamine decreases the expression of many nitrogen catabolic genes to low levels. To discriminate between ammonia- and glutamine-driven repression of GAP1, PUT4, GDH1 and GLN1, a gln1-37 mutant was used. This mutant is not able to convert ammonia into glutamine. Glutamine-limited continuous cultures were used to completely derepress the expression of GAP1, PUT4, GDH1 and GLN1. Following an ammonia pulse, the expression of GAP1, PUT4 and GDH1 decreased while the intracellular glutamine concentration remained constant, both in the cytoplasm and in the vacuole. Therefore, it was concluded that ammonia causes gene repression independent of the intracellular glutamine concentration. The expression of GLN1 was not decreased by an ammonia pulse but solely by a glutamine pulse. Analysis of the mRNA levels of ILV5 and HIS4 showed that the response of the two biosynthetic genes, GDH1 and GLN1, to ammonia and glutamine in the wild-type and gln1-37 was not due to changes in general transcription of biosynthetic genes. Ure2p has been shown to be an essential element for nitrogen-regulated gene expression. Deletion of URE2 in the gln1-37 background prevented repression of gene expression by ammonia, showing that the ammonia-induced repression is not caused by a general stress response but represents a specific signal for nitrogen catabolite regulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/00221287-144-5-1451DOI Listing
May 1998

Nitrogen-regulated transcription and enzyme activities in continuous cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Microbiology (Reading) 1995 May;141 ( Pt 5):1101-1108

2Unilever Research Laboratorium Vlaardingen, Olivier van Noortlaan 120, 3133 AT Vlaardingen, The Netherlands.

Variations in the transcription of nitrogen-regulated genes and in the activities of nitrogen-regulated enzymes of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied by changing the carbon and nitrogen fluxes. S. cerevisiae was grown in continuous culture at various dilution rates (D) under nitrogen limitation with NH4Cl as sole nitrogen source. With an increase in D from 0.05 to 0.29 h-1, both the glucose and the ammonia flux increased sixfold. The activities of the two ammonia-incorporating enzymes, NADPH-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NADPH-GDH) and glutamine synthetase (GS), encoded by GDH1 and GLN1, respectively, increased with increasing D, while the activity of the glutamate-degrading enzyme, NAD-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH), decreased. Surprisingly, no changes were observed in the transcription of GDH1 and GLN1; however increased D was accompanied by an increase in GAP1 transcription. At the metabolite level, the increase in the glucose and nitrogen flux did not result in changes in the intracellular 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate or glutamine concentrations. It is shown that growth on ammonia alone is not sufficient to cause repression of GAP1 and GLN1 transcription and that the regulation of GAP1 transcription and both NADPH-GDH and GS activity is not an on/off switch, but is gradually modulated in correlation with the ammonia concentration.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/13500872-141-5-1101DOI Listing
May 1995
-->