Publications by authors named "Edward M Blair"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Defective tubulin detyrosination causes structural brain abnormalities with cognitive deficiency in humans and mice.

Hum Mol Genet 2019 10;28(20):3391-3405

Grenoble Institut Neurosciences, Université Grenoble Alpes, Inserm, U1216, CEA, CNRS, 38000 Grenoble, France.

Reversible detyrosination of tubulin, the building block of microtubules, is crucial for neuronal physiology. Enzymes responsible for detyrosination were recently identified as complexes of vasohibins (VASHs) one or two with small VASH-binding protein (SVBP). Here we report three consanguineous families, each containing multiple individuals with biallelic inactivation of SVBP caused by truncating variants (p.Q28* and p.K13Nfs*18). Affected individuals show brain abnormalities with microcephaly, intellectual disability and delayed gross motor and speech development. Immunoblot testing in cells with pathogenic SVBP variants demonstrated that the encoded proteins were unstable and non-functional, resulting in a complete loss of VASH detyrosination activity. Svbp knockout mice exhibit drastic accumulation of tyrosinated tubulin and a reduction of detyrosinated tubulin in brain tissue. Similar alterations in tubulin tyrosination levels were observed in cultured neurons and associated with defects in axonal differentiation and architecture. Morphological analysis of the Svbp knockout mouse brains by anatomical magnetic resonance imaging showed a broad impact of SVBP loss, with a 7% brain volume decrease, numerous structural defects and a 30% reduction of some white matter tracts. Svbp knockout mice display behavioural defects, including mild hyperactivity, lower anxiety and impaired social behaviour. They do not, however, show prominent memory defects. Thus, SVBP-deficient mice recapitulate several features observed in human patients. Altogether, our data demonstrate that deleterious variants in SVBP cause this neurodevelopmental pathology, by leading to a major change in brain tubulin tyrosination and alteration of microtubule dynamics and neuron physiology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddz186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6891070PMC
October 2019

A clinical scoring system for congenital contractural arachnodactyly.

Genet Med 2020 01 18;22(1):124-131. Epub 2019 Jul 18.

Center for Human Genetics, Institute of Pathology and Genetics (IPG), Gosselies, Belgium.

Purpose: Congenital contractural arachnodactyly (CCA) is an autosomal dominant connective tissue disorder manifesting joint contractures, arachnodactyly, crumpled ears, and kyphoscoliosis as main features. Due to its rarity, rather aspecific clinical presentation, and overlap with other conditions including Marfan syndrome, the diagnosis is challenging, but important for prognosis and clinical management. CCA is caused by pathogenic variants in FBN2, encoding fibrillin-2, but locus heterogeneity has been suggested. We designed a clinical scoring system and diagnostic criteria to support the diagnostic process and guide molecular genetic testing.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we assessed 167 probands referred for FBN2 analysis and classified them into a FBN2-positive (n = 44) and FBN2-negative group (n = 123) following molecular analysis. We developed a 20-point weighted clinical scoring system based on the prevalence of ten main clinical characteristics of CCA in both groups.

Results: The total score was significantly different between the groups (P < 0.001) and was indicative for classifying patients into unlikely CCA (total score <7) and likely CCA (total score ≥7) groups.

Conclusions: Our clinical score is helpful for clinical guidance for patients suspected to have CCA, and provides a quantitative tool for phenotyping in research settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0609-8DOI Listing
January 2020

De Novo and Inherited Loss-of-Function Variants in TLK2: Clinical and Genotype-Phenotype Evaluation of a Distinct Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 06 31;102(6):1195-1203. Epub 2018 May 31.

Division of Clinical Genomics, Ambry Genetics, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656, USA.

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992133PMC
June 2018

Mutations in SNORD118 cause the cerebral microangiopathy leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts.

Nat Genet 2016 10 29;48(10):1185-92. Epub 2016 Aug 29.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Liverpool Women's NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK.

Although ribosomes are ubiquitous and essential for life, recent data indicate that monogenic causes of ribosomal dysfunction can confer a remarkable degree of specificity in terms of human disease phenotype. Box C/D small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are evolutionarily conserved non-protein-coding RNAs involved in ribosome biogenesis. Here we show that biallelic mutations in the gene SNORD118, encoding the box C/D snoRNA U8, cause the cerebral microangiopathy leukoencephalopathy with calcifications and cysts (LCC), presenting at any age from early childhood to late adulthood. These mutations affect U8 expression, processing and protein binding and thus implicate U8 as essential in cerebral vascular homeostasis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5045717PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3661DOI Listing
October 2016

Characterization of human disease phenotypes associated with mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR, and IFIH1.

Am J Med Genet A 2015 Feb 16;167A(2):296-312. Epub 2015 Jan 16.

INSERM UMR 1163, Laboratory of Neurogenetics and Neuroinflammation, Paris Descartes - Sorbonne Paris Cité University, Institut Imagine, Hôpital Necker, Paris, France; Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, Institute of Human Development, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK.

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome is an inflammatory disease occurring due to mutations in any of TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, ADAR or IFIH1. We report on 374 patients from 299 families with mutations in these seven genes. Most patients conformed to one of two fairly stereotyped clinical profiles; either exhibiting an in utero disease-onset (74 patients; 22.8% of all patients where data were available), or a post-natal presentation, usually within the first year of life (223 patients; 68.6%), characterized by a sub-acute encephalopathy and a loss of previously acquired skills. Other clinically distinct phenotypes were also observed; particularly, bilateral striatal necrosis (13 patients; 3.6%) and non-syndromic spastic paraparesis (12 patients; 3.4%). We recorded 69 deaths (19.3% of patients with follow-up data). Of 285 patients for whom data were available, 210 (73.7%) were profoundly disabled, with no useful motor, speech and intellectual function. Chilblains, glaucoma, hypothyroidism, cardiomyopathy, intracerebral vasculitis, peripheral neuropathy, bowel inflammation and systemic lupus erythematosus were seen frequently enough to be confirmed as real associations with the Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome phenotype. We observed a robust relationship between mutations in all seven genes with increased type I interferon activity in cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and the increased expression of interferon-stimulated gene transcripts in peripheral blood. We recorded a positive correlation between the level of cerebrospinal fluid interferon activity assayed within one year of disease presentation and the degree of subsequent disability. Interferon-stimulated gene transcripts remained high in most patients, indicating an ongoing disease process. On the basis of substantial morbidity and mortality, our data highlight the urgent need to define coherent treatment strategies for the phenotypes associated with mutations in the Aicardi-Goutières syndrome-related genes. Our findings also make it clear that a window of therapeutic opportunity exists relevant to the majority of affected patients and indicate that the assessment of type I interferon activity might serve as a useful biomarker in future clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382202PMC
February 2015

Prenatal diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia caused by P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013 Mar 30;98(3):E528-36. Epub 2013 Jan 30.

Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom.

Context: Mutations in the electron donor enzyme P450 oxidoreductase (POR) result in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with apparent combined 17α-hydroxylase/17,20 lyase and 21-hydroxylase deficiencies, also termed P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD). Major clinical features present in PORD are disordered sex development in affected individuals of both sexes, glucocorticoid deficiency, and multiple skeletal malformations.

Objective: The objective of the study was to establish a noninvasive approach to prenatal diagnosis of PORD including assessment of malformation severity to facilitate optimized prenatal diagnosis and timely treatment.

Design: We analyzed 20 pregnancies with children homozygous or compound heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations and 1 pregnancy with a child carrying a heterozygous POR mutation by recording clinical and biochemical presentations and fetal ultrasound findings. In 4 of the pregnancies (3 homozygous and 1 heterozygous for disease-causing POR mutations), prenatal analysis of steroid metabolite excretion in maternal urine was carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry during gestational weeks 11-23.

Results: Pregnancy complications in our cohort included maternal virilization (6 of 20) with onset in the second trimester. Seven pregnant women presented with low unconjugated estriol at prenatal screening (triple or quadruple antenatal screening test). Overt dysmorphic features were noted in 19 of the 20 babies at birth but observed in only 5 by prenatal ultrasound. These 5 had the most severe malformation phenotypes and poor outcome, whereas the other babies showed normal development. Steroid profiling of maternal urine revealed significantly increased steroids of fetal origin, namely the pregnenolone metabolite epiallopregnanediol and the androgen metabolite androsterone, with concomitant low values for estriol. Diagnostic steroid ratios conclusively indicated PORD as early as gestational week 12. In the heterozygous pregnancy, steroid ratios were only slightly elevated and estriol excretion was normal.

Conclusion: Prenatal diagnosis in PORD is readily established via urinary steroid metabolite analysis of maternal urine. Visible malformations at prenatal ultrasound predict a severe malformation phenotype.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2012-3449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3708032PMC
March 2013

Genotype-phenotype analysis in congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to P450 oxidoreductase deficiency.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012 Feb 7;97(2):E257-67. Epub 2011 Dec 7.

Centre for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.

Context: P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a unique congenital adrenal hyperplasia variant that manifests with glucocorticoid deficiency, disordered sex development (DSD), and skeletal malformations. No comprehensive data on genotype-phenotype correlations in Caucasian patients are available.

Objective: The objective of the study was to establish genotype-phenotype correlations in a large PORD cohort.

Design: The design of the study was the clinical, biochemical, and genetic assessment including multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) in 30 PORD patients from 11 countries.

Results: We identified 23 P450 oxidoreductase (POR) mutations (14 novel) including an exonic deletion and a partial duplication detected by MLPA. Only 22% of unrelated patients carried homozygous POR mutations. p.A287P was the most common mutation (43% of unrelated alleles); no other hot spot was identified. Urinary steroid profiling showed characteristic PORD metabolomes with variable impairment of 17α-hydroxylase and 21-hydroxylase. Short cosyntropin testing revealed adrenal insufficiency in 89%. DSD was present in 15 of 18 46,XX and seven of 12 46,XY individuals. Homozygosity for p.A287P was invariably associated with 46,XX DSD but normal genitalia in 46,XY individuals. The majority of patients with mild to moderate skeletal malformations, assessed by a novel scoring system, were compound heterozygous for missense mutations, whereas nearly all patients with severe malformations carried a major loss-of-function defect on one of the affected alleles.

Conclusions: We report clinical, biochemical, and genetic findings in a large PORD cohort and show that MLPA is a useful addition to POR mutation analysis. Homozygosity for the most frequent mutation in Caucasians, p.A287P, allows for prediction of genital phenotype and moderate malformations. Adrenal insufficiency is frequent, easily overlooked, but readily detected by cosyntropin testing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-0640DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3380101PMC
February 2012

Clinical and molecular phenotype of Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome.

Am J Hum Genet 2007 Oct 4;81(4):713-25. Epub 2007 Sep 4.

Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, St James's University Hospital, Leeds, LS9 7TF, UK.

Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS) is a genetic encephalopathy whose clinical features mimic those of acquired in utero viral infection. AGS exhibits locus heterogeneity, with mutations identified in genes encoding the 3'-->5' exonuclease TREX1 and the three subunits of the RNASEH2 endonuclease complex. To define the molecular spectrum of AGS, we performed mutation screening in patients, from 127 pedigrees, with a clinical diagnosis of the disease. Biallelic mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, and RNASEH2C were observed in 31, 3, 47, and 18 families, respectively. In five families, we identified an RNASEH2A or RNASEH2B mutation on one allele only. In one child, the disease occurred because of a de novo heterozygous TREX1 mutation. In 22 families, no mutations were found. Null mutations were common in TREX1, although a specific missense mutation was observed frequently in patients from northern Europe. Almost all mutations in RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, and RNASEH2C were missense. We identified an RNASEH2C founder mutation in 13 Pakistani families. We also collected clinical data from 123 mutation-positive patients. Two clinical presentations could be delineated: an early-onset neonatal form, highly reminiscent of congenital infection seen particularly with TREX1 mutations, and a later-onset presentation, sometimes occurring after several months of normal development and occasionally associated with remarkably preserved neurological function, most frequently due to RNASEH2B mutations. Mortality was correlated with genotype; 34.3% of patients with TREX1, RNASEH2A, and RNASEH2C mutations versus 8.0% RNASEH2B mutation-positive patients were known to have died (P=.001). Our analysis defines the phenotypic spectrum of AGS and suggests a coherent mutation-screening strategy in this heterogeneous disorder. Additionally, our data indicate that at least one further AGS-causing gene remains to be identified.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/521373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2227922PMC
October 2007

Mutation analysis of AMP-activated protein kinase subunits in inherited cardiomyopathies: implications for kinase function and disease pathogenesis.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2003 Oct;35(10):1251-5

WTCHG, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Headington, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.

Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been defined as a disease of the cardiac sarcomere, although sarcomeric protein mutations are not found in one third of cases. We have recently shown that HCM associated with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW) and conduction disease can be caused by mutations in PRKAG2, which encodes the gamma2 subunit of AMPK, an enzyme central to cellular energy homeostasis. AMPK is a heterotrimer composed of one catalytic subunit (alpha) and two regulatory subunits (beta and gamma). Seven known genes encode the subunit isoforms (alpha1, alpha2, beta1, beta2, gamma1, gamma2, gamma3) and all are expressed in the heart. To better understand the role of AMPK mutations in HCM/WPW and other inherited cardiomyophathies, all 7 subunit genes were screened for mutations in a panel of probands: 3 with HCM/WPW, 4 with DCM/WPW, 38 with HCM alone (in whom contractile protein mutations had not been found) and 13 with DCM alone. In total, 73 amplimers were screened in the 58 probands and a number of polymorphisms, including non-conservative substitutions, were identified. However, no further disease-causing mutations were found in any AMPK subunit gene. These results indicate that HCM with WPW is a distinct, but genetically heterogeneous, condition caused by mutations in PRKAG2 and in an unknown gene or genes, not involved in the AMPK complex. Mutations in PRKAG2 appear to specifically cause HCM with WPW and conduction disease, and not other inherited cardiomyopathies. As deleterious alleles were not found in other AMPK subunit isoforms, the mutations affecting PRKAG2 are likely to confer a specific alteration of AMPK function of particular importance in the myocardium.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0022-2828(03)00237-2DOI Listing
October 2003