Publications by authors named "Edward Compton"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Single Education Session of Orthopaedic Residents Does Not Reduce The Rate of Failed Nonoperative Management or Improve Radiographic Outcomes in Pediatric Distal Radius Fractures.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2020 Oct 16;4(10):e20.00170. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

From the Children's Orthopaedic Center, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Introduction: The primary objective was to evaluate whether a single educational session on casting is sufficient to reduce the rate of loss of reduction in pediatric distal radius fractures.

Methods: A retrospective review was conducted of pediatric patients with distal radius fractures casted between November 2016 and February 2019. Patients were divided into two groups: those casted by a resident who participated in a targeted education session on short arm casting and those who had not.

Results: A total of 137 patients were included (education cohort: 61 patients and noneducation cohort: 76 patients). The two groups demonstrated similar ages and pre/post-reduction radiographic measurements. In the education cohort, 11.5% required repeat casting, wedging, or surgical intervention versus 17.1% of patients in the noneducation cohort (P = 0.47). Patients casted by residents doing one of their first three independent casts trended toward being more likely to place a cast with poor cast index and to lose reduction (P = 0.12 and P = 0.43, respectively).

Discussion: A one hour education session did not reduce the need for intervention or loss of reduction. For educating residents on the skill of casting to be effective, one may consider formal feedback and evaluation throughout multiple education sessions and in early episodes of clinical care.

Level Of Evidence: A Level III, Retrospective Comparative Study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOSGlobal-D-20-00170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575193PMC
October 2020

Power versus manual pedicle tract preparation: a multi-center study of early adopters.

Spine Deform 2021 Apr 23. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Children's Orthopaedic Center, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Study Design: Retrospective cohort, multicenter. A single surgeon study demonstrated that pedicle tract preparation with power tools was associated with lower fluoroscopy times and revision rates compared to manual tools, while maintaining patient safety.

Objective: Our purpose was to determine the safety of power-assisted pedicle tract preparation by early adopters of this technology.

Methods: Retrospective review comparing patients that underwent posterior spinal fusion by seven pediatric spine surgeons at six institutions between January 1, 2008 and August 31, 2019. The manual pedicle tract preparation used a pedicle awl. Power tract preparation used a flexible 2.0-2.4 mm drill bit, followed by a larger drill bit or a reamer. All screws were inserted with power technique.

Results: In the manual tract preparation group, 9424 screws were placed in 585 cases. In the power tract preparation group, 22,209 screws were placed in 1367 cases. Seven patients (7/1952; 0.36%; 95% CI: 0.14-0.74%) had 11 mal-positioned screws (11/31,633; 0.03%; 95% CI: 0.017-0.062%). Seven screws (7/9424; 0.07%; 95% CI: 0.030-0.15%) were in the manual cohort and four (4/22,209; 0.02%; 95% CI: 0.0049-0.046%) were in the power cohort. There were significantly more revisions per screw in the manual cohort (p = 0.02). However, there were not significantly more revisions per patient in the manual cohort (manual: 0.5%, 3/585 vs. power: 0.3%, 4/1,367; p = 0.43). Of these seven, three patients (3/585; 0.5%; 95% CI: 0.1-1.5%) experienced neurologic injury or neuro-monitoring changes requiring screw removal in the manual cohort, and 1 patient (1/1,367, 0.07%; 95% CI: 0.002-0.4%) in the power cohort (p = 0.08). Three additional patients underwent revision in the power cohort: 1 for an asymptomatic lateral breech, 1 for a spinal headache/medial breech that developed after an MVA, and 1 for an iliac vein injury during pedicle tract preparation.

Conclusion: This is the first multi-center study examining power pedicle preparation. Overall, 99.9% of pedicle screws placed with power pedicle preparation did not have complications or revision. Equivalent patient safety was demonstrated compared to manual technique.

Level Of Evidence: III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43390-021-00347-xDOI Listing
April 2021

Treatment of tibial plateau fractures with a novel fenestrated screw system for delivery of bone graft substitute.

Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol 2021 Jan 24. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence of subsidence in patients with AO/OTA 41 (tibial plateau) fractures which were repaired with a novel fenestrated screw system to used to deliver CaPO4 bone substitute material to fill the subchondral void and support the articular reduction.

Methods: Patients with unicondylar and bicondylar tibial plateau fractures were treated according to the usual technique of two surgeons. After fixation, the Zimmer Biomet N-Force Fixation System®, a fenestrated screw that allows for the injection of bone substitute was placed and used for injection of the proprietary calcium phosphate bone graft substitute into the subchondral void. For all included patients, demographic information, operative data, radiographs, and clinic notes were reviewed. Patients were considered to have articular subsidence if one or more of two observations were made when comparing post-operative to their most recent clinic radiographs: > 2 mm change in the distance between the screw and the lowest point of the tibial plateau, > 2 mm change in the distance between the screw and the most superior aspect of the plate. Data were analyzed to determine if there were any identifiable risk factors for complication, reoperation, or subsidence using logistic regression. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results: 34 patients were included with an average follow-up of 32.03 ± 22.52 weeks. There were no overall differences between height relative to the medial plateau or the plate. Two patients (5.9%) had articular subsidence. Six patients (15.2%) underwent reoperation, two (6%) for manipulations under anaesthesia due to arthrofibrosis, and four (12%) due to infections. There were 6 (19%) total infections as 2 were superficial and required solely antibiotics. One patient had early failure.

Conclusion: Use of a novel fenestrated screw system for the delivery of CaPO4 BSM results in articular subsidence and complication rates similar to previously published values and appears to be a viable option for addressing subchondral defects in tibial plateau fractures.

Level Of Evidence: IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00590-021-02871-yDOI Listing
January 2021

Response to: Titanium Elastic Nails Are a Safe and Effective Treatment for Length Unstable Pediatric Femur Fractures.

J Pediatr Orthop 2020 10;40(9):e898-e899

Children's Orthopaedic Center, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001616DOI Listing
October 2020

Isolated femoral shaft fractures in children rarely require a blood transfusion.

Injury 2020 Mar 8;51(3):642-646. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Children's Orthopaedic Center, Children's Hospital Los Angeles 4650 Sunset Blvd, MS#69, Los Angeles, CA 90027 United States. Electronic address:

Background: No recent study has examined how a trend toward surgical fixation for pediatric femoral shaft fractures has impacted blood loss and transfusion requirements. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors influencing transfusions in the treatment of pediatric femoral shaft fractures.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients with femoral shaft fractures treated surgically from 2004 - 2017 at a tertiary pediatric hospital was conducted. Electronic medical records were reviewed for fixation method, additional injuries, blood loss (estimated blood loss (EBL), hemoglobin, hematocrit) and transfusion. The relationship between fixation method with blood loss and transfusion was examined. Two groups were compared, those with and without additional injuries. Additional injuries were defined as additional fractures and/or abdominal, chest, or head injuries.

Results: 172 patients met inclusion criteria. There were 129 patients with isolated femoral shaft fractures and 43 patients with femoral shaft fractures and concomitant additional injuries. The transfusion rate in patients with isolated femoral shaft fractures was 0.8% (1/129) which was significantly lower than in patients with additional injuries; 39.5% (17/43) (p < 0.05). In patients with additional injuries, there was a significant relationship between number of additional surgeries and odds of transfusion (OR=2.1, CI: 1.2-3.6, p < 0.05). In patients with isolated femoral shaft fractures, EBL was higher in patients treated with rigid intramedullary nails (148.5 ± 119.0 mL) than flexible intramedullary nails (34.1 ± 56.3 mL) (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in transfusion or changes in hemoglobin/hematocrit between fixation methods in patients with isolated femoral shaft fractures.

Conclusion: Pediatric patients with surgically treated isolated femoral shaft fractures rarely require transfusion (<1%), while patients with femoral shaft fractures and additional injuries had a high transfusion rate (39.5%). Surgical fixation method had a significant impact on EBL, with rigid intramedullary nail fixation having a significantly higher EBL than flexible intramedullary nails, however it did not lead to higher rates of transfusions. Blood transfusions are rarely needed in isolated femoral shaft fractures, despite the trend towards increase in surgical fixation and newer fixation techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2020.01.005DOI Listing
March 2020

Titanium Elastic Nails Are a Safe and Effective Treatment for Length Unstable Pediatric Femur Fractures.

J Pediatr Orthop 2020 Aug;40(7):e560-e565

Children's Orthopaedic Center, Children's Hospital Los Angeles.

Background: Controversy exists regarding the treatment of length unstable pediatric femoral shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcomes of skeletally immature children with length unstable femur fractures treated with titanium elastic nails (TENs).

Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on all patients with femoral shaft fractures at a tertiary care pediatric hospital from April 2006 to January 2018. Patients with femoral shaft fractures treated with TEN and minimum 6 months follow-up were included. Exclusion criteria were age 11 years or above, weight >50 kg, pathologic fracture, and neuromuscular disorders. Femur fractures were categorized into 2 groups: length unstable (spiral, comminuted, or long oblique fractures) versus length stable (transverse and short oblique). Complications and reoperations were compared between the groups.

Results: A total of 57 patients with 58 femoral shaft fractures were included. The mean age was 5±2 (1 to 11) years and mean follow-up was 20.4±18.1 (6.0 to 81.2) months. The mean weight was 22.9±7.7 (11.0 to 40.5) kg. There was no difference in age (P=0.32), weight (P=0.28) or follow-up length (P=0.57) between patients with length unstable fractures and those with length stable fractures. A total of 32/58 (55%) fractures were length unstable and 26/58 (45%) were length stable. Mean time to union was 4.6 months, and there was no significant difference in mean time to union between the 2 groups (P=0.71). Thirty-one complications occurred in 27 patients. There was no difference between groups in the incidence of major complications requiring revision surgery (P=0.68) and minor complications that did not require revision surgery (P>0.99).

Conclusions: In children with femoral shaft fractures treated with TEN, there was no difference in the incidence of complications or reoperations between those with length unstable fractures and those with length stable fractures. TEN are a safe and effective choice for operative fixation of length unstable femoral shaft fractures in children.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001474DOI Listing
August 2020

The Incidence of Pin Tract Infections and Septic Arthritis in Percutaneous Distal Femur Pinning.

J Pediatr Orthop 2019 Jul;39(6):e462-e466

Children's Orthopaedic Center, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Retrograde percutaneous pinning often involves intra-articular pin placement. Classic teaching has cautioned about the risk of septic arthritis with intra-articular pins, although an incidence has not been reported for this complication. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of pin tract infections and septic arthritis following retrograde percutaneous pinning of the distal femur.

Methods: A retrospective review identified patients who underwent retrograde percutaneous pinning of the distal femur for osteotomy or physeal fracture fixation at a tertiary pediatric hospital from 2006 to 2017 and had at least 3 months follow-up. The incidence of pin site infections and septic arthritis was determined.

Results: In total, 163 patients met criteria, 142 patients with osteotomies and 21 with physeal fractures. The mean pin duration was 33.2±9.0 days (range: 18 to 68 d). Pin duration of ≥30 days was associated with an increased rate of pin tract infections (11.2% vs. 1.4%, P=0.01). The incidence of pin tract infections was 6.7% (11/163), including 9.5% (2/21) in those with fractures and 6.3% (9/142) following osteotomy (P=0.64). There were no cases of septic arthritis. Of the 11 patients with pin tract infections, 9 were treated successfully with oral antibiotics and 2 patients (1.2%) underwent surgical intervention for infection. Treatment of pin infections with oral antibiotics alone was successful in all 7 patients whose pins were removed within 35 days of surgery, but in only 2 of 4 whose pins were removed later (P=0.11). Of the 2 patients who required irrigation and debridement, one had a superficial pin site infection and retained subcutaneous pin and the other had a pin tract abscess and osteomyelitis at the osteotomy site.

Conclusions: Of 163 patients who underwent retrograde percutaneous pinning of the distal femur, no patient developed septic arthritis and the incidence of pin site infections was 6.7% (11/163). Intra-articular retrograde percutaneous pinning of the distal femur is a safe technique with a low risk of septic arthritis.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-case-control study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001346DOI Listing
July 2019

Perioperative Invasive Vascular Catheterization Associated With Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection in Lumbar Spine Surgery: An Analysis of 114,259 Patient Records.

Clin Spine Surg 2019 04;32(3):E145-E152

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

Study Design: This is a retrospective cohort study.

Objective: This study's objective was to determine whether perioperative invasive vascular catheter placement, independent of comorbid conditions, modified the risk of postoperative infection in lumbar spine surgery.

Summary Of Background Data: Infection is a risk inherent to lumbar spine surgery, with overall postoperative infection rates of 0.86%-8.5%. Patients experiencing postoperative infection have higher rates of mortality, revision surgeries, pseudarthrosis, and worsening pain and disability.

Methods: Data were collected for patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery between January 2007 and October 2015 with records in the nationwide Humana private insurance database. Patients receiving fusion, laminectomy, and discectomy were followed for 3 months from the date of surgery for surgical site infection (SSI), 6 months for subsequent incision and drainage (I&D), and 1 year for vertebral osteomyelitis (VO). Risk factors investigated included central venous catheter and arterial-line placement.

Results: Analysis of 114,259 patient records showed an overall SSI rate of 3.2% within 1 month and 4.5% within 3 months, overall vertebral osteomyelitis rate of 0.82%-0.83% within 1 year, and overall I&D rate of 2.8% within 6 months. Patients receiving a first-time invasive vascular catheter on the day of surgery were more likely to experience SSI within 1 month [risk ratios (RR), 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3-2.7], SSI within 3 months (RR, 2.4; 95% CI: 2.3-2.7), osteomyelitis within 1 year (RR, 4.2-4.3; 95% CI: 3.7-4.5), and undergo an I&D within 6 months (RR, 1.9; 95% CI: 1.8-2.0). These trends were consistent by procedure type and independent of the patient's weighted comorbidity index score (Charlson Comorbidity Index).

Conclusions: Perioperative invasive vascular catheterization was significantly associated with an increased the risk of postoperative infections in lumbar spine surgery, independent of a patient's concomitant comorbidities. Therefore, in patients with an indication for invasive catheterization, surgeons should consider risks and benefits of surgery carefully.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BSD.0000000000000751DOI Listing
April 2019

Foam Padding in Postoperative Lower Extremity Casting: An Inexpensive Way to Protect Patients.

J Pediatr Orthop 2018 Sep;38(8):e470-e474

Children's Orthopaedic Center, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.

Background: Although postoperative cast immobilization is routinely used in children, it is not without complications. Few studies have focused on interventions to decrease their frequency. The purpose of this study was to determine if foam padding in postoperative lower extremity casts decreased the rate of cast complications.

Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent lower extremity casting after elective surgery at a tertiary pediatric hospital from 2006 to 2013 was conducted. Postoperative casts were classified by type (A-frame, short leg, long leg, spica) and the presence of foam. Charts were reviewed for skin complications, cast splits for apparent neurovascular deficits, cast splits for patient complaints, unplanned outpatient returns for cast-related issues, and compartment syndrome.

Results: In total, 920 patients with 2,481 casts were included. In total, 612 (24.7%) casts had foam placed during casting. The incidence of skin complications was significantly lower in A-frame casts with foam (4.5%, 5/112) than without (13.4%, 11/82) (P=0.03) and long leg casts with foam (0.9%, 2/225) than without (4.3%, 19/444) (P=0.02). Patients with static encephalopathy casted with foam had a lower incidence of skin complications (0.7%, 2/279) than those without (3.6%, 22/615) (P=0.01). There was no difference in the overall incidence of skin complications in casts with and without foam (P=0.44), short leg casts (P=0.37), and spica casts (P=0.34). Patients with skin complications (20.3±7.1 kg/m) had a higher body mass index than those without (18.9±5.4 kg/m) (P=0.04). Postoperative A-frame casts with foam (0.0%, 0/112) were split less often for apparent neurovascular deficits than those without foam (4.5%, 3/67) (P=0.05). The cast split rates for apparent neurovascular deficits in casts with and without foam (P=0.58), long leg casts (P=0.67), short leg casts (P=0.63), and spica casts (P=1.0) were comparable.

Conclusions: The use of foam in postoperative lower extremity casting is an effective intervention to reduce the incidence of skin complications in patients with static encephalopathy, in an A-frame cast, or in a long leg cast.

Level Of Evidence: Level III-retrospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BPO.0000000000001212DOI Listing
September 2018