Publications by authors named "Eduardo José Caldeira"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of antioxidant treatment with n-acetylcysteine and swimming on lipid expression of sebaceous glands in diabetic mice.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 7;11(1):11924. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Morphology and Basic Pathology Department, Jundiaí Medical School (JMS) Jundiaí, Francisco Telles, 250 - Vila Arens II, 1109, Jundiaí, SP, 13202-550, Brazil.

The sebaceous gland (SG) is involved in different inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic processes of the skin and can be related to specific diseases, e.g., diabetes mellitus. Sometimes, the histological diagnosis requires complementary tests due to the ability of diseases to mimic other tumors. We evaluated the sebaceous gland density in Non-obese diabetic mice to analyze the N-acetylcystein effects and swimming exercise treatment in sebaceous glands healing, using specific staining in histochemistry and immunohistochemistry reactions in the identification of the lipid expression in the sebaceous gland. We investigated the intracytoplasmic lipid expression and analysis of gland density from SG in dorsal skin samples from the Non-obese diabetic (NOD mice) and diabetic animals submitted to antioxidant treatment and physical exercise. For histological analysis of the sebaceous glands, specific staining in histochemistry with sudan black and immunohistochemistry reaction with adipophilin were used in the evaluation. Statistical analysis showed significant proximity between the values of the control group and the diabetic group submitted to the swimming exercise (DS group) and similar values between the untreated diabetic group (UD group) and diabetic group treated with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (DNa group), which did not prevent possible differences where p < 0.01. Adipophilin (ADPH) immunohistochemistry permitted more intense lipid staining in SGs, the preservation of the SG in the control group, and a morphological deformed appearance in the UD and DNa groups. However, weak morphological recovery of the SG was observed in the DS-Na group, being more expressive in the DS group. In conclusion, the groups submitted to physical exercises showed better results in the recovery of the analyzed tissue, even being in the physiological conditions caused by spontaneous diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91459-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184763PMC
June 2021

High-fat diet suppresses the positive effect of creatine supplementation on skeletal muscle function by reducing protein expression of IGF-PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway.

PLoS One 2018 4;13(10):e0199728. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Cardio-Ventilatory Muscle Physiology Laboratory, Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

High-fat (HF) diets in combination with sedentary lifestyle represent one of the major public health concerns predisposing to obesity and diabetes leading to skeletal muscle atrophy, decreased fiber diameter and muscle mass with accumulation of fat tissue resulting in loss of muscle strength. One strategy to overcome the maleficent effects of HF diet is resistance training, a strategy used to improve muscle mass, reverting the negative effects on obesity-related changes in skeletal muscle. Together with resistance training, supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CrM) in the diet has been used to improve muscle mass and strength. Creatine is a non-essential amino acid that is directly involved in the cross-bridge cycle providing a phosphate group to ADP during the initiation of muscle contraction. Besides its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects CrM also upregulates IGF-1 resulting in hyperthophy with an increase in muscle function. However, it is unknown whether CrM supplementation during resistance training would revert the negative effects of high-fat diet on the muscle performance. During 8 weeks we measured muscle performance to climb a 1.1m and 80° ladder with increasing load on trained rats that had received standard diet or high-fat diet, supplemented or not with CrM. We observed that the CrM supplementation up-regulated IGF-1 and phospho-AKT protein levels, suggesting an activation of the IGF1-PI3K-Akt/PKB-mTOR pathway. Moreover, despite the CrM supplementation, HF diet down-regulated several proteins of the IGF1-PI3K-Akt/PKB-mTOR pathway, suggesting that diet lipid content is crucial to maintain or improve muscle function during resistance training.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0199728PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6171830PMC
March 2019

Role of GAD peptides p217 and p290 in the repair of INS receptor in salivary tissues of type 1 diabetic mice.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Sep;30(5):1545-1550

Tissue Morphology Laboratory, Department of Morphology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.

Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a protein associated with autoimmune diseases, including type-1 diabetes. This disease is primarily associated with the occurrence of a specific isoform: GAD65. Conversely, some specific peptides of this protein may block autoimmunity in diabetes. In this respect, understanding the relationship between GAD and the development of diabetes is important, and it is necessary to understand the role of each GAD peptide to design effective autoimmune diabetes treatments. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effects of treatment with GAD-derived peptides p217 and p290 on INS receptors in the salivary epithelium of nonobese diabetic (NOD) animals. Three groups of 7 mice each were studied: I, BALB/c mice (control); II, NOD mice; and III, NOD mice treated with peptides p290 and p217. Groups I and II only received buffered saline solution. Glucose levels were measured daily during the 21 days of the experiment. After the study, the animals were euthanized and the parotid and submandibular glands were removed for the analysis of INS-R by fluorescence microscopy. Therapy with two peptides together was associated with reduced glucose levels in NOD mice and intense INS-R expression in both salivary organs. Our approach of combining GAD p217 and p290 peptides contributed to hormonal balance and promoted the repair of INS-R.
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September 2017

INFLUENCE OF TOBACCO, ALCOHOL AND DIABETES ON THE COLLAGEN OF CREMASTER MUSCLE IN PATIENTS WITH INGUINAL HERNIAS.

Arq Bras Cir Dig 2016 Nov-Dec;29(4):218-222

Department of Surgery, School of Medical Sciences, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil.

Background: New findings point out that the mechanism of formation of the hernias can be related to the collagenous tissues, under activity of aggressive agents such as the tobacco, alcohol and diabetes.

Aim: To analyze the collagen present in the cremaster muscle in patients with inguinal hernias, focusing the effect of tobacco, alcohol, and diabetes.

Methods: Fifteen patients with inguinal hernia divided in three groups were studied: group I (n=5) was control; group II (n=5) were smokers and/or drinkers; and group III (n=5) had diabetes mellitus. All subjects were underwent to surgical repair of the inguinal hernias obeying the same pre, intra and postoperative conditions. During surgery, samples of the cremaster muscle were collected for analysis in polarized light microscopy, collagen morphometry and protein.

Results: The area occupied by the connective tissue was higher in groups II and III (p<0.05). The collagen tissue occupied the majority of the samples analyzed in comparison to the area occupied by muscle cells. The content of total protein was higher in groups II and III compared to the control group (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The tobacco, alcohol and diabetes cause a remodel the cremaster muscle, leading to a loss of support or structural change in this region, which may enhance the occurrences and damage related to inguinal hernias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0102-6720201600040002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5225858PMC
March 2017

Subcutaneous Immunotherapy Improves the Symptomatology of Allergic Rhinitis.

Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2016 Jan 7;20(1):6-12. Epub 2015 Oct 7.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculdade de Medicina de Jundiaí, Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction The relevance of allergic rhinitis is unquestionable. This condition affects people's quality of life and its incidence has increased over the last years. Objective Thus, this study aims to analyze the effectiveness of subcutaneous injectable immunotherapy in cases of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea and nasal congestion in allergic rhinitis patients. Methods In the present study, the same researcher analyzed the records of 281 patients. Furthermore, the researchers identified allergens through puncture cutaneous tests using standardized extracts containing acari, fungi, pet hair, flower pollen, and feathers. Then, the patients underwent treatment with subcutaneous specific immunotherapy, using four vaccine vials for desensitization, associated with environmental hygiene. The authors analyzed conditions of nasal itching, sneeze, rhinorrhea, and nasal congestion throughout the treatment, and assigned them with a score ranging from zero (0), meaning absence of these symptoms to three (3), for severe cases. The symptoms were statistically compared in the beginning, during, and after treatment. Results In this study, authors analyzed the cases distribution according to age and the evolution of symptomatology according to the scores, comparing all phases of treatment. The average score for the entire population studied was 2.08 before treatment and 0.44 at the end. These results represent an overall improvement of ∼79% in symptomatology of allergic rhinitis in the studied population. Conclusion The subcutaneous immunotherapy as treatment of allergic rhinitis led to a reduction in all symptoms studied, improving the quality of life of patients, proving itself as an important therapeutic tool for these pathological conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1564437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4688001PMC
January 2016

Ortho-surgical management of a Conradi-Hünermann syndrome patient: rare case report.

Clin Case Rep 2015 Aug 29;3(8):694-701. Epub 2015 Jun 29.

Surgical Clinics, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, USP São Paulo, Brazil.

The Conradi-Hünermann Disease is a rare syndrome, which affects the cranial development and the anatomy of dental occlusion. After interdisciplinary treatment completion, the patient reached satisfactory facial anatomy, as well as regular occlusal relationship, attested 2 years of accompaniment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4551328PMC
August 2015

The immunomodulation to diabetes control: New proposals for the reversion of this disease.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2015 Oct-Dec;9(4):210-2. Epub 2015 Aug 21.

Department of Morphology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí (FMJ), Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

The diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder, characterized by the hyperglycemia with deficiency in the use of carbohydrates, fats and proteins, resultant of the impairment in secretion and/or insulin action. Severely, the type 1 diabetes provokes the compromise of several organs, causing different disorders and until death of patient. In this way, the literature has shown the general treatments for the type 1 diabetes and currently the focus in immunotherapy and/or immunomodulation, to control of this hyperglycemic condition. The use of new therapies is necessary due to the high increase of incidence of this disease around the world. Recent studies showed an increase of 40% in the cases since 1997. This disease affects different organs, including the glandular tissues, mainly the pancreas. Despite all therapies for diabetes control, the damages occurred remain irreversible. Thus, in addition to general treatments, the use of immunotherapy may open new perspectives for treatment of this disease. Within this aspect, the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies may be effective, mainly by protect and maintain the pancreatic acinar cells. Thus, these treatments based in the immunomodulation can be an option for diabetes control and to reverse the damage caused by this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2015.08.003DOI Listing
September 2016

Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor improves the salivary gland histology of spontaneously diabetic mice.

Arch Oral Biol 2013 Jul 26;58(7):755-61. Epub 2012 Oct 26.

Tissue Morphology Laboratory, Department of Morphology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí, FMJ, Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: The incretin-based therapy might be effective in patients possessing certain levels of preserved pancreatic beta-cells. However, doubts still exist regarding the efficacy of this atment in the recovery of tissues damaged by type 1 diabetes. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the treatment with MK0431 in salivary glands of spontaneously diabetic mice, focusing mainly on the possible therapeutic and hypoglycaemic effects of this dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor in the recovery of these salivary tissues.

Methods And Results: Twenty mice were divided into two groups of 10 animals each: group I (NOD diabetic/untreated) and group II (NOD diabetic MK0431/treated). The group II was treated during 4 weeks with MK0431 mixed in the food. The group I was maintained in the same way without receiving, however, any treatment. Glucose levels were monitored during treatment and salivary glands samples were collected at the end of treatment for the histological examination under both transmitted and polarized light microscopy. High glucose levels were observed in untreated animals, while in animals with treatment, reduction of these levels was observed. Tissue restructuring was also observed in animals submitted to therapy with MK0431, mainly in relation to the attempt to extracellular matrix reorganization.

Conclusions: According to results, the treatment with this dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor contributed to the general homeostasis of the organism and to the reestablishment of both epithelial and stromal compartments which were damaged by the hyperglycaemic condition, demonstrating that the incretin-based therapy may be an important complementary treatment for the type 1 diabetic condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2012.09.015DOI Listing
July 2013

Hypoglycemic effects of an aqueous extract of Bauhinia forficata on the salivary glands of diabetic mice.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2012 Jul;25(3):493-9

Department of Morphology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí, FMJ, Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the salivary glands in diabetic mice, analyzing alterations in the secretory epithelium and interactions with the stromal compartment acquired during a prolonged period of treatment with Bauhinia forficata extract. Female mice were divided into two groups: Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice treated with Bauhinia forficata (I), and NOD mice not treated with the hypoglycemic agent (II). After treatment, the salivary glands were collected for analysis by transmitted and polarized light microscopy, complemented by three-dimensional analysis of these tissues. The results showed weight loss in animals of group II and weight recovery in treated animals. Glucose levels were elevated in group II, but declined in group I. In the two groups, the salivary glands were characterized by involution of the secretory epithelium, presence of an inflammatory infiltrate and an increase of extracellular fibrillar components. It can be concluded that treatment with Bauhinia forficata reduced glucose levels and contributed to weight recovery in treated animals. However, the observation of tissue destructuring and compromised epithelial-stromal interactions, with consequent impairment of glandular function, demonstrates that Bauhinia forficata exerts an effect on the recovery of body metabolism but this improvement does not influence in the tissue recovery.
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July 2012

Effects of anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody in salivary glands of spontaneously diabetic mice.

Microsc Res Tech 2012 Jul 1;75(7):928-34. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Department of Morphology and Basic Pathology, Tissue Morphology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí, FMJ, Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.

Background: Diabetes mellitus results in many complications, also compromising the salivary glands. The current treatment for this condition should be a substituting method to exogenous insulin. In this aspect, the immunotherapy has been tested, but, it can be inefficient as an agent for the control of damage caused by diabetes. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody as alternative immunotherapy in the recovery of salivary glands of spontaneously diabetic NOD (nonobese diabetic) mice.

Methods: NOD mice were divided into two groups of 10 animals: group I (untreated diabetic mice) and group II (anti-CD3-treated diabetic mice). After treatment, the samples of salivary glands were collected for histological examination under both transmitted and polarized light microscopy.

Results: Alterations in tissue architecture; increase in extracellular matrix and presence of inflammatory process were observed in untreated animals. Recovery of the salivary acinar cells occurred in treated animals. The parotid glands demonstrated a smaller amount of collagen fibers and were not observed severe inflammatory processes.

Conclusion: These results indicate that immunotherapy contributed to reestablishment of tissue damaged by the hyperglycemic condition, demonstrating that the immunomodulation plays an important role in the recovery of salivary glands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22015DOI Listing
July 2012

Estrogen and insulin replacement therapy modulates the expression of insulin-like growth factor-I receptors in the salivary glands of diabetic mice.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2011 Nov 1;294(11):1930-8. Epub 2011 Oct 1.

Tissue Morphology Laboratory, Department of Morphology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.

Diabetes mellitus results in various complications, also compromising the salivary glands. Hormone levels and interactions with cellular receptors are altered, intensifying the damage caused by this disease. Hormone replacement therapy alone or combined with other treatments may reverse this damage, but doubts still exist regarding the efficacy of this procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of estrogen replacement therapy combined with insulin treatment on salivary secretory cells and on the expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptors in salivary glands of spontaneously diabetic (NOD) mice. Twenty-five mice were divided into five groups of five animals each: group I (NOD diabetic), group II (NOD diabetic treated with insulin), group III (NOD diabetic treated with estrogen), group IV (NOD diabetic treated with insulin and estrogen), and group V (control Balb/c mice). Group II received insulin, group III received estrogen, and group IV received insulin plus estrogen administered daily for 20 days. Groups I and V received saline for the same period of time to simulate treatment. Glucose and estrogen levels were monitored during treatment, and salivary gland samples were collected at the end of treatment for stereological analysis and immunofluorescence detection of IGF-I receptors. Tissue restructuring and regulation of IGF-I receptors expression were observed in animals submitted to estrogen replacement therapy plus insulin. Estrogen effectively promoted the recovery of salivary secretory cells, demonstrating that this hormone alone, and especially when combined with insulin, might be important for the reversal of hyperglycemia-induced tissue injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.21481DOI Listing
November 2011

Recovery of INS-R and ER-alpha expression in the salivary glands of diabetic mice submitted to hormone replacement therapy.

Arch Oral Biol 2011 Oct 20;56(10):1129-36. Epub 2011 Apr 20.

Tissue Morphology Laboratory, Department of Morphology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí, FMJ, Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.

The interaction between proteins and cell receptors is related to tissue homeostasis such as in salivary glands. In this respect, alterations in hormone levels caused by hyperglycaemic conditions may interfere with this interaction, intensifying the damage caused by diabetes mellitus. Hormone replacement therapy is an option to reverse this damage, but doubts still exist regarding the efficacy of this procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of oestrogen replacement therapy combined with insulin treatment on the expression of oestrogen (ER-alpha) and insulin receptors (INS-R) in the salivary glands of spontaneously diabetic mice. Twenty-five mice were divided into five group of 5 animals each: group I (NOD diabetic), group II (NOD diabetic treated with insulin), group III (NOD diabetic treated with oestrogen), group IV (NOD diabetic treated with insulin and oestrogen), and group V (control BALB/c mice). Group II received insulin, group III received oestrogen, and group IV received insulin plus oestrogen administered daily for 20 days. Groups I and V received saline for the same period of time to simulate treatment. Glucose and oestrogen levels were monitored during the experimental period and salivary gland samples were collected at the end of the experiment for fluorescence microscopy analysis of ER-alpha and INS-R. Animals receiving oestrogen replacement therapy plus insulin showed regulation of the expression of oestrogen and insulin receptors. Oestrogen treatment alone contributed to the recovery of these cell receptors. These results indicate that oestrogen replacement therapy alone, and especially when combined with insulin, is important for the recovery of the interaction between functional proteins and their receptors, thus contributing to the reestablishment of tissues damaged by the hyperglycaemic condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.03.014DOI Listing
October 2011

Epithelial-stromal interactions in salivary glands of rats exposed to chronic passive smoking.

Arch Oral Biol 2011 Jun 18;56(6):580-7. Epub 2010 Dec 18.

Tissue Morphology Laboratory, Department of Morphology and Basic Pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Jundiaí, Jundiaí, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: Cigarette smoke leads to precancerous and cancerous lesions in the mouth even when the exposure is passive. The salivary glands are amongst the tissues exposed to the smoke but it is unclear whether or not passive cigarette exposure is related to detectable changes in these tissues. The objective of this study was to observe the tissue architecture of the parotid and submandibular glands in rats after passive cigarette exposure and to measure any changes that occurred.

Design: Twenty Wistar rats were divided into 10 non-smoking animals and 10 animals exposed to cigarette smoke. After 6 months of smoke exposure samples were collected from both exposed and unexposed salivary glands for histological examination under both transmitted and polarized light microscopy.

Results: Changes in the glands of exposed animals included involution of the cytoplasm and nucleus of the acinar cells and the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate. There was an abnormal accumulation of type I collagen in the stroma and an enlarged interacinar space filled with extracellular matrix.

Conclusion: Passive smoking led to substantial structural changes in the salivary glands which could significantly affect function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2010.11.017DOI Listing
June 2011

IGF-I and INS receptor expression in the salivary glands of diabetic Nod mice submitted to long-term insulin treatment.

Cell Biol Int 2008 Jan 26;32(1):16-21. Epub 2007 Aug 26.

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

This work aimed to characterize the IGF-I and INS receptor expression in the salivary glands of Nod mice, correlating to therapeutic effects of insulin treatment on these receptors. Nod mice were divided into: Groups 1 and 2 (diabetic), Groups 3 and 4 (diabetic with insulin treatment) and Group 5 (non-diabetic). Fragments from the salivary glands were processed for immunohistochemical analysis. The results showed that the prolonged diabetic state led to a steadily increased IGF-I receptor expression. INS receptor expression was gradually decreased. It was concluded that not only was the IGF-I receptor expression affected by the diabetic state but also the INS receptor expression. The period of the diabetic state was directly related to changes in the expression of these receptors. In spite of the insulin treatment having recovered the glycaemic levels, the expression of INS and the IGF-I receptors did not reach the standard level, which certainly hampered glandular function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellbi.2007.08.005DOI Listing
January 2008

Morphological alterations in the epithelium of the oral mucosa of rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to long-term systemic nicotine treatment.

Arch Oral Biol 2007 Jan 13;52(1):83-9. Epub 2006 Nov 13.

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Smoking is considered to be the most albeit preventable cause of diseases and premature deaths in the history of mankind. The local action of tobacco on the oral mucosa can cause precancerous and cancerous lesions. However, there is not enough evidence to establish all the systemic effects caused by nicotine on the organism. Thus, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cellular changes of the cheek mucosa of rats submitted to long-term systemic nicotine treatment. Twenty male rats were divided into two experimental groups: a nicotine group and a control group, each consisting of 10 animals. The nicotine group was injected daily with 0.250 mg of nicotine per 100 g of body weight. All animals received a solid diet and water ad libitum. After 90 days of treatment, all animals were weighed and sacrificed. Samples of cheek mucosa were collected for light and transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed oral epithelium containing atypical cells that were characterized by atrophy, cell membrane disorganization and tissue damage. It was concluded that systemic administration of nicotine damaged the cellular integrity of the oral mucosa, impairing tissue function and predisposing the tissue to the action of different pathogenic agents and also to that of other carcinogenic substances present in tobacco.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2006.07.008DOI Listing
January 2007

Stereology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands of diabetic Nod mice submitted to long-term insulin treatment.

Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 2005 Oct;286(2):930-7

Department of Anatomy, Institute of Biology, State University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus compromises the salivary glands, altering their morphology and the mechanisms of salivation, which are fundamental for oral health. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of prolonged insulin treatment on the morphology of the salivary glands in Nod mice. Forty-five female mice were divided into five groups: nine positive diabetic Nod mice for 10 days (group 1), nine positive diabetic Nod mice for 20 days (group 2), nine diabetic Nod mice for 10 days (group 3), nine diabetic Nod mice for 20 days (group 4), and nine nondiabetic BALB/c mice (group 5). Animals of groups 3 and 4 received 4-5 U of insulin daily, whereas animals of groups 1, 2, and 5 received the same dose of physiological saline simulating the experimental conditions. Samples of the salivary glands were analyzed by light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopies. The results showed intense alterations in diabetic animals characterized by nuclear and cytoplasmic atrophy, biomembrane disorganization, an increase in fibrillar components of the extracellular matrix, and the presence of inflammatory cells. Insulin treatment exerted positive effects on the recovery of the changes resulting from the diabetic state in both parotid and submandibular glands but the pattern continued to be altered. It can be concluded that, in addition to compromising the processes of tissue maintenance and renewal, tissue destructuring leads to alterations in functional mechanisms in both diabetic animals and animals submitted to glycemic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.a.20236DOI Listing
October 2005