Publications by authors named "Eduardo Arroyo"

7 Publications

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Effectiveness of a treatment guideline for schizophrenia in adolescents: Lessons from a middle-income country.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2018 02 23;52(2):192-199. Epub 2017 Aug 23.

2 Arete Proyectos, Mexico City, Mexico.

Introduction: Treatment guidelines for schizophrenia represent a standard way to manage patients, especially in countries with limited staff resources. However, they have not been compared on their efficacy with treatment as usual, despite adult studies suggesting they can be more effective.

Methods: Inpatient and outpatient adolescents with schizophrenia were randomly allocated to be either treated according to a guideline-based treatment ( n = 43) or treatment as usual ( n = 44). The effects on symptoms, psychosocial functioning and cognition were compared in a 6-month follow-up.

Results: There were no differences between groups in the pharmacological treatment, reduction in symptom severity or cognition. The guideline-based treatment group showed a better functioning at months 3 and 6.

Conclusion: The guideline-based treatment had a greater effect than the treatment as usual in the psychosocial functioning of adolescent patients ( www.clinicaltrials.gov ; II3/02/0811).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0004867417726581DOI Listing
February 2018

First case of detection of Plasmodium knowlesi in Spain by Real Time PCR in a traveller from Southeast Asia.

Malar J 2010 Jul 27;9:219. Epub 2010 Jul 27.

Malaria & Emerging Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Parasitology Department, National Centre of Microbiology, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Cra, Majadahonda Pozuelo Km, 2, Majadahonda, 28220 Madrid, Spain.

Previously, Plasmodium knowlesi was not considered as a species of Plasmodium that could cause malaria in human beings, as it is parasite of long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis) and pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) macaques found in Southeast Asia. A case of infection by P. knowlesi is described in a Spanish traveller, who came back to Spain with daily fever after his last overseas travel, which was a six-month holiday in forested areas of Southeast Asia between 2008 and 2009. His P. knowlesi infection was detected by multiplex Real time quantitative PCR and confirmed by sequencing the amplified fragment. Using nested multiplex malaria PCR (reference method in Spain) and a rapid diagnostic test, the P. knowlesi infection was negative. This patient was discharged and asymptomatic when the positive result to P. knowlesi was reported. Prior to this case, there have been two more reports of European travellers with malaria caused by P. knowlesi, a Finnish man who travelled to Peninsular Malaysia during four weeks in March 2007, and a Swedish man who did a short visit to Malaysian Borneo in October 2006. Taken together with this report of P. knowlesi infection in a Spanish traveller returning from Southeast Asia, this is the third case of P. knowlesi infection in Europe, indicating that this simian parasite can infect visitors to endemic areas in Southeast Asia. This last European case is quite surprising, given that it is an untreated-symptomatic P. knowlesi in human, in contrast to what is currently known about P. knowlesi infection. Most previous reports of human P. knowlesi malaria infections were in adults, often with symptoms and relatively high parasite densities, up to the recent report in Ninh Thuan province, located in the southern part of central Vietnam, inhabited mainly by the Ra-glai ethnic minority, in which all P. knowlesi infections were asymptomatic, co-infected with P. malariae, with low parasite densities and two of the three identified cases were very young children under five years old.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-9-219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2921078PMC
July 2010

The genetic legacy of religious diversity and intolerance: paternal lineages of Christians, Jews, and Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula.

Am J Hum Genet 2008 Dec;83(6):725-36

Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester, UK.

Most studies of European genetic diversity have focused on large-scale variation and interpretations based on events in prehistory, but migrations and invasions in historical times could also have had profound effects on the genetic landscape. The Iberian Peninsula provides a suitable region for examination of the demographic impact of such recent events, because its complex recent history has involved the long-term residence of two very different populations with distinct geographical origins and their own particular cultural and religious characteristics-North African Muslims and Sephardic Jews. To address this issue, we analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) and Sephardic Jewish (19.8%) sources. Despite alternative possible sources for lineages ascribed a Sephardic Jewish origin, these proportions attest to a high level of religious conversion (whether voluntary or enforced), driven by historical episodes of social and religious intolerance, that ultimately led to the integration of descendants. In agreement with the historical record, analysis of haplotype sharing and diversity within specific haplogroups suggests that the Sephardic Jewish component is the more ancient. The geographical distribution of North African ancestry in the peninsula does not reflect the initial colonization and subsequent withdrawal and is likely to result from later enforced population movement-more marked in some regions than in others-plus the effects of genetic drift.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.11.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2668061PMC
December 2008

Identifying genetic traces of historical expansions: Phoenician footprints in the Mediterranean.

Am J Hum Genet 2008 Nov 30;83(5):633-42. Epub 2008 Oct 30.

Lebanese American University, Chouran, Beirut 1102 2801, Lebanon.

The Phoenicians were the dominant traders in the Mediterranean Sea two thousand to three thousand years ago and expanded from their homeland in the Levant to establish colonies and trading posts throughout the Mediterranean, but then they disappeared from history. We wished to identify their male genetic traces in modern populations. Therefore, we chose Phoenician-influenced sites on the basis of well-documented historical records and collected new Y-chromosomal data from 1330 men from six such sites, as well as comparative data from the literature. We then developed an analytical strategy to distinguish between lineages specifically associated with the Phoenicians and those spread by geographically similar but historically distinct events, such as the Neolithic, Greek, and Jewish expansions. This involved comparing historically documented Phoenician sites with neighboring non-Phoenician sites for the identification of weak but systematic signatures shared by the Phoenician sites that could not readily be explained by chance or by other expansions. From these comparisons, we found that haplogroup J2, in general, and six Y-STR haplotypes, in particular, exhibited a Phoenician signature that contributed > 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined. Our methodology can be applied to any historically documented expansion in which contact and noncontact sites can be identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.10.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2668035PMC
November 2008

Mitochondrial DNA error prophylaxis: assessing the causes of errors in the GEP'02-03 proficiency testing trial.

Forensic Sci Int 2005 Mar;148(2-3):191-8

Unidad de Genética, Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Instituto de Medicina Legal, A Coruña, Galicia-Spain.

We report the results of the Spanish and Portuguese working group (GEP) of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) Collaborative Exercise 2002-2003 on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. Six different samples were submitted to the participating laboratories: four blood stains (M1-M2-M3-M4), one mixture blood sample (M5), and two hair shaft fragments (M6). Most of the labs reported consensus results for the blood stains, slightly improving the results of previous collaborative exercises. Although hair shaft analysis is still carried out by a small number of laboratories, this analysis yielded a high rate of success. On the contrary, the analysis of the mixture blood stain (M5) yielded a lower rate of success; in spite of this, the whole results on M5 typing demonstrated the suitability of mtDNA analysis in mixture samples. We have found that edition errors are among the most common mistakes reported by the different labs. In addition, we have detected contamination events as well as other minor problems, i.e. lack of standarization in nomenclature for punctual and length heteroplasmies, and indels. In the present edition of the GEP-ISFG exercise we have paid special attention to the visual phylogenetic inspection for detecting common sequencing errors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.06.008DOI Listing
March 2005

High resolution Y chromosome typing: 19 STRs amplified in three multiplex reactions.

Forensic Sci Int 2002 Jan;125(1):42-51

Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK.

Nineteen Y-specific short tandem repeat (STR) loci have been amplified in 768 samples from the Iberian Peninsula in order to evaluate their usefulness in forensic casework. Two previously published multiplex reactions by Thomas et al. [Hum. Genet. 6 (1999) 577] (MS1, modified here: DYS19, DYS388, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392 and DYS393) and by Ayub et al. [Nucl. Acids Res. 28 (2000) e8] (CTS: DYS434, DYS435, DYS436, DYS437, DYS438 and DYS439) plus a novel one reported here (EBF: DYS385, DYS389, DYS460, DYS461, DYS462 and amelogenin) have been used. DYS385, DYS439 and DYS391 were the most informative loci with allele diversities of 0.7997, 0.6683 and 0.5940, respectively. A total of 635 different haplotypes were observed, of which 573 (90.24%) were found in single individuals. The overall haplotype diversity was 0.9988 and that obtained by each multiplex system was 0.9812 for EBF, 0.9292 for MS1 and 0.9089 for CTS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0379-0738(01)00627-2DOI Listing
January 2002

Results of the 1999-2000 collaborative exercise and proficiency testing program on mitochondrial DNA of the GEP-ISFG: an inter-laboratory study of the observed variability in the heteroplasmy level of hair from the same donor.

Forensic Sci Int 2002 Jan;125(1):1-7

Departamento de Madrid, Instituto de Toxicología, Sección de Biología, Luis Cabrera 9, 28002 Madrid, Spain.

The Spanish and Portuguese working group (GEP) of international society for forensic genetics (ISFG) 1999-2000 collaborative exercise on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) included the analysis of four bloodstain samples and one hair shaft sample by 19 participating laboratories from Spain, Portugal and several Latin-American countries. A wide range of sequence results at position 16,093 of the HV1 (from T or C homoplasmy to different levels of heteroplasmy) were submitted by the different participating laboratories from the hair shaft sample during the first phase of this exercise. During the discussion of these results in the Annual GEP-ISFG 2000 Conference a second phase of this exercise was established with two main objectives: (i) to evaluate the incidence of the HV1 sequence heteroplasmy detected in Phase I across different sample types from the same donor including blood, saliva, and hair shafts, (ii) to perform a technical review of the electropherograms to evaluate the relative levels of heteroplasmies obtained by the different laboratories and also to examine the source of possible errors detected in Phase I. Anonymous review of the raw sequence data permitted the detection of three transcription errors and three errors due to methodological problems. Highly variable levels of heteroplasmy were found in the hair shaft and more stability in blood and saliva. Three laboratories found variable levels of heteroplasmy at position 16,093 across adjacent fragments from the same hair shaft. Two laboratories also described more than one heteroplasmic position from a single hair. The relevance of these findings for the interpretation of mtDNA data in the forensic context is also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0379-0738(01)00602-8DOI Listing
January 2002