Publications by authors named "Edouard Cheneau"

61 Publications

High on-treatment platelet reactivity after prasugrel loading dose and cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention in acute coronary syndromes.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2011 Jul;58(5):467-73

Département de Cardiologie, Hôpital Universitaire Nord, Faculté de Médecine, Chemin des Bourrely, Marseille, France.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between platelet reactivity (PR) after a loading dose (LD) of prasugrel and thrombotic events.

Background: Post-treatment PR has been shown to be strongly associated with the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the clopidogrel era. Prasugrel is a new P2Y(12)-adenosine diphosphate receptor with a higher potency on PR.

Methods: A prospective multicenter study included patients who underwent successful PCI for acute coronary syndromes and received prasugrel therapy. Vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) index was measured after the prasugrel LD. High on-treatment PR was defined as a VASP index ≥50%. MACE included cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and definite stent thrombosis at 1 month.

Results: Three hundred one patients were enrolled. The mean VASP index after 60 mg of prasugrel was 34.3 ± 23.1%. High on-treatment PR was observed in 76 patients (25.2%). Patients experiencing thrombotic events after PCI had significantly higher VASP indexes compared with those free of events (64.4 ± 14.4% vs. 33.4 ± 22.7%; range: 51% to 64% and 5% to 47.6%, respectively; p = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis comparing good responders and patients with high on-treatment PR demonstrated a significantly higher rate of MACE in patients with suboptimal PR inhibition (log-rank p < 0.001). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis found a cutoff value of 53.5% of the VASP index to predict thrombotic events at 1 month (r = 0.86, p < 0.001). Patients with minor or major Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction unrelated to coronary artery bypass grafting bleeding and those without had similar VASP indexes (30 ± 17.8% vs. 34.3 ± 23%, p = 0.70).

Conclusions: Despite the use of prasugrel, a significant number of patients undergoing PCI in the setting of acute coronary syndromes do not achieve optimal PR inhibition. Such patients have a higher risk for MACE after PCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2011.04.017DOI Listing
July 2011

Routine use of coronary computed tomography as initial diagnostic test for angina pectoris.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2011 Jan 8;104(1):29-34. Epub 2011 Jan 8.

Centre de cardiologie interventionnelle, clinique Bouchard, 77, rue du docteur-Escat, 13006 Marseille, France.

Background: Coronary computed tomography (CCT) detects coronary obstruction with high sensitivity and might be useful for diagnosis of angina pectoris.

Aim: In this pilot study, we sought to prospectively evaluate the performance of CCT as initial work up and determine the significance of this strategy according to the pretest likelihood of having coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: One hundred and eighty patients with chest discomfort and suspected angina were prospectively referred for CCT with a 64-slice CT scan. Invasive coronary angiography (ICA) was performed on the basis of CCT findings (stenosis>50%). Patients were classified into tertiles according to estimated pretest probability of obstructive CAD using the Duke Clinical Score (low, intermediate and high). Strategy failure was defined as unnecessary ICA or major adverse cardiac event (MACE) within 6 months in patients without significant stenosis by CCT.

Results: Pretest probability for CAD was 53 ± 29%. Significant stenosis was detected by CCT in 51 patients; 47 (26%) underwent ICA. Sixteen strategy failures were reported: 15 patients (10%) were referred for ICA that did not confirm significant coronary stenosis and one MACE occurred in a patient without significant stenosis by CCT. Strategy failures were 8% in low-probability, 1.7% in intermediate-probability and 15% in high-probability patients (P=0.03).

Conclusions: CCT as an initial step for angina diagnosis is most effective in patients with an intermediate probability of CAD. In patients with low or high likelihood, it is associated with a high rate of unnecessary ICA but not with adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2010.11.007DOI Listing
January 2011

Comparison of paclitaxel-eluting stent and sirolimus-eluting stent expansion at incremental delivery pressures.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2006 Oct-Dec;7(4):208-11

Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Suite 4B-1, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Objectives: We sought to compare the adequacy of paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) and sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) expansion based on intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging criteria at conventional delivery pressures.

Methods: Forty-six patients underwent SES implantation and 42 patients underwent PES implantation for de novo native coronary lesions<33 mm in length with reference lumen diameters of 2.5-3.5 mm. Stents were serially expanded with gradual balloon inflations at 14 and 20 atm. IVUS imaging was performed prior to intervention and after each balloon inflation. Stent expansion (minimal stent cross-sectional area/reference lumen cross-sectional area) was measured. Inadequate stent expansion was defined using the MUSIC criteria (all struts apposed, no tissue protrusion, and final lumen cross-sectional area>80% of the reference or >90% if minimal lumen cross-sectional area was <9 mm2).

Results: The baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar except for shorter lesion length, larger mean lumen cross-sectional area, larger lumen diameter, and lower plaque burden in the PES group. Stent expansion was inadequate in 80% of patients with SES versus 63% of patients with PES at 14 atm, although this was not statistically significant. After 20 atm, 48% of patients with SES remained underexpanded as compared with 35% of patients with PES.

Conclusion: Drug-eluting stents showed significant underexpansion by MUSIC criteria at conventionally used inflation pressures. Higher balloon inflations are required especially during deployment of a SES. IVUS guidance is recommended to ensure optimal results and outcomes with both stents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2006.09.002DOI Listing
March 2007

Diagnostic and prognostic value of circulating D-Dimers in patients with acute aortic dissection.

Crit Care Med 2006 May;34(5):1358-64

Fédération of cardiologie, Service de chirurgie cardiaque, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France.

Objective: We sought to determine whether assessing D-Dimer might be helpful for the management of acute aortic dissection (AAD).

Design: Single-center retrospective case-control study.

Setting: University Hospital of Strasbourg France.

Patients: Patients were 94 consecutive patients admitted to our institution with confirmed AAD and in whom D-Dimer test had been performed at presentation. These patients were matched with 94 controls presenting with clinical suspicion of dissection, which was later ruled out.

Interventions: Patient characteristics and clinical course were analyzed.

Measurements And Main Results: Ninety-three (99%) patients with AAD had elevated D-Dimer (>400 ng/mL) with a median D-Dimer value of 8610 ng/mL (interquartile range, 2982-20,000 ng/mL). Receiver operating characteristic curves analysis showed that D-Dimer, but not C-reactive protein, troponin, lactate dehydrogenase, or leukocyte count, was predictive of a diagnosis of AAD, with a sensitivity and specificity of 99% and 34%, respectively. D-Dimer concentration positively correlated with the anatomical extension of the dissection to the different segments of the aorta (R = .47, p < .0001). A positive relationship was observed between D-Dimer and in-hospital mortality rate among patients with AAD (p = .037). On multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of in-hospital mortality were the presence of pericardial effusion (odds ratio, 6.80; confidence interval, 1.87-27.60), D-Dimer >5200 ng/mL (odds ratio, 5.38; confidence interval, 1.27-30.87), and female gender (odds ratio, 4.96; confidence interval, 1.39-19.95).

Conclusions: D-Dimers are elevated in patients with AAD and provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information. In patients with acute chest pain and elevated D-Dimer, a diagnosis of AAD should also be considered. D-Dimer might be a useful complementary tool to the current diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected AAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.CCM.0000216686.72457.ECDOI Listing
May 2006

Efficacy of sirolimus-eluting stents compared with bare metal stents for saphenous vein graft intervention.

Am J Cardiol 2006 Jan 2;97(1):34-7. Epub 2005 Nov 2.

Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Saphenous vein graft (SVG) intervention is associated with a significantly increased rate of periprocedural complications and late clinical and angiographic restenosis. We examined the efficacy and safety of sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs; Cypher) compared with bare metal stents (BMSs) in SVG intervention. Forty-eight patients who had 50 SVG lesions and underwent standard percutaneous coronary intervention with SESs (SES group) were compared with 57 patients who had 64 SVG lesions and underwent intervention with BMSs (BMS group). All patients received distal protection devices during SVG intervention. In-hospital, 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year clinical outcomes in the 2 groups were compared. Baseline clinical and procedural characteristics were balanced between groups. There were no deaths or Q-wave myocardial infarctions during the index hospitalization, but compared with the BMS group, patients in the SES group had significantly fewer non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions (4% vs 21%, p = 0.01), which was mainly attributed to increased periprocedural creatine kinase-MB levels. At 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year follow-ups, all clinical outcomes were similar between groups. Event-free survival at 1 year was also similar between groups (p = 0.84). In conclusion, the use of SESs in patients who undergo SVG intervention with a distal protection device is clinically safe and feasible but is not associated with decreased clinical events up to 1 year compared with BMSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.08.018DOI Listing
January 2006

Bivalirudin compared with IIb/IIIa inhibitors in patients with in-stent restenosis undergoing intracoronary brachytherapy.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2005 Oct-Dec;6(4):154-9

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington DC 20010, USA.

Background: Bivalirudin is replacing heparin in percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs), including vascular brachytherapy (VBT). The aim of the study was to compare bivalirudin with eptifibatide in patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR) undergoing PCI and VBT.

Methods: One hundred forty-four patients treated with bivalirudin as a single antithrombotic agent were compared with 150 patients treated with eptifibatide. Bivalirudin as a bolus of 0.75 mg/kg followed by 1.75 mg/kg/h infusion until the end of the procedure, and eptifibatide as a double bolus of 180 microg/kg followed by 2 microg/kg/min infusion for 18 h after the procedure were used. The main outcome measures were in-hospital events and 30-day clinical outcomes.

Results: Baseline clinical characteristics were similar except that patients in the eptifibatide group were younger (P=.02) and had more saphenous vein graft lesions (P<.001). Patients in the bivalirudin group had a higher number of lesions in the right coronary artery (P<.001) and a higher number of vessels treated (P<.001). Postprocedure creatinine phosphokinase (CPK)-MB levels were significantly lower in the bivalirudin group (P<.03). In-hospital events showed significantly less minor bleeding (P=.01) and a trend toward lower major bleeding and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in the bivalirudin group (P=.06). Thirty-day outcomes showed a significantly lower incidence of non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI) in the bivalirudin group (P=.004).

Conclusion: Bivalirudin, as a single antithrombotic agent during PCI and VBT, is associated with significantly lower postprocedural CPK-MB elevation, minor bleeding complications, 30-day non-Q-wave MI rates, and a trend toward lower major bleeding and in-hospital MACE when compared with eptifibatide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2005.06.003DOI Listing
April 2006

Late thrombosis in cypher stents after the discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy.

Cardiovasc Radiat Med 2004 Oct-Dec;5(4):173-6

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, DC 20010, USA.

Drug-eluting stents, since their approval in the United States, have become the treatment of choice for de novo coronary artery narrowing due to their ability to reduce restenosis and the need for repeat revascularization. We present two patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention for the treatment of multivessel coronary artery disease; both patients were treated with sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) and bare metal stents (BMS).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrad.2004.11.001DOI Listing
December 2005

Brachytherapy and bivalirudin evaluation study.

Am Heart J 2005 Oct;150(4):832-7

Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Background: Bivalirudin is shown to be a competent substitute for heparin in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The safety and efficacy of bivalirudin in patients undergoing PCI and vascular brachytherapy (VBT) are not known. This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of bivalirudin as a single antithrombotic agent in patients undergoing PCI and VBT.

Methods: A total of 152 patients enrolled in the Brachytherapy and Bivalirudin Evaluation Study underwent PCI and VBT with either gamma (n = 8) or beta radiation (n = 144). The main outcome measures were in-hospital events and 30-day clinical outcomes. All patients were treated with bivalirudin (0.75 mg/kg bolus and 1.75 mg/kg per hour infusion for beta radiation, 1 mg/kg bolus and 2.5 mg/kg per hour infusion for gamma radiation) as a single antithrombotic agent during the entire procedure.

Results: Baseline clinical and angiographic characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. More than 90% of the patients received beta radiation. In-hospital events showed a higher prevalence of acute procedural intracoronary thrombosis in patients treated with gamma- vs beta radiation (25% vs. 0.7%, P < .001). Thirty-day outcomes including death, Q-wave, and non-Q-wave myocardial infarctions, subacute stent thromboses, and repeat revascularizations were similar in both groups.

Conclusion: Bivalirudin, as a single antithrombotic agent during PCI and VBT with beta emitters, may be used safely, but its use in the setting of PCI and gamma radiation may not be acceptable due to an increased incidence of acute procedural intracoronary thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2004.11.013DOI Listing
October 2005

Impact of sirolimus-eluting stents on outcomes of patients treated for acute myocardial infarction by primary angioplasty.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2005 Aug;65(4):469-72

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) are currently being used in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). SESs have not been evaluated in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction by primary angioplasty. We report our initial experience with SESs implanted during primary angioplasty. One hundred and three patients were treated within 12 hr after onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) with primary angioplasty and SES implantation. Those patients were compared to 504 patients treated with bare metal stents (BMSs). Angiographic success (TIMI flow grade 3 and residual stenosis < 50%) was completed in 98% of patients with SESs and no subacute stent thrombosis was reported. In-hospital outcomes were similar in the SES and BMS groups. At 6 months, major cardiac events were less frequent in the SES group than in the BMS group (9% vs. 24%, respectively; P < 0.001), driven by a lesser need for repeat revascularization with SESs (1% vs. 10.3% with BMSs; P = 0.014). Mortality at 6 months was 7% with SESs and 11% with BMSs (P = 0.14). SESs are safe and effective for the treatment of AMI by primary angioplasty. As compared to BMSs, SESs improve long-term outcome after AMI, mainly by reducing the need for repeat revascularization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.20395DOI Listing
August 2005

Bivalirudin versus heparin as an antithrombotic agent in patients who undergo percutaneous saphenous vein graft intervention with a distal protection device.

Am J Cardiol 2005 Jul;96(1):67-70

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, USA.

Bivalirudin (Angiomax) is increasingly used as a substitute for heparin in a variety of percutaneous coronary interventions, and data on its usage in saphenous vein graft interventions are limited. This retrospective, observational study evaluated the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin compared with heparin as an antithrombotic regimen in patients who underwent saphenous vein graft intervention with distal protection devices. We found that bivalirudin use is clinically safe and feasible, with fewer vascular and ischemic complications compared with heparin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.02.047DOI Listing
July 2005

Selective versus exclusive use of sirolimus-eluting stent implantation in multivessel coronary artery disease.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2005 Aug;65(4):473-7

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs; Cypher) have demonstrated a significant reduction in restenosis rates when compared to bare metal stents (BMSs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the strategy of exclusive use of two SESs versus the combination of one BMS and one SES for two-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD). It was found that the selective use of one SES combined with one BMS in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention that requires more than one stent is safe, feasible, and associated with favorable procedural, 30-day, and 6-month clinical outcomes when compared to the exclusive use of SESs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.20431DOI Listing
August 2005

Underexpansion of sirolimus-eluting stents: incidence and relationship to delivery pressure.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2005 Jun;65(2):222-6

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia 20010, USA.

We aimed to assess the incidence of underexpansion and the relationship between delivery pressure and expansion with sirolimus-eluting stents. Adequate stent expansion contributes to early and late improved outcomes. In 51 patients (53 lesions) with native coronary artery narrowing, balloon-expandable sirolimus-eluting stents (Cypher) were serially expanded with gradual balloon inflations [14 atm, 20 atm, and in case of minimal stent cross-sectional area (CSA)/reference lumen CSA < 50% at 20 atm, postdilatation with 0.5 mm larger balloon]. Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging was performed before intervention and after each gradual balloon inflation. Stent expansion (minimal stent CSA/reference lumen CSA) was measured. Stent expansion was 72% +/- 16% after 14 atm balloon inflation, 90% +/- 18% after 20 atm balloon inflation (P < 0.001 vs. 14 atm), and 90% +/- 18% at the end of the procedure (including optional postdilatations with 0.5 mm larger balloon; P = NS vs. 20 atm). Stent expansion addressed by MUSIC criteria (all struts apposed, no tissue protrusion, and final lumen CSA > 80% of the reference or > 90% if minimal lumen CSA was < 9 mm2) was adequate in 15% of the cases after 14 atm balloon inflation, in 60% after 20 atm balloon inflation (P < 0.001 vs. 14 atm), and in 60% at the end of the procedure (P = NS vs. 20 atm). Sirolimus-eluting stent underexpansion is common when deployed at conventional pressures. Increasing balloon delivery pressure or assessing stent expansion with IVUS seems warranted in order to ensure adequate sirolimus-eluting stent deployment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.20350DOI Listing
June 2005

Intravascular ultrasound stent area of sirolimus-eluting stents and its impact on late outcome.

Am J Cardiol 2005 May;95(10):1240-2

Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Stent area assessed by intravascular ultrasound is a strong predictor of late outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention. Because sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) prevent intimal regrowth within the stent, achieving a larger final stent area might no longer be noteworthy; therefore, the investigators sought to determine the relevance and impact of the final stent area with SESs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2005.01.056DOI Listing
May 2005

Three-year follow-up after intravascular gamma-radiation for in-stent restenosis in saphenous vein grafts.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2005 Jun;65(2):257-62

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia 20010, USA.

The Washington Radiation for In-Stent Restenosis Trial in Saphenous Vein Grafts (SVG WRIST) demonstrated safety and efficacy of intravascular radiation therapy (IRT) for the treatment of in-stent restenosis (ISR) in SVG at 12 months. In this study, we aimed to examine whether the safety and efficacy of IRT is durable up to 36 months. One hundred twenty patients with diffuse ISR in SVG underwent balloon angioplasty, laser or atherectomy ablation, and/or additional stenting. After successful intervention, patients were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to intravascular treatment with a ribbon containing either iridium (Ir)-192 (n = 60) or nonradioactive seeds (n = 60). The prescribed dose at 2 mm from the source was either 14 or 15 Gy in vessels 2.5-4.0 mm or 18 Gy in vessels > 4.0 mm in diameter. At 36 months, target lesion revascularization (TLR; 43% vs. 66%; P = 0.02) and target lesion revascularization-major adverse cardiac event (TLR-MACE; 49% vs. 71%; P = 0.02) rates continued to be lower in the IRT group, but both target vessel revascularization (TVR; 59% vs. 71%; P = 0.17) and TVR-MACE (63% vs. 77%; P = 0.11) rates were not. In SVG WRIST, patients with ISR treated with IRT had a marked reduction in the need for repeat TLR at 36 months, with sustained clinical benefit at 3 years despite late recurrences, which were more pronounced in the radiation group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.20372DOI Listing
June 2005

Incidence, location, magnitude, and clinical correlates of saphenous vein graft calcification: an intravascular ultrasound and angiographic study.

Circulation 2005 Mar 21;111(9):1148-52. Epub 2005 Feb 21.

Cardiovascular Research Institute/Medstar Research Institute, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Background: The pattern of saphenous vein graft (SVG) calcification before percutaneous intervention has not been studied.

Methods And Results: We used diagnostic and preintervention intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to determine the incidence and magnitude of SVG calcification in 334 SVG lesions in 274 consecutive patients. Calcium was found in 133 SVGs (40%). Calcium was uniformly distributed among 48 lesion sites (14%), 43 proximal references (13%), and 42 distal references (13%). Calcium was superficial in 20 (40%) and deep in 28 (60%). Over the entire length of the SVGs, the maximum arc and length of calcium (in calcium-containing SVGs) averaged 174+/-107 degrees and 6.8+/-4.8 mm, respectively. In calcium-containing SVGs, lesion site arc and length of calcium measured 151+/-107 degrees and 4.1+/-3.7 mm, similar to the proximal and distal references (175+/-121 degrees and 4.0+/-2.3 mm and 177+/-121 degrees and 4.1+/-2.5 mm, respectively). Graft age (7.5+/-4.7 versus 10.5+/-4.7 years, P<0.0001), insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (40% versus 60%, P=0.02), and tobacco use (44% versus 55%, P=0.06) were clinical independent predictors of SVG calcification.

Conclusions: Sixty-five percent of calcium-containing SVGs had reference calcium in the absence of lesion calcium. Calcium was located primarily in SVG wall and not at the plaque. These data suggest that SVG calcium is not just part of lesion formation and maturation. SVG calcium occurred more commonly in older grafts, in insulin-treated diabetic patients, and in smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000157160.69812.55DOI Listing
March 2005

Transepicardial autologous bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell therapy in a porcine model of chronically infarcted myocardium.

Cardiovasc Radiat Med 2004 Jul-Sep;5(3):125-31

Washington Hospital Center, Suite 4B-1, 110 Irving Street, NW, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Objective: Cell therapy is becoming a viable strategy to improve revascularization and myocardial function after myocardial injury. We evaluated the effect of bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (BMMNC) transplantation on collateral vessel development and myocardial function in a porcine model of chronically infarcted heart.

Methods: Myocardial infarction was produced in 13 domestic swine. At 4 weeks, animals were randomized to receive transepicardial injections of autologous BMMNCs (approximately 24x10(6) cells, n=8) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS; control, n=5) into infarcted and border regions. Collateral growth, angiogenesis, and infarct size were assessed by angiography, immunohistochemistry, and histomorphometry.

Results: Regional contractility was assessed by transepicardial echocardiography at baseline and 4 weeks following treatment. Angiography revealed a trend toward increased collateral growth in the BMMNC group. Wall motion score index (myocardial function) was similar in both groups at baseline (1.63+/-0.16 vs. 1.25+/-0.25, P=.21) and at 4 weeks (1.83+/-0.22 vs. 1.63+/-0.38, P=.62). alpha-Actin-positive smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and Factor VIII positive endothelial cells were significantly greater in the BMMNC-injected animals (314.8+/-37.4/0.1 vs. 167.1+/-11.9/0.1 mm(2) in controls, P=.02, and 363.3+/-28.2 cells/0.1 mm(2) vs. 254.4+/-28.1 cells/0.1 mm(2) in controls, P=.03, respectively). The number of blood vessels >50 mum in diameter was significantly increased in the BMMNC group (317.9+/-54.9 vs. 149.1+/-6.1, P<.05). The size of the infarct area was smaller in the BMMNC-transplanted group than in the controls (P=.015).

Conclusion: BMMNC transplantation appears to improve angiogenesis and reduce infarct size yet results in no improvement in left ventricular function in a chronically infarcted heart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrad.2004.10.001DOI Listing
January 2007

Impact of continued hospitalization in patients pre-treated with clopidogrel prior to coronary angiography and undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

J Invasive Cardiol 2005 Jan;17(1):5-7

Department of Internal Medicine, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Pre-treatment of patients with clopidogrel prior to coronary angiography (CAG) and possible percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a standard practice. Candidates for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) are discharged or remain in the hospital until CABG after clopidogrel is discontinued. We investigated whether any differences exist in the rates of surgical complications and outcomes between these two groups of patients. We conclude that continued hospitalization of clopidogrel pre-treated patients does not confer any safety benefit with regard to post-operative complications and 30-day mortality. Discharging these patients after CAG may reduce hospitalization costs.
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January 2005

Safety of percutaneous coronary intervention alone in symptomatic patients with moderate and severe valvular aortic stenosis and coexisting coronary artery disease: analysis of results in 56 patients.

J Invasive Cardiol 2004 Dec;16(12):688-91

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, N.W., Suite 4B-1, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Whether percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) alone is safe in patients with moderate or severe aortic stenosis (AS) and coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD), and whether aortic valve replacement (AVR) can be deferred in patients with moderate AS by undergoing PCI alone is not known. We conducted a retrospective study of surgically inoperable patients with AS who underwent PCI (moderate AS, n = 28; and severe AS, n = 28) and compared to those with AVR (n = 55). The clinical characteristics, procedural complications, in-hospital and long-term clinical outcomes of PCI were compared. Baseline and procedural characteristics were similar except that lower age, hypertension, and renal impairment were seen in the AVR group. In-hospital complications were comparable among the 3 groups. Six-month and 1-year rates of myocardial infarction (MI), non-Q-wave MI, death and out-of-hospital death were similar between AVR and moderate AS patients (p = NS) and significantly high (p < 0.04) in patients with severe AS. On multivariate analysis, severe AS was the only significant predictor of 6-month and 1-year mortality. Our study suggests that PCI is safe in patients with moderate AS and coexisting CAD but is associated with poor outcomes in patients with severe AS.
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December 2004

Angiographic and clinical outcomes of late total occlusion versus treatment failure without late total occlusion in patients after intracoronary radiation therapy for in-stent restenosis.

Am J Cardiol 2004 Dec;94(12):1551-4

Cardiovascular Research Institute, Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, DC, USA.

This study aimed to compare the outcomes of patients with late total occlusion (LTO) versus patients with recurrence in the absence of LTO after intracoronary radiation therapy for in-stent restenosis. LTO, especially in the context of acute myocardial infarction, after intracoronary radiation therapy for in-stent restenosis, is associated with negative clinical outcomes after 6 and 12 months compared with in-stent restenosis without LTO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.08.037DOI Listing
December 2004

Intravascular ultrasound predictors of subacute vessel closure after balloon angioplasty or atherectomy.

J Invasive Cardiol 2004 Oct;16(10):572-4

Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, N.W., Suite 4B-1, Washington, D.C. 20010-2975, USA.

Background: Factors leading to subacute vessel closure after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have not been well established in lesions treated with balloon angioplasty or atherectomy.

Methods And Results: We used intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) to determine the pre- and post-PCI characteristics involved in subacute vessel closure after PCI. Of 3,403 patients undergoing IVUS imaging during coronary balloon angioplasty or atherectomy, 8 patients (0.2%) developed angiographically documented subacute vessel closure within 1 week post-PCI and were compared to a group matched by procedure date (within 6 months), age, gender, stable or unstable angina, lesion location and treatment (balloon angioplasty or atherectomy). IVUS identified at least one cause for subacute vessel closure in 87% of patients (vs 25% in matched lesions, p < 0.01). Causes were all procedure-related and included inadequate final lumen (60%), dissection (50%) and thrombus (25%). Pre-procedure lesion characteristics were not different from matched lesions.

Conclusions: Subacute vessel closure after balloon angioplasty or atherectomy is mostly related to insufficient post-procedure lumen dimension or dissection.
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October 2004

Late thrombosis in drug-eluting coronary stents after discontinuation of antiplatelet therapy.

Lancet 2004 Oct 23-29;364(9444):1519-21

Thoraxcenter, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Although the safety profiles of coronary stents eluting sirolimus or paclitaxel do not seem to differ from those of bare metal stents in the short-to-medium term, concern has arisen about the potential for late stent thromboses related to delayed endothelialisation of the stent struts. We report four cases of angiographically-confirmed stent thrombosis that occurred late after elective implantation of polymer-based paxlitaxel-eluting (343 and 442 days) or sirolimus-eluting (335 and 375 days) stents, and resulted in myocardial infarction. All cases arose soon after antiplatelet therapy was interrupted. If confirmed in systematic long-term follow-up studies, our findings have potentially serious clinical implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17275-9DOI Listing
November 2004

Asymptomatic late stent thrombosis after sirolimus stent implantation.

Cardiovasc Radiat Med 2004 Jan-Mar;5(1):57-8

Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

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January 2005

Bivalirudin versus heparin as an antithrombotic agent in patients treated with a sirolimus-eluting stent.

Am J Cardiol 2004 Oct;94(8):1047-50

Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Bivalirudin (Angiomax) is increasingly used as a substitute for heparin in a variety of percutaneous coronary interventions. This retrospective, observational study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bivalirudin compared with heparin as an antithrombotic regimen in patients treated with sirolimus-eluting stents (Cypher) and found that bivalirudin is clinically safe and feasible, with fewer vascular and ischemic complications compared with heparin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.06.065DOI Listing
October 2004

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: its role in metabolic syndrome.

Cardiovasc Radiat Med 2004 Apr-Jun;5(2):97-103

Cardiovascular Research Institute, Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street NW, Suite 4B-1, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Here we review PPARgamma function in relation to human adipogenesis, insulin sensitization, lipid metabolism, blood pressure regulation and prothrombotic state to perhaps provide justification for this nuclear receptor remaining a key therapeutic target for the continuing development of agents to treat human metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrad.2004.03.006DOI Listing
March 2005

Addition of heparin to contrast media is associated with increased bleeding and peripheral vascular complications during percutaneous coronary intervention with bivalirudin and drug-eluting stents.

Cardiovasc Radiat Med 2004 Apr-Jun;5(2):64-70

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW Suite 4B-1, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Background: Nonionic radiographic contrast media (CM) is reported to be thrombogenic while performing diagnostic or interventional procedures. To avoid thrombosis, heparin is often added to the CM. Bivalirudin, used to replace heparin during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is reported to be associated with reduced bleeding complications. We aimed to evaluate the impact of adding heparin to the CM during PCI in patients (pts) who underwent sirolimus-eluting stent (SES) implantation when bivalirudin was utilized as the sole antithrombotic agent.

Methods: A total of 664 pts with 756 lesions underwent standard PCI with SES for various coronary artery lesions. Pts were treated with either bivalirudin only (the bivalirudin group; 0.75 mg/kg bolus and 1.75 mg/kg/h infusion, n = 323 pts) or bivalirudin (same dose) plus low-dose heparin added to the CM (the heparin mix group; mean dose = 2101.8+/-882.5 U, n = 341 pts) during PCI. The periprocedural, in-hospital, and 30-day clinical outcomes were compared.

Results: Baseline clinical and angiographic parameters were similar between both groups. Periprocedural, in-hospital, and 1-month clinical outcomes, including thrombotic complications, were similar between the two groups. There was no difference in the periprocedural thrombosis rate between the groups. In the heparin mix group, the overall incidence of hematoma was significantly higher (3.8% vs. 8.5%, P = .01), there was a trend toward higher rates of blood transfusion (2.6% vs. 6.6%, P = .06) and overall vascular complications (0.01% vs. 5.3%, P <.001), including pseudoaneurysm (PSA; 0.0% vs. 2.6%, P = .004), and pts who required surgical repair (0.3% vs. 1.8%, P = .07).

Conclusions: The routine addition of low-dose heparin to CM during contemporary PCI does not add any protection value and is associated with higher rates of bleeding and vascular complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrad.2004.06.003DOI Listing
March 2005

Value of monitoring activated clotting time when bivalirudin is used as the sole anticoagulation agent for percutaneous coronary intervention.

Am J Cardiol 2004 Sep;94(6):789-92

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street NW, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Anticoagulation during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) requires the monitoring of activated clotting time (ACT) to protect from periprocedural ischemic and bleeding complications; however, the optimal ACT values have not been established when PCI is performed with bivalirudin. After 495 consecutive patients treated for coronary artery disease with PCI received bivalirudin as a single anticoagulation agent, it was found that ACT is reproducible when bivalirudin is used during PCI and does not correlate with clinical events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2004.05.068DOI Listing
September 2004

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; Its role in atherosclerosis and restenosis.

Cardiovasc Radiat Med 2004 Jan-Mar;5(1):44-8

Cardiovascular Research Institute, Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Suite 4B-1, Washington, DC 20010, USA.

Cellular proliferation and migration are fundamental processes that contribute to the injury response in major blood vessels. The resultant pathologies are atherosclerosis and restenosis. As we begin to understand the cellular changes associated with vascular injury, it is critical to determine whether the inhibition of growth and movement of cells in the vasculature could serve as a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent atherosclerosis and restenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrad.2004.04.001DOI Listing
January 2005

Impact of intravascular ultrasound-guided direct stenting on clinical outcome of patients treated for native coronary disease.

Cardiovasc Radiat Med 2004 Jan-Mar;5(1):15-9

Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street, NW, Suite 4B-1, Washington, DC, 20010, USA.

Background: Despite the fact that in animal models direct stenting (DS) reduces the vessel injury, in clinical practice this treatment strategy did not reduce late restenosis as compared to conventional strategy with balloon predilatation (PD). However, the influence of DS was not evaluated when stent expansion is optimized by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) assessment.

Methods: We analyzed the in-hospital and 1-year outcomes of patients at Washington Hospital Center who were treated with percutaneous coronary interventions and stent implantation when percutaneous intervention was guided by IVUS. Only patients treated for single de novo lesions were included.

Results: In 1386 patients, 251 (18.1%) were treated with DS and 1135 (71.9%) were treated with PD. Pre- and postprocedure characteristics by angiography and IVUS were similar in both groups. Postprocedure non-Q-wave myocardial infarction (MI) occurred in 4.9% of the DS group and in 12.5% of the PD group (P = .005). At 1-year follow-up, target lesion revascularization (TLR) rate was 4.9% in the DS group and 14.8% in the PD group (P = .005). DS strategy (odds ratio = .46, confidence interval = .25-.85, P = .013) was independently correlated to lower risk for revascularization in multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: When DS is implemented by IVUS assessment, it is associated with low in-hospital and long-term events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrad.2004.03.005DOI Listing
January 2005

Impact of radiation dose on late clinical outcome after intracoronary radiation therapy: three-year follow-up of Long WRIST.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2004 Jul;62(3):318-22

Division of Cardiology, Washington Hospital Center, Washington, District of Columbia, USA.

To determine the safety and efficacy, including the impact, on the late recurrence rate of an incremental gamma-radiation dose from 15 to 18 Gy, we report the 3-year clinical outcome of Washington Radiation for In-Stent Restenosis Trial for Long Lesions (Long WRIST). One hundred eighty patients with recurrent in-stent restenosis (ISR) were enrolled in the Long WRIST series and treated with (192)Ir with 1 month of antiplatelet therapy. Between 6 months and 3 years, the need for repeat revascularization was low and similar among the three groups. At 3 years, target lesion revascularization (TLR) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were less frequent in the 18 Gy group than in the 15 Gy group (P = 0.12 for TLR, P < 0.05 for MACE) and less frequent in the 15 Gy group as compared to the placebo group (P < 0.05 for TLR and MACE). At 3 years, a higher dose of 18 Gy with (192)Ir continues to improve the outcome of patients treated for ISR when compared to patients treated with 15 Gy or placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.20072DOI Listing
July 2004