Publications by authors named "Edith Rian"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Biomarkers for monitoring pre-analytical quality variation of mRNA in blood samples.

PLoS One 2014 4;9(11):e111644. Epub 2014 Nov 4.

DiaGenic ASA, Oslo, Norway.

There is an increasing need for proper quality control tools in the pre-analytical phase of the molecular diagnostic workflow. The aim of the present study was to identify biomarkers for monitoring pre-analytical mRNA quality variations in two different types of blood collection tubes, K2EDTA (EDTA) tubes and PAXgene Blood RNA Tubes (PAXgene tubes). These tubes are extensively used both in the diagnostic setting as well as for research biobank samples. Blood specimens collected in the two different blood collection tubes were stored for varying times at different temperatures, and microarray analysis was performed on resultant extracted RNA. A large set of potential mRNA quality biomarkers for monitoring post-phlebotomy gene expression changes and mRNA degradation in blood was identified. qPCR assays for the potential biomarkers and a set of relevant reference genes were generated and used to pre-validate a sub-set of the selected biomarkers. The assay precision of the potential qPCR based biomarkers was determined, and a final validation of the selected quality biomarkers using the developed qPCR assays and blood samples from 60 healthy additional subjects was performed. In total, four mRNA quality biomarkers (USP32, LMNA, FOSB, TNRFSF10C) were successfully validated. We suggest here the use of these blood mRNA quality biomarkers for validating an experimental pre-analytical workflow. These biomarkers were further evaluated in the 2nd ring trial of the SPIDIA-RNA Program which demonstrated that these biomarkers can be used as quality control tools for mRNA analyses from blood samples.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0111644PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4219744PMC
June 2015

Prediction of mild cognitive impairment that evolves into Alzheimer's disease dementia within two years using a gene expression signature in blood: a pilot study.

J Alzheimers Dis 2013 ;35(3):611-21

DiaGenic ASA, Grenseveien 92, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The focus on Alzheimer's disease (AD) is shifting from dementia to the prodromal stage of the disorder, to a large extent due to increasing efforts in trying to develop disease modifying treatment for the disorder. For development of disease-modifying drugs, a reliable and accurate test for identification of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD is essential.

Objective: In the present study, MCI progressing to AD will be predicted using blood-based gene expression.

Material And Methods: Gene expression analysis using qPCR was performed on blood RNA from a cohort of patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI; n = 66). Within the aMCI cohort, patients progressing to AD within 1 to 2 years were grouped as MCI converters (n = 34) and the patients remaining at the MCI stage after 2 years were grouped as stable MCI (n = 32). AD and control populations were also included in the study.

Results: Multivariate statistical method partial least square regression was used to develop predictive models which later were tested using leave-one-out cross validation. Gene expression signatures that identified aMCI subjects that progressed to AD within 2 years with a prediction accuracy of 74%-77% were identified for the complete dataset and subsets thereof.

Conclusion: The present pilot study demonstrates for the first time that MCI that evolves into AD dementia within 2 years may be predicted by analyzing gene expression in blood. Further studies will be needed to validate this gene signature as a potential test for AD in the predementia stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-122404DOI Listing
October 2013

Transiently redirected T cells for adoptive transfer.

Cytotherapy 2011 May 21;13(5):629-40. Epub 2010 Dec 21.

Section for Immunology, Radiumhospitalet, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background Aims: T cells can be redirected to reject cancer by retroviral transduction with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) or by administration of a bispecific T cell engager (BiTE). We demonstrate that transfection of T cells with messenger (m) RNA coding for CAR is an alternative strategy.

Methods: We describe the pre-clinical evaluation of a method based on transient modification of expanded T cells with a CD19 CAR directed against B-cell malignancies. CAR mRNA was generated under cell-free conditions in a scalable process using recombinant RNA polymerase. Efficient and non-toxic square-wave electroporation was used to load the mRNA into the cytoplasm of T cells with no risk of insertional mutagenesis.

Results: After transfection >80% of T cells were viable, with 94% CAR expression. Transfected T cells were cytolytic to CD19(+) targets and produced interferon (IFN)-γ in response. Killing of CD19(+) target cells was demonstrated even at day 8 with undetectable CAR expression. Increasing the concentration of mRNA resulted in higher surface CAR expression, better killing and more IFN-γ release but at the expense of increased activation-induced cell death. Finally, we demonstrated that a second transgene could be introduced by co-electroporation of CXCR4 or CCR7 with CAR to also modify chemotactic responses.

Conclusions: We advocate the transient redirection approach as well suited to meet safety aspects for early phase studies, prior to trials using stably transduced cells once CAR has been proven safe. The simplicity of this methodology also facilitates rapid screening of candidate targets and novel receptors in pre-clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14653249.2010.542461DOI Listing
May 2011

Extensive adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of patterned human mesenchymal stem cells in a microfluidic device.

Lab Chip 2010 Mar 9. Epub 2010 Mar 9.

Institute for Micro System Technology, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Vestfold University College, P.O. Box 2243, N-3103 Tønsberg, Horten, Norway.

Microtechnology offers great prospects for cellular research by enabling controlled experimental conditions that cannot be achieved by traditional methods. This study demonstrates the use of a microfluidic platform for long-term cultivation (3 weeks) of human mesenchymal stem-like cells (MSCs), a cell population of high interest for tissue engineering. The typical high motility of the MSCs required a strategy for preventing cells from inhabiting the feeding channels and thus interfere with a steady perfusion of medium to the cell cultivation chamber. Hence, a straightforward and long-term patterning method was developed and implemented for reliable cell positioning within the device. This method was based on the modification of a polystyrene substrate into cell supportive and non-supportive regions by the use of selective oxygen plasma treatment and the triblock copolymer Pluronic. Also, a novel and size-effective "flip-chip" set-up for operating the devices was invented. Successful and reproducible adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in the device was demonstrated, verifying that an adequate long-term microfluidic cultivation environment was obtained. Strengths of the experimental protocol include ease of fabrication and maintenance (gravity driven), good cell performance (viability/differentiation), as well as the possibility of exposing the culture to heterogeneous laminar flow for experimental purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b926738gDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3877732PMC
March 2010

beta-catenin is involved in N-cadherin-dependent adhesion, but not in canonical Wnt signaling in E2A-PBX1-positive B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

Exp Hematol 2009 Feb 20;37(2):225-33. Epub 2008 Dec 20.

Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: The t(1;19)(q23;13) translocation, resulting in the production of the E2A-PBX1 chimeric protein, is a common nonrandom translocation in pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The E2A-PBX1 chimeric protein activates expression of several genes, including Wnt16. In the present study, we explored the role of Wnt16 and beta-catenin in t(1;19) B-ALL cells.

Materials And Methods: Canonical Wnt signaling was measured by TOPflash activity. Localization of beta-catenin in the cell membrane and its involvement in leukemia-stroma interaction were studied by confocal microscopy. Adhesion to N-cadherin was analyzed by adding (3)H-thymidin-labeled cells to N-cadherin-coated wells.

Results: In contrast to previous reports, we detected no effects on cell viability or proliferation upon modulation of the Wnt16 levels. Moreover, despite high levels of Wnt16 and beta-catenin, the cells had very low levels of canonical Wnt signaling. Instead, beta-catenin was located in the cell membrane along with N-cadherin. E2A-PBX1-positive leukemia cells adhered strongly to bone marrow stroma cells, and we showed that adherence junctions stained strongly for both proteins. Moreover, knockdown of beta-catenin reduced the adhesion of E2A-PBX1-positive leukemia cells to N-cadherin, suggesting that beta-catenin and N-cadherin play a central role in homotypic cell-to-cell adhesion and in leukemia-stroma adhesion. Interestingly, knockdown of Wnt16 by small interfering RNA reduced the level of N-cadherin.

Conclusion: Wnt16 does not activate canonical Wnt signaling in E2A-PBX1-positive cells. Instead, beta-catenin is involved in N-cadherin-dependent adherence junctions, suggesting for the first time that leukemia-stroma interactions may be mediated via an N-cadherin-dependent mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2008.10.007DOI Listing
February 2009

Bone marrow stroma cells regulate TIEG1 expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells: role of TGFbeta/BMP-6 and TIEG1 in chemotherapy escape.

Int J Cancer 2008 Dec;123(12):2759-66

Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Rikshospitalet University Hospital, Montebello, Oslo, Norway.

The bone marrow microenvironment regulates early B lymphopoiesis and protects leukemia cells against chemotherapy treatment, thus the microenvironment may serve as a sanctuary site for these cells. Yet, few factors that contribute to this process are known. We have explored the role of transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) and bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) and one target gene, TGFbeta inducible early gene 1 (TIEG1), in the communication between stroma cells and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cell lines and their escape from chemotherapy. Here, we have demonstrated TIEG1 expression in both normal B progenitor cells and ALL cells, which increased rapidly upon TGFbeta and BMP-6 treatment. Stimulation with TGFbeta or BMP-6, as well as overexpression of TIEG1 inhibited proliferation. Furthermore, interaction with stroma cells induced TIEG1 expression in ALL cells, inhibited their proliferation and protected the cells against chemotherapeutic treatment. Similarly, treatment with TGFbeta or BMP-6, as well as overexpression of TIEG1, protected ALL cells against chemotherapy-induced cell death. These data suggest that TGFbeta and BMP-6 in the bone marrow microenvironment allow leukemia cells to escape therapy. Further, the data indicate that TIEG1 might be involved in mediating this effect from the microenvironment onto the leukemia cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.23833DOI Listing
December 2008

Characterization of early stages of human B cell development by gene expression profiling.

J Immunol 2007 Sep;179(6):3662-71

Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Centre, Oslo, Norway.

We have characterized several stages of normal human B cell development in adult bone marrow by gene expression profiling of hemopoietic stem cells, early B (E-B), pro-B, pre-B, and immature B cells, using RNA amplification and Lymphochip cDNA microarrays (n = 6). Hierarchical clustering of 758 differentially expressed genes clearly separated the five populations. We used gene sets to investigate the functional assignment of the differentially expressed genes. Genes involved in VDJ recombination as well as B lineage-associated transcription factors (TCF3 (E2A), EBF, BCL11A, and PAX5) were turned on in E-B cells, before acquisition of CD19. Several transcription factors with unknown roles in B lymphoid cells demonstrated interesting expression patterns, including ZCCHC7 and ZHX2. Compared with hemopoietic stem cells and pro-B cells, E-B cells had increased expression of 18 genes, and these included IGJ, IL1RAP, BCL2, and CD62L. In addition, E-B cells expressed T/NK lineage and myeloid-associated genes including CD2, NOTCH1, CD99, PECAM1, TNFSF13B, and MPO. Expression of key genes was confirmed at the protein level by FACS analysis. Several of these Ags were heterogeneously expressed, providing a basis for further subdivision of E-B cells. Altogether, these results provide new information regarding expression of genes in early stages of human B cell development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.179.6.3662DOI Listing
September 2007

Wnt3A activates canonical Wnt signalling in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells and inhibits the proliferation of B-ALL cell lines.

Br J Haematol 2007 Feb 8;136(3):400-13. Epub 2006 Dec 8.

Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, The University Clinic Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet HF, Montebello, Oslo, Norway.

Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is the most common malignancy in children. Recently, there has been a growing interest in Wnt signalling in several aspects of cellular development, including cancer formation. Little is known about Wnt signalling in B-ALL. We investigated whether activation of canonical Wnt signalling could occur in B-ALL cells and thereby play a potential role in cellular growth and/or survival. This study found that Wnt3A induced beta-catenin accumulation in both primary B-ALL cells and B-ALL leukaemia cell lines. Further, Wnt3A was shown to induce nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and TCF/Lef-1 dependent transcriptions in the B-ALL cell line Nalm-6. Examination of the mRNA expression pattern of WNT ligands, FZD receptors and WNT antagonists in Nalm-6 cells identified a set of ligands and receptors available for signalling, as well as antagonists potentially available for modulating the response. Functional analyses showed that Wnt3A inhibited the proliferation of several, but not all, B-ALL cell lines studied. Finally, microarray analysis was used to identify several Wnt3A target genes involved in a diverse range of cellular activities, which are potential mediators of the Wnt3A-restrained proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2006.06442.xDOI Listing
February 2007

Wnt expression and canonical Wnt signaling in human bone marrow B lymphopoiesis.

BMC Immunol 2006 Jun 29;7:13. Epub 2006 Jun 29.

Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Rikshospitalet-Radiumhospitalet Medical Center, Medical Faculty, University of Oslo, Norway.

Background: The early B lymphopoiesis in mammals is regulated through close interactions with stromal cells and components of the intracellular matrix in the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Although B lymphopoiesis has been studied for decades, the factors that are implicated in this process, both autocrine and paracrine, are inadequately explored. Wnt signaling is known to be involved in embryonic development and growth regulation of tissues and cancer. Wnt molecules are produced in the BM, and we here ask whether canonical Wnt signaling has a role in regulating human BM B lymphopoiesis.

Results: Examination of the mRNA expression pattern of Wnt ligands, Fzd receptors and Wnt antagonists revealed that BM B progenitor cells and stromal cells express a set of ligands and receptors available for induction of Wnt signaling as well as antagonists for fine tuning of this signaling. Furthermore, different B progenitor maturation stages showed differential expression of Wnt receptors and co-receptors, beta-catenin, plakoglobin, LEF-1 and TCF-4 mRNAs, suggesting canonical Wnt signaling as a regulator of early B lymphopoiesis. Exogenous Wnt3A induced stabilization and nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin in primary lineage restricted B progenitor cells. Also, Wnt3A inhibited B lymphopoiesis of CD133+CD10- hematopoietic progenitor cells and CD10+ B progenitor cells in coculture assays using a supportive layer of stromal cells. This effect was blocked by the Wnt antagonists sFRP1 or Dkk1. Examination of early events in the coculture showed that Wnt3A inhibits cell division of B progenitor cells.

Conclusion: These results indicate that canonical Wnt signaling is involved in human BM B lymphopoiesis where it acts as a negative regulator of cell proliferation in a direct or stroma dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2172-7-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1543656PMC
June 2006

BMP-6 inhibits human bone marrow B lymphopoiesis--upregulation of Id1 and Id3.

Exp Hematol 2006 Jan;34(1):72-81

Department of Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Objective: In mammals, factors produced by bone marrow (BM) stromal cells are instrumental in orchestrating the developmental process of B lymphocytes. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are multifunctional cytokines previously found to regulate hematopoietic stem cells. In the present study, we have explored the role of BMP-6 in human B progenitor cells.

Materials And Methods: In vitro B lymphopoiesis of CD10(+) B progenitor cells from human BM was evaluated in the presence or absence of BMP-6 in short- or long-term coculture on MS-5 stromal cells, by tracking CFSE-labeled CD10(+) B progenitor cells or by quantification of CD19(+) cells. DNA synthesis in the pre-B cell line Nalm-6 was measured by (3)H-thymidine incorporation. BMP-6-induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 was determined by Western blot analysis, whereas elevation of Id1-Id4 mRNA levels and basal BMP-6 mRNA levels were measured by real-time and conventional RT-PCR, respectively.

Results: By in vitro coculture of CD10(+) B progenitor cells or monoculture of Nalm-6 cells, we found that BMP-6 inhibited B lymphopoiesis by impeding cell proliferation. Furthermore, in CD10(+) B progenitors as well as in Nalm-6 cells, BMP-6 rapidly induced phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8, followed by an upregulation of Id1 and Id3 mRNA levels. Finally, we demonstrated that human bone marrow stromal cells express BMP-6 mRNA whereas B progenitor cells did not.

Conclusions: We suggest that BMP-6, produced by the BM, may participate to fine-tune the balance between proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation in human B progenitor cells during BM B lymphopoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2005.09.010DOI Listing
January 2006

CD10+ stromal cells form B-lymphocyte maturation niches in the human bone marrow.

J Pathol 2005 Feb;205(3):311-7

Department of Pathology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

In adult mammals, early B-lymphopoiesis takes place in the bone marrow in close association with stromal cells. Both the phenotype of the stromal cells and the molecules involved in this essential interaction are as yet inadequately described. In this study, all benign, differentiating B-cells (Pax-5+ lymphoid cells) are shown, by using two-colour immunohistochemistry on biopsies from human bone marrow, to be in close contact with scant dendritic CD10+ stromal cells until they leave via the sinusoids. This CD10+ stromal cell population does not fully overlap with the VCAM-1+ stromal cell population. Furthermore, using a set of B-cell differentiation markers (TdT, Pax-5, and CD20), B-cell development is shown to be spatially oriented, with maturation progressing towards bone marrow sinusoids. In conclusion, CD10+ stromal cells form distinct B-lymphocyte maturation niches in the human bone marrow.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.1705DOI Listing
February 2005

Butyrate response factor 1 is regulated by parathyroid hormone and bone morphogenetic protein-2 in osteoblastic cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004 Nov;324(1):218-23

Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) exerts potent and diverse effects in bone and cartilage through activation of type 1 PTH receptors (PTH1R) capable of coupling to protein kinase A (PKA) and PKC. We have used macroarrays to identify zinc finger protein butyrate response factor-1 (BRF1) as a novel PTH regulated gene in clonal and normal osteoblasts of human and rodent origin. We further demonstrate that in human osteoblast-like OHS cells, biologically active hPTH(1-84) and hPTH(1-34) stimulate BRF1 mRNA expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner, while the amino-terminally truncated hPTH(3-84) which does not activate PTH1R has no effect. Moreover, using specific stimulators or inhibitors of PKA and PKC activity, the PTH-elicited BRF1 mRNA expression is mediated through the PKA signaling pathway. In mouse calvarial osteoblasts, BRF1 mRNA levels are upregulated by PTH(1-84) and reduced in response to bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). Hence, our data showing that BRF1 is expressed in osteoblastic cells and regulated by PTH and BMP-2, suggest an important role for BRF1 in osteoblasts within the molecular network of PTH-dependent bone remodeling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.09.030DOI Listing
November 2004

Molecular heterogeneity in human osteosarcoma demonstrated by enriched mRNAs isolated by directional tag PCR subtraction cloning.

Anticancer Res 2003 May-Jun;23(3B):2201-16

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Norwegian Radium Hospital, 0310 N-Oslo, Norway.

Directional tag PCR subtractive hybridization was applied to construct a cDNA library generated from three different human osteosarcoma (OS) target cell lines (OHS, SaOS-2 and KPDXM) from which normal osteoblast (NO) sequences were subtracted. After two consecutive subtractive steps more than 98% of the common mRNAs species were depleted, leading to effective enrichment of the remaining target sequences. After differential screening of 960 clones, 81 candidates were further studied by Northern blot analysis and 73 represented separate mRNA species. Fifty-three of these showed enriched mRNA levels, of which 36 represented known and 17 not previously published cDNAs or EST sequences. The mRNAs showed a 1.4- to 504-fold enrichment compared to the mRNA levels in NO cells. The known mRNAs are: Ribosomal protein S11, KSP-37, Tethering factor SEC34, FXYD6, Alpha enolase, G-s-alpha, GPR85, DAF, RPL35A, GIF, TAPA-1, ANAPC11, DCI, hsp27, MRPS7 homolog, eIF p110 subunit, DPH2L, HMG-14, FB1 protein, chondroitin-6-sulphonase, calgizzarin, RNA polymerase II subunit, RPL13A, DHS, gp96, HHP2, acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P2, ANT-2, ARF1, AFG3L2, SKD3, phosphoglucoisomerase, GST pi, CKI gamma 2, DNA polymerase delta small subunit and TRAP delta. Sections of human osteosarcoma biopsies and a xenograft were studied by in situ analysis. Seven cDNAs highly expressed in Northern blot analysis were tested. Their in situ expression differed between the xenograft and human sections as did that of collagen I. In the xenograft made from one of the target cell lines (OHS), a fair to strong representation of 3 cloned mRNAs was observed while collagen I mRNA was not detectable. We conclude that the molecular heterogeneity of these tumors is considerable. These results ought to have implications for future work to describe phenotypic subtypes with the aim of improving the diagnosis of human osteosarcomas.
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August 2003

The human solute carrier SLC41A1 belongs to a novel eukaryotic subfamily with homology to prokaryotic MgtE Mg2+ transporters.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2003 Jul;306(3):718-24

Department of Immunology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, 0310, Oslo, Norway.

We report here the first identification and structural characterization of a eukaryotic protein with homology to the bacterial MgtE family of potential Mg(2+) transporters. This human protein, denoted solute carrier family 41 member 1 (SLC41A1), consists of 513 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 56kDa. Computer analysis of the protein structure reveals that the protein consists of 10 putative transmembrane domains and includes two distinct domains highly homologous to the integral membrane part of the bacterial MgtE protein family. The gene encoding SLC41A1 is found on chromosome 1 (1q31-32) and the protein coding sequence is found on 10 exons. A 5-kb long transcript is identified in various human tissues with highest expression levels in heart and testis. We have also identified 10 SLC41A1 homologs in Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, and Caenorhabditis elegans, and propose that these hypothetical proteins belong to a novel eukaryotic gene family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-291x(03)01030-1DOI Listing
July 2003

Characterization of the novel human transmembrane protein 9 (TMEM9) that localizes to lysosomes and late endosomes.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2002 Oct;297(4):912-7

Department of Immunology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, 0310 Oslo, Norway.

We have identified and characterized the novel human transmembrane protein 9 (TMEM9). TMEM9 encodes a 183 amino-acid protein that contains an N-terminal signal peptide, a single transmembrane region, three potential N-glycosylation sites, and three conserved cys-rich domains in the N-terminus, but no hitherto known functional domains. The protein is highly conserved between species from Caenorhabditis elegans to man and belongs to a novel family of transmembrane proteins. The TMEM9 gene consists of at least 6 exons and is localized to chromosome 1q41. TMEM9 mRNA is expressed in a wide range of tissues and cells. COS-1 cells transfected with a TMEM9 expression plasmid gave three bands of about 28, 31, and 33kDa representing glycosylated forms of TMEM9 with a protein backbone of about 26kDa. In COS-1 cells transfected with a TMEM9-GFP expression construct,TMEM9-GFP is co-expressed with LAMP1 on late endosomes and lysosomes as well as on ER. Thus, TMEM9 is a phylogenetically conserved, widely expressed transmembrane protein with a potential, but unknown function in intracellular transport.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0006-291x(02)02228-3DOI Listing
October 2002