Publications by authors named "Edith J M Feskens"

260 Publications

Short and Long-Term Innovations on Dietary Behavior Assessment and Coaching: Present Efforts and Vision of the Pride and Prejudice Consortium.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 07 25;18(15). Epub 2021 Jul 25.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University & Research, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Overweight, obesity and cardiometabolic diseases are major global health concerns. Lifestyle factors, including diet, have been acknowledged to play a key role in the solution of these health risks. However, as shown by numerous studies, and in clinical practice, it is extremely challenging to quantify dietary behaviors as well as influencing them via dietary interventions. As shown by the limited success of 'one-size-fits-all' nutritional campaigns catered to an entire population or subpopulation, the need for more personalized coaching approaches is evident. New technology-based innovations provide opportunities to further improve the accuracy of dietary assessment and develop approaches to coach individuals towards healthier dietary behaviors. Pride & Prejudice (P&P) is a unique multi-disciplinary consortium consisting of researchers in life, nutrition, ICT, design, behavioral and social sciences from all four Dutch Universities of Technology. P&P focuses on the development and integration of innovative technological techniques such as artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning, conversational agents, behavior change theory and personalized coaching to improve current practices and establish lasting dietary behavior change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18157877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8345591PMC
July 2021

Quality of life of children and adolescents with clinical obesity, perspectives of children and parents.

Obes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jul 28. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Gelderse Vallei, P.O. Box 9025, Ede, 6710 HN, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background/objectives: Childhood obesity can have important psychological impacts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of children and adolescents with overweight and obesity. The participants were referred to an outpatient hospital-based obesity treatment. Additionally, we investigated the differences between parent- and self-reported HRQoL.

Subjects/methods: Children and adolescents aged 3-18 years with overweight or obesity, referred by their general practitioner or youth health care physician to the pediatric outpatient clinic of Hospital Gelderse Vallei (Ede, the Netherlands) for multidisciplinary obesity treatment, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study (n = 119).

Interventions/methods: Parent-proxy reported HRQoL was assessed using the Child Health Questionnaire Parental Form 50 (CHQ-PF50, n = 119) and the Infant Toddler Quality of Life Questionnaire 97 (ITQOL-97). Adolescents completed CHQ Child Form 87 (CHQ-CF87, n = 45) and Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids, n = 38) to assess self-reported HRQoL.

Results: The mean age of the children was 9.6 years (SD 4.3). Both parent-proxy reports and child self-reports showed lower HRQoL in children with a higher degree of obesity, especially in the physical domains of HRQoL (p < 0.05). Child self-reported scores were significantly lower than parent-proxy scores on the subscales 'bodily pain/discomfort' and 'general health perceptions', and significantly higher on 'behavior' and 'family cohesion' (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Childhood obesity has a negative effect on HRQoL, especially on the physical aspects. The discordance between parent and child reports underscores the importance of using a combination of parent-proxy and child self-reports to assess HRQoL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2021.07.001DOI Listing
July 2021

The PERSonalized Glucose Optimization Through Nutritional Intervention (PERSON) Study: Rationale, Design and Preliminary Screening Results.

Front Nutr 2021 30;8:694568. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, Netherlands.

It is well-established that the etiology of type 2 diabetes differs between individuals. Insulin resistance (IR) may develop in different tissues, but the severity of IR may differ in key metabolic organs such as the liver and skeletal muscle. Recent evidence suggests that these distinct tissue-specific IR phenotypes may also respond differentially to dietary macronutrient composition with respect to improvements in glucose metabolism. The main objective of the PERSON study is to investigate the effects of an optimal vs. suboptimal dietary macronutrient intervention according to tissue-specific IR phenotype on glucose metabolism and other health outcomes. In total, 240 overweight/obese (BMI 25 - 40 kg/m) men and women (age 40 - 75 years) with either skeletal muscle insulin resistance (MIR) or liver insulin resistance (LIR) will participate in a two-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel, 12-week dietary intervention study. At screening, participants undergo a 7-point oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to determine the hepatic insulin resistance index (HIRI) and muscle insulin sensitivity index (MISI), classifying each participant as either "No MIR/LIR," "MIR," "LIR," or "combined MIR/LIR." Individuals with MIR or LIR are randomized to follow one of two isocaloric diets varying in macronutrient content and quality, that is hypothesized to be either an optimal or suboptimal diet, depending on their tissue-specific IR phenotype (MIR/LIR). Extensive measurements in a controlled laboratory setting as well as phenotyping in daily life are performed before and after the intervention. The primary study outcome is the difference in change in disposition index, which is the product of insulin sensitivity and first-phase insulin secretion, between participants who received their hypothesized optimal or suboptimal diet. The PERSON study is one of the first randomized clinical trials in the field of precision nutrition to test effects of a more personalized dietary intervention based on IR phenotype. The results of the PERSON study will contribute knowledge on the effectiveness of targeted nutritional strategies to the emerging field of precision nutrition, and improve our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of whole body and tissue-specific IR. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03708419, clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03708419.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.694568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8278004PMC
June 2021

Evaluating the Robustness of Biomarkers of Dairy Food Intake in a Free-Living Population Using Single- and Multi-Marker Approaches.

Metabolites 2021 Jun 17;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Agroscope, Federal Office for Agriculture (FOAG), Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research (EAER), Schwarzenburgstrasse 161, CH-3003 Bern, Switzerland.

Studies examining associations between self-reported dairy intake and health are inconclusive, but biomarkers hold promise for elucidating such relationships by offering objective measures of dietary intake. Previous human intervention studies identified several biomarkers for dairy foods in blood and urine using non-targeted metabolomics. We evaluated the robustness of these biomarkers in a free-living cohort in the Netherlands using both single- and multi-marker approaches. Plasma and urine from 246 participants (54 ± 13 years) who completed a food frequency questionnaire were analyzed using liquid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The targeted metabolite panel included 37 previously-identified candidate biomarkers of milk, cheese, and/or yoghurt consumption. Associations between biomarkers and energy-adjusted dairy food intakes were assessed by a 'single-marker' generalized linear model, and stepwise regression was used to select the best 'multi-marker' panel. Multi-marker models that also accounted for common covariates better captured the subtle differences for milk (urinary galactose, galactitol; sex, body mass index, age) and cheese (plasma pentadecanoic acid, isoleucine, glutamic acid) over single-marker models. No significant associations were observed for yogurt. Further examination of other facets of validity of these biomarkers may improve estimates of dairy food intake in conjunction with self-reported methods, and help reach a clearer consensus on their health impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11060395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235731PMC
June 2021

Midwives' Experiences with and Perspectives on Online (Nutritional) Counselling and mHealth Applications for Pregnant Women; an Explorative Qualitative Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 06 23;18(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Department Agrotechnology and Food Sciences, Wageningen University and Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Prenatal nutrition is a key predictor of early-life development. However, despite mass campaigns to stimulate healthy nutrition during pregnancy, the diet of Dutch pregnant women is often suboptimal. Innovative technologies offer an opportunity to develop tailored tools, which resulted in the release of various apps on healthy nutrition during pregnancy. As midwives act as primary contact for Dutch pregnant women, the goal was to explore the experiences and perspectives of midwives on (1) nutritional counselling during pregnancy, and (2) nutritional mHealth apps to support midwifery care. Analyses of eleven in-depth interviews indicated that nutritional counselling involved the referral to websites, a brochure, and an app developed by the Dutch Nutrition Centre. Midwives were aware of the existence of other nutritional mHealth apps but felt uncertain about their trustworthiness. Nevertheless, midwives were open towards the implementation of new tools providing that these are trustworthy, accessible, user-friendly, personalised, scientifically sound, and contain easy-digestible information. Midwives stressed the need for guidelines for professionals on the implementation of new tools. Involving midwives early-on in the development of future nutritional mHealth apps may facilitate better alignment with the needs and preferences of end-users and professionals, and thus increase the likelihood of successful implementation in midwifery practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267613PMC
June 2021

Combined Urinary Biomarkers to Assess Coffee Intake Using Untargeted Metabolomics: Discovery in Three Pilot Human Intervention Studies and Validation in Cross-Sectional Studies.

J Agric Food Chem 2021 Jun 18;69(25):7230-7242. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg 1958, Denmark.

Coffee is a widely consumed beverage worldwide and has a high content of chlorogenic acids, polyphenols, methylxanthines, and volatile flavor compounds. Scientific evidence to support the beneficial health effects of coffee is limited, and validated urinary biomarkers of coffee intake are therefore needed. We observed 23 common putative biomarkers of coffee intake in three separate parallel intervention studies by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and multivariate analyses. Baseline samples from the NU-AGE study were used to confirm and validate 16 of these candidate biomarkers, including their robustness, time response, and dose response. These validated candidate biomarkers are -methylpyridinium cation, 1-methyl-1-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde, 1-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehyde sulfate, 3-piperidinemethanol, furfurylidene-furfurylamine, 2-furoylglycine, -substituted-5-(aminoethyl) furan-2-carbaldehyde derivative, 3',4'-dihydroxyacetophenone sulfate, caffeine, dihydroxystyrene glucuronide, ferulic acid sulfate, 4-ethylcatechol glucuronide, 3-feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dihydroxystyrene sulfate, one unknown glucuronide, and one unknown sulfate. Combinations of candidate biomarkers gave a better prediction of coffee consumption than individual biomarkers. The robustness of the combined biomarkers requires additional validation in cohort studies covering other populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.1c01155DOI Listing
June 2021

Identification of leaky gut-related markers as indicators of metabolic health in Dutch adults: The Nutrition Questionnaires plus (NQplus) study.

PLoS One 2021 4;16(6):e0252936. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Wageningen Food and Biobased Research, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Background And Aim: Chronic inflammation is a primary risk factor for chronic metabolic disease and may be triggered by a "leaky gut." Several biomarkers have been recognized to indicate intestinal permeability (i.e., leaky gut) and bacterial translocation. Nonetheless, which of these biomarkers exhibit the highest correlation with metabolic health parameters remains unclear. Hence, this study aimed to explore the correlation between leaky gut-related markers and metabolic health.

Methods: Based on waist circumference, plasma fasting glucose, plasma gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), and plasma LDL cholesterol, two groups of 40 subjects with the most extreme metabolic health profiles were selected from the NQplus cohort study (n = 2048), which was previously conducted by the Wageningen University's Division of Human Nutrition. Eight potential leaky gut-related markers were selected from the literature and measured in serum or EDTA plasma samples of these selected individuals. These samples were also obtained from the NQplus cohort study.

Results: From the leaky gut markers, levels of zonulin, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, soluble CD14, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, and peptidoglycan were significantly higher in individuals with unhealthy metabolic profiles (p<0.05). No differences in EndoCAb IgM, EndoCAb IgA, and EndoCAb IgG were observed between healthy and unhealthy individuals. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that zonulin was substantially associated with metabolic health parameters such as BMI, blood glucose, triglyceride, GGT, and C-reactive protein levels. C-reactive protein, an inflammation marker, showed the most pronounced association with zonulin.

Conclusions: Biomarkers that link a leaky gut and subsequent bacterial translocation to metabolic health were identified in this study. Especially zonulin may aid in monitoring a leaky gut and detecting individuals at risk for developing chronic metabolic diseases.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0252936PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8177645PMC
June 2021

A systematic review to identify biomarkers of intake for fermented food products.

Genes Nutr 2021 Apr 21;16(1). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Science, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Background: Fermented foods are ubiquitous in human diets and often lauded for their sensory, nutritious, and health-promoting qualities. However, precise associations between the intake of fermented foods and health have not been well-established. This is in part due to the limitations of current dietary assessment tools that rely on subjective reporting, making them prone to memory-related errors and reporting bias. The identification of food intake biomarkers (FIBs) bypasses this challenge by providing an objective measure of intake. Despite numerous studies reporting on FIBs for various types of fermented foods and drinks, unique biomarkers associated with the fermentation process ("fermentation-dependent" biomarkers) have not been well documented. We therefore conducted a comprehensive, systematic review of the literature to identify biomarkers of fermented foods commonly consumed in diets across the world.

Results: After title, abstract, and full-text screening, extraction of data from 301 articles resulted in an extensive list of compounds that were detected in human biofluids following the consumption of various fermented foods, with the majority of articles focusing on coffee (69), wine (69 articles), cocoa (62), beer (34), and bread (29). The identified compounds from all included papers were consolidated and sorted into FIBs proposed for a specific food, for a food group, or for the fermentation process. Alongside food-specific markers (e.g., trigonelline for coffee), and food-group markers (e.g., pentadecanoic acid for dairy intake), several fermentation-dependent markers were revealed. These comprised compounds related to the fermentation process of a particular food, such as mannitol (wine), 2-ethylmalate (beer), methionine (sourdough bread, cheese), theabrownins (tea), and gallic acid (tea, wine), while others were indicative of more general fermentation processes (e.g., ethanol from alcoholic fermentation, 3-phenyllactic acid from lactic fermentation).

Conclusions: Fermented foods comprise a heterogeneous group of foods. While many of the candidate FIBs identified were found to be non-specific, greater specificity may be observed when considering a combination of compounds identified for individual fermented foods, food groups, and from fermentation processes. Future studies that focus on how fermentation impacts the composition and nutritional quality of food substrates could help to identify novel biomarkers of fermented food intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12263-021-00686-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058972PMC
April 2021

Iterative Development of an Innovative Smartphone-Based Dietary Assessment Tool: Traqq.

J Vis Exp 2021 03 19(169). Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University and Research.

To collect dietary intake data in a fast and reliable manner, a flexible and innovative smartphone application (app) called Traqq was developed (iOS/Android). This app can be used as a food record and 24-h recall (or shorter recall periods). Different sampling schemes can be created on either prespecified or random days/times within a predetermined period for both methods, with push notifications to urge the participants to register their food intake. In case of non-response, notifications are automatically rescheduled to ensure complete data collection. For use as a food record, respondents can access the app and log their food intake throughout the day. Food records close automatically at the end of the day; recalls close after submission of the consumed items. The recall as well as the food record module provide access to an extensive food list based on the Dutch food composition database (FCDB), which can be accustomed to fit different research purposes. When selecting a food item, respondents are simultaneously prompted to insert portion size, i.e., in household measures (e.g., cups, spoons, glasses), standard portion sizes (e.g., small, medium, large), or weight in grams, and eating occasion/time of consumption. Portion size options can be adjusted, e.g., only entry in grams in case of a weighed food record or time of consumption instead of eating occasion). The app also includes a My Dishes function, which allows the respondent to create their own recipes or product combinations (e.g., a daily breakfast) and only report the total quantity consumed. Subsequently, the app accounts for yield and retention factors. The data are stored on a secure server. If desired, additional questions, i.e., in general or those related to specific food items or eating occasions can be incorporated. This paper describes the development of the system (app and backend), including expert evaluations and usability testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/62032DOI Listing
March 2021

The accuracy of portion size estimation using food images and textual descriptions of portion sizes: an evaluation study.

J Hum Nutr Diet 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

Background: Inaccurate self-report of portion sizes is a major cause of measurement error in dietary assessment. To reduce this error, different portion size estimation aids (PSEAs) have been developed, including food images (image based, IB-PSE) and textual descriptions of portion sizes (text-based, TB-PSE). We assessed the accuracy of portion size estimation by IB-PSE and TB-PSE.

Methods: True intake of one lunch was ascertained in forty participants. Self-reported portion sizes were assessed after 2 and 24 hours by means of TB-PSE and IB-PSE, in random order. Wilcoxon's tests were used to compare mean true intakes to reported intakes. Moreover, proportions of reported portion sizes within 10% and 25% of true intake were assessed. An adapted Bland-Altman approach was used to assess agreement between true and reported portion sizes. Analyses were conducted for all foods and drinks combined and for predetermined food types.

Results: No significant differences were observed between reported portion sizes at 2 and 24 hours after lunch. Combining median relative errors of all foods items resulted in an overall 0% error rate for TB-PSE and 6% error rate for IB-PSE. Comparing reported portion sizes within 10% (31% vs. 13%) and 25% (50% vs. 35%) of the true intake showed a better performance for TB-PSE compared to IP-PSE, respectively. Bland-Altman plots indicated a higher agreement between reported and true intake for TB-PSE compared to IB-PSE.

Conclusions: Although the use of TB-PSE still results in measurement error, our results suggest a more accurate dietary intake assessment with TB-PSE than IB-PSE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jhn.12878DOI Listing
March 2021

Genetic architectures of proximal and distal colorectal cancer are partly distinct.

Gut 2021 Jul 25;70(7):1325-1334. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Catalan Institute of Oncology - IDIBELL, L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of colorectal cancer (CRC) is critical for improving precision prevention, including individualized screening recommendations and the discovery of novel drug targets and repurposable drug candidates for chemoprevention. Known differences in molecular characteristics and environmental risk factors among tumors arising in different locations of the colorectum suggest partly distinct mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The extent to which the contribution of inherited genetic risk factors for CRC differs by anatomical subsite of the primary tumor has not been examined.

Design: To identify new anatomical subsite-specific risk loci, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses including data of 48 214 CRC cases and 64 159 controls of European ancestry. We characterised effect heterogeneity at CRC risk loci using multinomial modelling.

Results: We identified 13 loci that reached genome-wide significance (p<5×10) and that were not reported by previous GWASs for overall CRC risk. Multiple lines of evidence support candidate genes at several of these loci. We detected substantial heterogeneity between anatomical subsites. Just over half (61) of 109 known and new risk variants showed no evidence for heterogeneity. In contrast, 22 variants showed association with distal CRC (including rectal cancer), but no evidence for association or an attenuated association with proximal CRC. For two loci, there was strong evidence for effects confined to proximal colon cancer.

Conclusion: Genetic architectures of proximal and distal CRC are partly distinct. Studies of risk factors and mechanisms of carcinogenesis, and precision prevention strategies should take into consideration the anatomical subsite of the tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-321534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223655PMC
July 2021

The association between eating frequency with alertness and gastrointestinal complaints in nurses during the night shift.

J Sleep Res 2021 Oct 23;30(5):e13306. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University and Research, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

We investigated the association of the number of eating occasions and energy intake with alertness and gastrointestinal (GI) complaints in nurses during their night shift. During this observational study we collected data on anthropometrics and demographics, eating frequency, energy intake, alertness and GI complaints in 118 healthy female nurses, aged 20 to 61 years. Nurses completed an alertness test (psychomotor vigilance task) during the night shift and a 24-hr dietary recall and a questionnaire about GI complaints after the night shift. This was repeated three times, always on the first night shift in a night shift series. The number of eating occasions during the night shift was negatively associated with reaction times (β = -4.81 ms, 95% confidence interval [CI] -9.14 to -0.48; p = .030), and number of lapses (β = -0.04, 95% CI -0.07 to -0.00; p = .030). However, the number of eating occasions was not associated with subjective alertness and GI complaints. Energy intake during the night shift was not associated with objective or subjective alertness or with GI complaints. These associations were independent of caffeine intake, age, body mass index and dependence among the repeated measurements. The present study showed that eating frequency was positively associated with objectively measured alertness levels in female nurses during the night shift. The results need to be confirmed in an intervention study, where also timing, size and composition of the meal will be taken into account. In practice, optimising nutritional guidelines on these aspects could lead to faster responses, less (medical) errors, and a better wellbeing of night shift workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jsr.13306DOI Listing
October 2021

Vitamin B-6 intake is related to physical performance in European older adults: results of the New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe (NU-AGE) study.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 04;113(4):781-789

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Background: Maintenance of high physical performance during aging might be supported by an adequate dietary intake of niacin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and folate because these B vitamins are involved in multiple processes related to muscle functioning. However, not much is known about the association between dietary intake of these B vitamins and physical performance.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to investigate the association between dietary intake of niacin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, and folate and physical performance in older adults and to explore mediation by niacin status and homocysteine concentrations.

Methods: We used baseline data from the New Dietary Strategies Addressing the Specific Needs of the Elderly Population for Healthy Aging in Europe (NU-AGE) trial, which included n = 1249 healthy older adults (aged 65-79 y) with complete data on dietary intake measured with 7-d food records and questionnaires on vitamin supplement use and physical performance measured with the short physical performance battery and handgrip dynamometry. Associations were assessed by adjusted linear mixed models.

Results: Intake of vitamin B-6 was related to lower chair rise test time [β: -0.033 ± 0.016 s (log); P = 0.043]. Vitamin B-6 intake was also significantly associated with handgrip strength, but for this association, a significant interaction effect between vitamin B-6 intake and physical activity level was found. In participants with the lowest level of physical activity, higher intake of vitamin B-6 tended to be associated with greater handgrip strength (β: 1.5 ± 0.8 kg; P = 0.051), whereas in participants in the highest quartile of physical activity, higher intake was associated with lower handgrip strength (β: -1.4 ± 0.7 kg; P = 0.041). No evidence was found for an association between intake of niacin, vitamin B-12, or folate and physical performance or for mediation by niacin status or homocysteine concentrations.

Conclusions: Vitamin B-6 intake was associated with better chair rise test time in a population of European healthy older adults and also with greater handgrip strength in participants with low physical activity only. Homocysteine concentrations did not mediate these associations. The NU-AGE trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01754012.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024000PMC
April 2021

Dietary Intake Pattern is Associated with Occurrence of Flares in IBD Patients.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Aug;15(8):1305-1315

Department of Internal Medicine, Division Gastroenterology-Hepatology, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Diet is associated with the onset of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Up to half of IBD patients believe that diet contributes to flares. However, studies on this topic are sparse and merely focus on specific nutrients, food items or food groups. We aimed to analyse the association between dietary patterns and flare occurrence in two geographically distinct Dutch cohorts.

Methods: In this longitudinal study, 724 IBD patients [Northern cohort: n = 486, Southern cohort: n = 238] were included and followed for 2 years. Habitual dietary intake was obtained via semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires at baseline. Principal component analysis [PCA] was conducted on 22 food groups to identify dietary patterns. Flare occurrence was analysed in 427 patients in remission at baseline, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards.

Results: Compared to the Southern cohort, patients in the Northern cohort were younger at diagnosis, comprised more females, and had lower overall energy intakes [all p < 0.05]. PCA revealed three dietary patterns explaining 28.8% of the total variance. The most pronounced pattern [explaining 11.6%] was characterized by intake of grain products, oils, potatoes, processed meat, red meat, condiments and sauces, and sugar, cakes and confectionery. Of the 427 patients, 106 [24.8%] developed an exacerbation during follow-up. The above dietary pattern was associated with flare occurrence (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.18, p = 0.029), as was female sex [HR: 1.63, 95% CI 1.04-2.55, p = 0.032].

Conclusions: A dietary pattern, which can be seen as a 'traditional [Dutch]' or "Western' pattern was associated with flare occurrence. Confirmation in prospective studies is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab008DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of fructose restriction on liver steatosis (FRUITLESS); a double-blind randomized controlled trial.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 02;113(2):391-400

Division of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: There is an ongoing debate on whether fructose plays a role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fructose restriction on intrahepatic lipid (IHL) content in a double-blind randomized controlled trial using an isocaloric comparator.

Methods: Between March 2017 and October 2019, 44 adult overweight individuals with a fatty liver index ≥ 60 consumed a 6-wk fructose-restricted diet (<7.5 g/meal and <10 g/d) and were randomly assigned to supplementation with sachets of glucose (= intervention group) or fructose (= control group) 3 times daily. Participants and assessors were blinded to the allocation. IHL content, assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, was the primary outcome and glucose tolerance and serum lipids were the secondary outcomes. All measurements were conducted in Maastricht University Medical Center.

Results: Thirty-seven participants completed the study protocol. After 6 wk of fructose restriction, dietary fructose intake and urinary fructose excretion were significantly lower in the intervention group (difference: -57.0 g/d; 95% CI: -77.9, -39.5 g/d; and -38.8 μmol/d; 95% CI: -91.2, -10.7 μmol/d, respectively). Although IHL content decreased in both the intervention and control groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively), the change in IHL content was more pronounced in the intervention group (difference: -0.7% point, 95% CI: -2.0, -0.03% point). The changes in glucose tolerance and serum lipids were not significantly different between groups.

Conclusions: Six weeks of fructose restriction per se led to a small, but statistically significant, decrease in IHL content in comparison with an isocaloric control group.This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT03067428.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqaa332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851818PMC
February 2021

Prevalence of fermented foods in the Dutch adult diet and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for estimating their intake in the NQplus cohort.

BMC Nutr 2020 Dec 3;6(1):69. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Department of Agrotechnology and Food Science, Wageningen University & Research, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Background: Humans have a long history of consuming fermented foods. However, their prevalence in human diets remains largely undetermined, and there is a lack of validated dietary assessment tools assessing the intake of different fermented products. This study aimed to identify fermented foods consumed in The Netherlands and determine the relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) compared to multiple 24-h recalls for estimating their intake.

Methods: The validation population consisted of 809 participants (53.1 ± 11.9 years) from a Dutch observational cohort (NQplus) who completed a FFQ and multiple 24-h recalls. Fermented foods from the FFQ and recalls were identified and aggregated into conventional food groups. Percent difference in mean intakes, quintile cross-classification, Spearman's correlations, and Bland-Altman analyses were used to evaluate the agreement between the two dietary assessment methods.

Results: Approximately 16-18% of foods consumed by this population were fermented, and a further 9-14% were dishes containing a fermented ingredient. Fermented foods with the highest consumption included coffee (~ 453 g/day;~ 0.5% of daily energy intake), yoghurts (~ 88 g/day;~ 2.2%), beer (~ 84 g/day;~ 1.7%), wholegrain bread (~ 81 g/day;~ 9.4%), wine (~ 65 g/day;~ 2.7%), and cheese (~ 32 g/day;~ 5.0%). Mean percent difference between the FFQ and recalls was small for fermented beverages (coffee), breads (brown, white, wholegrain, rye), and fermented dairy (cheeses) (0.3-2.8%), but large for buttermilk and quark (≥53%). All fermented food groups had > 50% of participants classified into the same or adjacent quintile of intake (58%-buttermilk to 89%-fermented beverages). Strong Spearman's correlations (crude/energy-adjusted r ≥ 0.50) were obtained for fermented beverages (coffee, beer, wine), cereals/grains (wholegrain bread), and dairy (yoghurts). For 'other bread', quark, and buttermilk, correlations were low (r < 0.20). Bland-Altman analyses revealed good agreement for fermented beverages (coffee, beer), breads (brown, wholegrain, rye, other), pastries, chocolate, and fermented dairy (cheeses) (mean difference: 0.1-9.3).

Conclusions: Fermented food groups with acceptable or good validity across all measures included commonly consumed foods in The Netherlands: fermented beverages (coffee), wholegrain and rye bread, and fermented dairy (cheeses). However, for less frequently consumed foods, such as quark and buttermilk, the levels of agreement were poor and estimates of intake should be interpreted with caution. This report provides the basis for developing a FFQ specific for fermented foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-020-00394-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712622PMC
December 2020

Factors influencing obesogenic behaviours of adolescent girls and women in low- and middle-income countries: A qualitative evidence synthesis.

Obes Rev 2021 04 6;22(4):e13163. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

This systematic review synthesized the qualitative evidence on factors influencing obesogenic behaviours in adolescent girls and women of reproductive age in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This qualitative evidence synthesis followed the framework synthesis approach to extract, analyse and synthesize data. Electronic searches were conducted in the Web of Science, SCOPUS, CABI Abstracts, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. Studies were eligible if they were conducted in LMICs, of qualitative nature, and reported obesogenic behaviours of female adolescents (10-19 years of age) or women of reproductive age (15-49 years of age). The review resulted in 71 included studies from 27 different countries. Thirty-two studies focused on dietary behaviours, 17 on physical activity and 22 on both behaviours. Gender norms and failures to recognize the importance of healthy behaviours across the life cycle were important factors. The abundance and promotion of affordable but unhealthy food, food safety concerns, taste preferences and social desirability of foods drive consumption of unhealthy foods. Busy lives and limited exercise spaces keep girls and women from being physically active. Obesogenic behaviours of adolescent girls and women of reproductive age are influenced by factors at individual, social, physical and environmental levels and require diverse solutions to address these factors in LMICs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7988604PMC
April 2021

Fighting Sarcopenia in Ageing European Adults: The Importance of the Amount and Source of Dietary Proteins.

Nutrients 2020 Nov 24;12(12). Epub 2020 Nov 24.

School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, 702 81 Örebro, Sweden.

While an adequate protein intake is important for the maintenance of muscle mass during ageing, the amount and source of protein necessary for optimal prevention of sarcopenia remains to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of the amount and source of dietary proteins on sarcopenia risk in a cohort of 65-79-year-old European adults within the frame of the NU-AGE study. A total of 986 participants were included in the analysis. Skeletal muscle index (SMI), assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and handgrip strength (HG) were employed to create a continuous sex-specific sarcopenia risk score (SRS). Total amount together with animal- and plant-derived sources of proteins were obtained from a 7-day food record. Differences in SRS were analysed across groups of total protein intake (<0.8 g/body weight (BW); 0.8-<1.0 g/BW; 1.0-<1.2 g/BW; and ≥1.2 g/BW). The association between SRS and the different sources of protein was assessed using isocaloric substitution models adjusted by demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. A significant linear dose-response relationship was observed, with a lower SRS linked to higher protein intakes. Based on the isocaloric substitution modelling, a reduced SRS was observed when increasing plant protein to the detriment of animal protein, while holding total protein intake constant. Further, this result remained significant after stratifying the analysis by adherence to different levels of protein intake. Our findings suggest that older adults may benefit from increasing protein intakes above current recommendations. Besides total amount, protein source should be considered when promoting health dietary habits in older adults for the prevention of sarcopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12123601DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760110PMC
November 2020

Identifying Novel Susceptibility Genes for Colorectal Cancer Risk From a Transcriptome-Wide Association Study of 125,478 Subjects.

Gastroenterology 2021 03 12;160(4):1164-1178.e6. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics and the Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Background And Aims: Susceptibility genes and the underlying mechanisms for the majority of risk loci identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remain largely unknown. We conducted a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify putative susceptibility genes.

Methods: Gene-expression prediction models were built using transcriptome and genetic data from the 284 normal transverse colon tissues of European descendants from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx), and model performance was evaluated using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (n = 355). We applied the gene-expression prediction models and GWAS data to evaluate associations of genetically predicted gene-expression with CRC risk in 58,131 CRC cases and 67,347 controls of European ancestry. Dual-luciferase reporter assays and knockdown experiments in CRC cells and tumor xenografts were conducted.

Results: We identified 25 genes associated with CRC risk at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of P < 9.1 × 10, including genes in 4 novel loci, PYGL (14q22.1), RPL28 (19q13.42), CAPN12 (19q13.2), MYH7B (20q11.22), and MAP1L3CA (20q11.22). In 9 known GWAS-identified loci, we uncovered 9 genes that have not been reported previously, whereas 4 genes remained statistically significant after adjusting for the lead risk variant of the locus. Through colocalization analysis in GWAS loci, we additionally identified 12 putative susceptibility genes that were supported by TWAS analysis at P < .01. We showed that risk allele of the lead risk variant rs1741640 affected the promoter activity of CABLES2. Knockdown experiments confirmed that CABLES2 plays a vital role in colorectal carcinogenesis.

Conclusions: Our study reveals new putative susceptibility genes and provides new insight into the biological mechanisms underlying CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.08.062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956223PMC
March 2021

Beneficial Role of Replacing Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in the Prevention of Sarcopenia: Findings from the NU-AGE Cohort.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 9;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 9.

School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, 702 81 Örebro, Sweden.

Dietary fat subtypes may play an important role in the regulation of muscle mass and function during ageing. The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of isocaloric macronutrient substitutions, including different fat subtypes, on sarcopenia risk in older men and women, while accounting for physical activity (PA) and metabolic risk. A total of 986 participants, aged 65-79 years, completed a 7-day food record and wore an accelerometer for a week. A continuous sex-specific sarcopenia risk score (SRS), including skeletal muscle mass assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and handgrip strength, was derived. The impact of the isocaloric replacement of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) by either mono- (MUFAs) or poly-unsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids on SRS was determined using regression analysis based on the whole sample and stratified by adherence to a recommended protein intake (1.1 g/BW). Isocaloric reduction of SFAs for the benefit of PUFAs was associated with a lower SRS in the whole population, and in those with a protein intake below 1.1 g/BW, after accounting for age, smoking habits, metabolic disturbances, and adherence to PA guidelines. The present study highlighted the potential of promoting healthy diets with optimised fat subtype distribution in the prevention of sarcopenia in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12103079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7600824PMC
October 2020

Malnutrition, Hypertension Risk, and Correlates: An Analysis of the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey Data for 15-19 Years Adolescent Boys and Girls.

Nutrients 2020 Sep 8;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Division of Human Nutrition and Health, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The sex differences in malnutrition and hypertension during adolescence is largely inconclusive. There is also a paucity of data on the sex-specific correlates of malnutrition and hypertension for adolescents. Hence, this study aimed to assess the association between malnutrition, pre-hypertension/hypertension (PHH) and sex among adolescents. The study also aimed to determine and contrast the factors associated with these risks in Ghana. We analysed data of non-pregnant adolescent girls ( = 857) and adolescent boys ( = 870) aged 15-19 years from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). We modelled the prevalence risk ratio (PRR) of malnutrition and PHH using Cox proportional hazard models. Compared to adolescent girls, boys were more than twice likely to be stunted (PRR = 2.58, 95% C.I (1.77, 3.76)) and underweight (PRR = 2.67, 95% C.I (1.41, 5.09)) but less likely to be overweight/obese (PRR = 0.85, 95% C.I (0.08, 0.29)). Boys were also about twice likely to have PHH (PRR = 1.96, 95% C.I (1.47, 2.59)) compared to their female peers. Girls were more at risk of the detrimental effects of poor education on stunting and PHH. Empowerment index while protective of stunting for girls (PRR = 0.82, 95% C.I (0.67, 0.99)) also increased their risk of overweight/obesity (PRR = 1.31, 95% C.I (1.02, 1.68)). A higher household wealth index (HWI) increased the risk of overweight/obesity for adolescent girls but was protective of stunting and PHH for adolescent boys. Improvement in household water, hygiene, and sanitation (WASH) reduced the risk of stunting by 15% for adolescent boys. Overall, our findings suggest a double-burden of malnutrition with an up-coming non-communicable disease burden for adolescents in Ghana. Our findings may also be highlighting the need to target adolescent boys alongside girls in nutrition and health intervention programmes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12092737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7551149PMC
September 2020

Causes of Variation in Food Preference in the Netherlands.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2020 08;23(4):195-203

Department of Biological Psychology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Our current society is characterized by an increased availability of industrially processed foods with high salt, fat and sugar content. How is it that some people prefer these unhealthy foods while others prefer more healthy foods? It is suggested that both genetic and environmental factors play a role. The aim of this study was to (1) identify food preference clusters in the largest twin-family study into food preference to date and (2) determine the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to individual differences in food preference in the Netherlands. Principal component analysis was performed to identify the preference clusters by using data on food liking/disliking from 16,541 adult multiples and their family members. To estimate the heritability of food preference, the data of 7833 twins were used in structural equation models. We identified seven food preference clusters (Meat, Fish, Fruits, Vegetables, Savory snacks, Sweet snacks and Spices) and one cluster with Drinks. Broad-sense heritability (additive [A] + dominant [D] genetic factors) for these clusters varied between .36 and .60. Dominant genetic effects were found for the clusters Fruit, Fish (males only) and Spices. Quantitative sex differences were found for Meat, Fish and Savory snacks and Drinks. To conclude, our study convincingly showed that genetic factors play a significant role in food preference. A next important step is to identify these genes because genetic vulnerability for food preference is expected to be linked to actual food consumption and different diet-related disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/thg.2020.66DOI Listing
August 2020

Dietary Interventions for Healthy Pregnant Women: A Systematic Review of Tools to Promote a Healthy Antenatal Dietary Intake.

Nutrients 2020 Jul 3;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Health and Society, Social Sciences Group, Wageningen University & Research, 6706 KN Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Maternal nutrition is essential for the development and lifelong health of the offspring. Antenatal care provides unique opportunities for nutrition communication, and health promotion tools (e.g., guidelines, instruments, packages, or resources) might help to overcome several concurrent barriers. We conducted a systematic literature review to map tools that are available for the promotion of a healthy dietary intake in healthy pregnant women in Western countries, and to identify what makes these tools feasible and effective for these women and their healthcare providers. Seventeen studies were included, evaluating tools with various delivery modes, content, and providers. Nine studies employed multiple, complementary delivery methods and almost all studies (n = 14) tailored the content to varying degrees, based on the individual characteristics and lifestyle behaviors of the participants. We found that the feasibility of a tool was dependent on practical issues, time investment, and providers' motivation, skills, and knowledge, while the effectiveness was related more to the type of provider and the content. Most effective interventions were provided by dietitians and nutritionists, and were highly tailored. Based on the results of this review, we believe that custom tools that are sensitive to inequalities are needed to support all women in obtaining or maintaining a healthy diet during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12071981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400659PMC
July 2020

Kidney and vascular function in adult patients with hereditary fructose intolerance.

Mol Genet Metab Rep 2020 Jun 11;23:100600. Epub 2020 May 11.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

: Previous studies have shown that patients with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) are characterized by a greater intrahepatic triglyceride content, despite a fructose-restricted diet. The present study aimed to examine the long-term consequences of HFI on other aldolase-B-expressing organs, i.e. the kidney and vascular endothelium. : Fifteen adult HFI patients were compared to healthy control individuals matched for age, sex and body mass index. Aortic stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and endothelial function by peripheral arterial tonometry, skin laser doppler flowmetry and the endothelial function biomarkers soluble -selectin [sE-selectin] and von Willebrand factor. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Urinary glucose and amino acid excretion and the ratio of tubular maximum reabsorption of phosphate to GFR (TmP/GFR) were determined as measures of proximal tubular function. : Median systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in HFI patients (127 versus 122 mmHg,  = .045). Pulse pressure and cf-PWV did not differ between the groups ( = .37 and  = .49, respectively). Of all endothelial function markers, only sE-selectin was significantly higher in HFI patients ( = .004). eGFR was significantly higher in HFI patients than healthy controls (119 versus 104 ml/min/1.73m,  = .001, respectively). All measurements of proximal tubular function did not differ significantly between the groups. : Adult HFI patients treated with a fructose-restricted diet are characterized by a higher sE-selectin level and slightly higher systolic blood pressure, which in time could contribute to a greater cardiovascular risk. The exact cause and, hence, clinical consequences of the higher eGFR in HFI patients, deserves further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2020.100600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225396PMC
June 2020

Exploring the Influence of Alcohol Industry Funding in Observational Studies on Moderate Alcohol Consumption and Health.

Adv Nutr 2020 09;11(5):1384-1391

The Dutch Beer Institute, Wageningen, the Netherlands.

Funding of research by industry in general can lead to sponsorship bias. The aim of the current study was to conduct an initial exploration of the impact of sponsorship bias in observational alcohol research by focusing on a broad spectrum of health outcomes. The purpose was to determine whether the outcome depended on funding source. We focused on moderate alcohol consumption and used meta-analyses that are the basis of several international alcohol guidelines. These meta-analyses included observational studies that investigated the association of alcohol consumption with 14 different health outcomes, including all-cause mortality, several cardiovascular diseases and cancers, dementia, and type 2 diabetes. Subgroup analyses and metaregressions were conducted to investigate the association between moderate alcohol consumption and the risk of different health outcomes, comparing findings of studies funded by the alcohol industry, ones not funded by the alcohol industry, and studies with an unknown funding source. A total of 386 observational studies were included. Twenty-one studies (5.4%) were funded by the alcohol industry, 309 studies (80.1%) were not funded by the alcohol industry, and for the remaining 56 studies (14.5%) the funding source was unknown. Subgroup analyses and metaregressions did not show an effect of funding source on the association between moderate alcohol intake and different health outcomes. In conclusion, only a small proportion of observational studies in meta-analyses, referred to by several international alcohol guidelines, are funded by the alcohol industry. Based on this selection of observational studies the association between moderate alcohol consumption and different health outcomes does not seem to be related to funding source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/advances/nmaa052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7490152PMC
September 2020

Dietary Fibre May Mitigate Sarcopenia Risk: Findings from the NU-AGE Cohort of Older European Adults.

Nutrients 2020 Apr 13;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 13.

School of Health Sciences, Örebro University, 702 81 Örebro, Sweden.

Sarcopenia is characterised by a progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and physical function as well as related metabolic disturbances. While fibre-rich diets can influence metabolic health outcomes, the impact on skeletal muscle mass and function is yet to be determined, and the moderating effects by physical activity (PA) need to be considered. The aim of the present study was to examine links between fibre intake, skeletal muscle mass and physical function in a cohort of older adults from the NU-AGE study. In 981 older adults (71 ± 4 years, 58% female), physical function was assessed using the short-physical performance battery test and handgrip strength. Skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was derived using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Dietary fibre intake (FI) was assessed by 7-day food record and PA was objectively determined by accelerometery. General linear models accounting for covariates including PA level, protein intake and metabolic syndrome (MetS) were used. Women above the median FI had significantly higher SMI compared to those below, which remained in fully adjusted models (24.7 ± 0.2% vs. 24.2 ± 0.1%, = 0.011, ηp = 0.012). In men, the same association was only evident in those without MetS (above median FI: 32.4 ± 0.3% vs. below median FI: 31.3 ± 0.3%, = 0.005, ηp = 0.035). There was no significant impact of FI on physical function outcomes. The findings from this study suggest a beneficial impact of FI on skeletal muscle mass in older adults. Importantly, this impact is independent of adherence to guidelines for protein intake and PA, which further strengthens the potential role of dietary fibre in preventing sarcopenia. Further experimental work is warranted in order to elucidate the mechanisms underpinning the action of dietary fibre on the regulation of muscle mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12041075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7230363PMC
April 2020

Lifestyle-Intervention-Induced Reduction of Abdominal Fat Is Reflected by a Decreased Circulating Glycerol Level and an Increased HDL Diameter.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2020 05 23;64(10):e1900818. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, 2333ZC, The Netherlands.

Scope: Abdominal obesity is one of the main modifiable risk factors of age-related cardiometabolic disease. Cardiometabolic disease risk and its associated high abdominal fat mass, cholesterol, and glucose concentrations can be reduced by a healthier lifestyle. Hence, the aim is to understand the relation between lifestyle-induced changes in body composition, and specifically abdominal fat, and accompanying changes in circulating metabolic biomarkers.

Methods And Results: Data from the Growing Old Together (GOTO) study was used, which is a single arm lifestyle intervention in which 164 older adults (mean age 63 years, BMI 23-35 kg/m ) changed their lifestyle during 13 weeks by 12.5% caloric restriction plus 12.5% increase in energy expenditure. It is shown here that levels of circulating metabolic biomarkers, even after adjustment for body mass index, specifically associate with abdominal fat mass. The applied lifestyle intervention mainly reduces abdominal fat mass (-2.6%, SD = 3.0) and this reduction, when adjusted for general weight loss, is highly associated with decreased circulating glycerol concentrations and increased HDL diameter.

Conclusion: The lifestyle-induced reduction of abdominal fat mass is particularly associated, independent of body mass index or general weight loss, with decreased circulating glycerol concentrations and increased HDL diameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201900818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7317364PMC
May 2020

A data-driven methodology reveals novel myofiber clusters in older human muscles.

FASEB J 2020 04 5;34(4):5525-5537. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Section of Molecular Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Skeletal muscles control posture, mobility and strength, and influence whole-body metabolism. Muscles are built of different types of myofibers, each having specific metabolic, molecular, and contractile properties. Fiber classification is, therefore, regarded the key for understanding muscle biology, (patho-) physiology. The expression of three myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, MyHC-1, MyHC-2A, and MyHC-2X, marks myofibers in humans. Typically, myofiber classification is performed by an eye-based histological analysis. This classical approach is insufficient to capture complex fiber classes, expressing more than one MyHC-isoform. We, therefore, developed a methodological procedure for high-throughput characterization of myofibers on the basis of multiple isoforms. The mean fluorescence intensity of the three most abundant MyHC isoforms was measured per myofiber in muscle biopsies of 56 healthy elderly adults, and myofiber classes were identified using computational biology tools. Unsupervised clustering revealed the existence of six distinct myofiber clusters. A comparison with the visual assessment of myofibers using the same images showed that some of these myofiber clusters could not be detected or were frequently misclassified. The presence of these six clusters was reinforced by RNA expressions levels of sarcomeric genes. In addition, one of the clusters, expressing all three MyHC isoforms, correlated with histological measures of muscle health. To conclude, this methodological procedure enables deep characterization of the complex muscle heterogeneity. This study opens opportunities to further investigate myofiber composition in comparative studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.201902350RDOI Listing
April 2020

Measurement and genetic architecture of lifetime depression in the Netherlands as assessed by LIDAS (Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report).

Psychol Med 2020 Feb 27:1-10. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Amsterdam Public Health and Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common mood disorder, with a heritability of around 34%. Molecular genetic studies made significant progress and identified genetic markers associated with the risk of MDD; however, progress is slowed down by substantial heterogeneity as MDD is assessed differently across international cohorts. Here, we used a standardized online approach to measure MDD in multiple cohorts in the Netherlands and evaluated whether this approach can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression.

Methods: Within the Biobank Netherlands Internet Collaboration (BIONIC) project, we collected MDD data in eight cohorts involving 31 936 participants, using the online Lifetime Depression Assessment Self-report (LIDAS), and estimated the prevalence of current and lifetime MDD in 22 623 unrelated individuals. In a large Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) twin-family dataset (n ≈ 18 000), we estimated the heritability of MDD, and the prediction of MDD in a subset (n = 4782) through Polygenic Risk Score (PRS).

Results: Estimates of current and lifetime MDD prevalence were 6.7% and 18.1%, respectively, in line with population estimates based on validated psychiatric interviews. In the NTR heritability estimates were 0.34/0.30 (s.e. = 0.02/0.02) for current/lifetime MDD, respectively, showing that the LIDAS gives similar heritability rates for MDD as reported in the literature. The PRS predicted risk of MDD (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15-1.32, R2 = 1.47%).

Conclusions: By assessing MDD status in the Netherlands using the LIDAS instrument, we were able to confirm previously reported MDD prevalence and heritability estimates, which suggests that this instrument can be used in epidemiological and genetic association studies of depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720000100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223240PMC
February 2020
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