Publications by authors named "Edison Alberto"

9 Publications

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Safety and immunogenicity of Vi-DT conjugate vaccine among 6-23-month-old children: Phase II, randomized, dose-scheduling, observer-blind Study.

EClinicalMedicine 2020 Oct 9;27:100540. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Typhoid causes significant mortality among young children in resource-limited settings. Conjugate typhoid vaccines could significantly reduce typhoid-related child deaths, but only one WHO-prequalified typhoid conjugate vaccine exists for young children. To address this gap, we investigated the safety, immunogenicity and dose-scheduling of Vi-DT typhoid conjugate vaccine among children aged 6-23 months.

Methods: In this single center, observer blind, phase II trial, participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive one or two doses of Vi-DT or comparator vaccine. Anti-Vi IgG titer and geometric mean titers (GMT) were determined at 0, 4, 24 and 28 weeks. Data were analyzed using per-protocol and immunogenicity (a subset of intention-to-treat analysis) sets. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03527355).

Findings: Between April and July 2018, 285 children were randomized; 114 received one or two doses of Vi-DT while 57 received comparator. 277 completed the study follow-up per protocol; 112 and 110 from single- and two-dose Vi-DT schedules, respectively and 55 from the placebo group were included in the per protocol analysis. Safety profile is satisfactory. Thirteen serious adverse events were reported during the 28-week follow-up, none of which were related to Vi-DT. The seroconversion rate four weeks after the first dose was 100% (95% CI 98·3-100) in Vi-DT recipients and 7·0% (95% CI 2·8-16·7) in comparator recipients (p<0·0001). Similarly, the seroconversion rate 4 weeks after the second dose was 98·2% (95% CI 93· 6-99·5) and 21·8% (95% CI 13·0-34·4) among Vi-DT and comparator groups, respectively (p<0·0001). Anti-Vi IgG GMT was significantly higher in Vi-DT than in control group at all post-vaccination visits (p<0·0001).

Interpretation: Both single and two doses of Vi-DT vaccine are safe, well tolerated, and immunogenic for infants and toddlers in a moderately endemic setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599314PMC
October 2020

Immunogenicity and safety of concurrent or sequential administration of live, attenuated SA 14-14-2 Japanese encephalitis vaccine (CD-JEV) and measles-mumps-rubella vaccine in infants 9-12 months of age in the Philippines: A non-inferiority Phase 4 randomized clinical trial.

Vaccine X 2020 Dec 14;6:100074. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

PATH, PO Box 900922, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Introduction: Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the leading cause of viral encephalitis across temperate and tropical zones of Asia. The live attenuated SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine (CD-JEV) is one of three vaccines prequalified by the World Health Organization (WHO) to prevent JE. When incorporating a new vaccine into a country's Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), it is important to show that the new vaccine can be administered concurrently with other routine pediatric vaccines without impairing the immune responses or changing the safety profiles of the co-administered vaccines. This Phase 4 open-label study evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine co-administered with CD-JEV.

Methods: The study randomized 628 healthy Filipino children aged between 9 and 10 months to receive MMR and CD-JEV concurrently or separately. MMR immunogenicity was measured 56 days after MMR vaccination using a measles plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), anti-mumps immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and anti-rubella IgG ELISA, respectively. Neutralizing antibody against JE virus was measured 28 days after CD-JEV vaccination using PRNT. Safety was assessed through solicitation of immediate reactions, adverse events (AEs) within 14 days of vaccination, unsolicited AEs occurring within 28 days, and serious adverse events (SAEs) during participation in the study

Results/conclusions: During the study, no post-vaccinal encephalitis cases or related SAEs were reported in either group. Concurrent immunization with CD-JEV and MMR vaccines was not associated with any unusual safety signals when compared with sequential immunization. No significant differences between the regimens were seen in seropositivity or serology titer/concentration results for any of the antigens. Co-administration of CD-JEV and MMR was non-inferior to single administration of either vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvacx.2020.100074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7509462PMC
December 2020

Immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of a Phase II trial of Vi-DT typhoid conjugate vaccine in healthy Filipino infants and toddlers: A preliminary report.

Vaccine 2020 06 1;38(28):4476-4483. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in developing countries and is endemic in many parts of Asia and Africa where the incidence of disease typically peaks in school-aged children. Age restrictions and other limitations of existing oral live-attenuated typhoid and parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccines have triggered the development of Vi conjugate vaccines with improved immunological properties, use in younger age range, and longer durability of protection. We present the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity data from a Phase II study after a single dose of Vi polysaccharide conjugated to diphtheria toxoid (Vi-DT) conducted in 6-23-month old Filipino children.

Methods: This is a randomized, observer-blinded Phase II study to assess the immunogenicity, safety and reactogenicity of Vi-DT compared to placebo, conducted in Muntinlupa City, The Philippines. Participants aged 6-23 months were enrolled and randomized to Vi-DT (25 µg) or placebo (0.9% sodium chloride) and evaluated for immunogenicity and overall safety 28 days post vaccination.

Results: A total of 285 participants were enrolled and age-stratified: 6 to < 9 months, 9-12 months, and 13-23 months. Seventy-six (76) participants received Vi-DT and 19 received placebo per each strata. All participants seroconverted after a single dose of Vi-DT versus 7% of placebo recipients. Anti-Vi IgG GMT was 444.38 [95% CI (400.28; 493.34)] after a single dose of Vi-DT; there was no change in GMT after placebo administration, 0.41 [95% CI (0.33; 0.51), p < 0.0001]. A similar pattern of immunogenicity was reported across all age strata. The vaccine reported to be safe and well tolerated.

Conclusions: Vi-DT vaccine was immunogenic, safe, and well tolerated in children aged 6-23 months. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT03527355.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7273193PMC
June 2020

Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of pentavalent vaccine Quinvaxem in a compact prefilled auto-disabled (cPAD) injection system versus single-dose vials in healthy infants: a phase 3, open-label, randomized, parallel-group, non-inferiority study.

Int J Infect Dis 2016 May 26;46:71-8. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Crucell Switzerland AG, Bern, Switzerland.

Objective: To evaluate non-inferiority of three doses of Quinvaxem in a compact prefilled auto-disabled (cPAD) injection system versus Quinvaxem in a single-dose vial administered with conventional syringe in terms of seroconversion/seroprotection rates for all antibodies (anti-hepatitis B (HB), anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b polyribosylribitol phosphate (Hib PRP), anti-diphtheria, anti-tetanus, anti-Bordetella pertussis) at 1 month after primary vaccination.

Methods: Four hundred healthy infants aged 42-65 days were randomized (1:1) to receive Quinvaxem in cPAD or single-dose vial at 6, 10, and 12 weeks of age. Blood samples were collected before vaccination and at 1 month after the third dose to determine seroconversion/seroprotection rates. Safety was assessed from solicited and unsolicited adverse events and serious adverse events (SAEs).

Results: Of the 400 infants randomized, 395 (98.8%) received all three vaccine doses. In the cPAD vs. single-dose vial groups, seroprotection rates against Hib PRP (both 98.5%), HB (92.9% vs. 93.4%), diphtheria (100% vs. 99%), and tetanus toxoids (both 100%), and seroconversion against B. pertussis (95.4% vs. 97%) were ≥92% at 1 month after the third vaccination (lower limits of 95% confidence intervals simultaneously greater than -10%). Geometric mean concentrations exceeded seroprotection/seroconversion thresholds by large margins. The incidences of induration and erythema were comparable between the groups; tenderness was slightly higher in the cPAD group (85.5% vs. 76.5%). No vaccine-related SAEs occurred.

Conclusions: Quinvaxem in cPAD was non-inferior to single-dose vial with respect to seroprotection/seroconversion rates for all antibodies. Both presentations were well-tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2016.02.015DOI Listing
May 2016

Immunogenicity and safety of the Vi-CRM197 conjugate vaccine against typhoid fever in adults, children, and infants in south and southeast Asia: results from two randomised, observer-blind, age de-escalation, phase 2 trials.

Lancet Infect Dis 2014 Feb 28;14(2):119-29. Epub 2013 Nov 28.

Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health, Siena, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Typhoid vaccination is a public health priority in developing countries where young children are greatly affected by typhoid fever. Because present vaccines are not recommended for children younger than 2 years, the Novartis Vaccines Institute for Global Health developed a conjugate vaccine (Vi-CRM197) for infant immunisation. We aimed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of Vi-CRM197 in participants of various ages in endemic countries in south and southeast Asia.

Methods: We did two randomised, observer-blind, age de-escalation, phase 2 trials at two sites in Pakistan and India (study A), and at one site in the Philippines (study B), between March 2, 2011, and Aug 9, 2012. Adults aged 18-45 years, children aged 24-59 months, older infants aged 9-12 months, and infants aged 6-8 weeks were randomly assigned (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation list (block size of four) to receive either 5 μg Vi-CRM197 or 25 μg Vi-polysaccharide vaccine (or 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children younger than 2 years). Both infant populations received Vi-CRM197 concomitantly with vaccines of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), according to WHO schedule. With the exception of designated study site personnel responsible for vaccine preparation, study investigators, those assessing outcomes, and data analysts were masked to treatment allocation. We specified no a-priori null hypothesis for the immunogenicity or safety objectives and all analyses were descriptive. Analyses were by modified intention-to-treat. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01229176 and NCT01437267.

Findings: 320 participants were enrolled and vaccinated in the two trials: 200 in study A (all age groups) and 120 in study B (children and infants only), of whom 317 (99%) were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. One dose of Vi-CRM197 significantly increased concentrations of anti-Vi antibody in adults (from 113 U/mL [95% CI 67-190] to 208 U/mL [117-369]), children (201 U/mL [138-294] to 368 U/mL [234-580]), and older infants (179 U/mL [129-250] to 249 U/mL [130-477]). However, in children and older infants, a second dose of conjugate vaccine had no incremental effect on antibody titres and, at all ages, concentrations of antibodies increased substantially 6 months after vaccination (from 55 U/mL [33-94] to 63 U/mL [35-114] in adults, from 23 U/mL [15-34] to 51 U/mL [34-76] in children, and from 21 U/mL [14-31] to 22 U/mL [14-33] in older infants). Immune response in infants aged 6-8 weeks was lower than that in older participants and, 6 months after third vaccination, antibody concentrations were significantly higher than pre-vaccination concentrations in Filipino (21 U/mL [16-28] vs 2.88 U/mL [1.95-4.25]), but not Pakistani (3.76 U/mL [2.77-5.08] vs 2.77 U/mL [2.1-3.66]), infants. Vi-CRM197 was safe and well tolerated and did not induce any significant interference with EPI vaccines. No deaths or vaccine-related serious adverse events were reported throughout the studies.

Interpretation: Vi-CRM197 is safe and immunogenic in endemic populations of all ages. Given at 9 months of age, concomitantly with measles vaccine, Vi-CRM197 shows a promise for potential inclusion in EPI schedules of countries endemic for typhoid. An apparent absence of booster response and a reduction in antibody titres 6 months after immunisation should be further investigated, but data show that an immunogenic typhoid vaccine can be safely delivered to infants during EPI visits recommended by WHO.

Funding: Sclavo Vaccines Association and Regione Toscana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70241-XDOI Listing
February 2014

Interchangeability of Quinvaxem during primary vaccination schedules: results from a phase IV, single-blind, randomized, controlled, single-center, non-inferiority study.

Vaccine 2014 Feb 29;32(7):888-94. Epub 2013 Oct 29.

Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Muntinlupa City 1781, Philippines. Electronic address:

Combination vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP) represent the core of childhood vaccination programs. Quinvaxem, a fully-liquid, pentavalent combination vaccine containing inactivated hepatitis B (HepB), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and whole-cell pertussis (wP) antigens, and tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, has been shown to be suitable for boosting children primed in infancy with another DTwP-HepB-Hib vaccine. This single-blind, randomized, controlled study was designed to demonstrate non-inferiority of a primary vaccination course (6-10-14 week schedule) of Tritanrix HB+Hib (first dose) and Quinvaxem (second/third doses) versus three doses of Quinvaxem with respect to the seroprotection/seroconversion rates for all antigens one month after vaccination course completion. Four hundred healthy subjects eligible for the local Expanded Program on Immunization were enrolled and equally randomized to the two treatment regimens. All subjects achieved seroprotection for tetanus and Hib, all except one for diphtheria, and all except two achieved seroconversion against Bordetella pertussis. Seroprotection against hepatitis B was achieved by 97.4% of Tritanrix HB+Hib followed by Quinvaxem and 94.9% of Quinvaxem subjects. Therefore, one month after vaccination course completion, seroprotection rates (seroconversion rate for B. pertussis) of Tritanrix HB+Hib followed by Quinvaxem were non-inferior to those elicited by Quinvaxem only, thus meeting the primary objective. Adverse events were comparable between the groups and were in line with the safety profile of the vaccines. The switch of vaccine had no apparent effect on safety endpoints. Our results support the use of Quinvaxem interchangeably with Tritanrix HB+Hib in a primary vaccination course and provides further evidence for the interchangeability of pentavalent vaccines (Clinical Trials.gov registry: NCT01357720).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.10.059DOI Listing
February 2014

Safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of the 10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine coadministered with DTPw-HBV/Hib and poliovirus vaccines.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2011 Jan;30(1):69-72

Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Filinvest Corporate City, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, Philippines.

The safety and reactogenicity profiles of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, PHiD-CV, and 7vCRM were comparable within the Philippines and Poland when coadministered as a booster dose with DTPw-HBV/Hib and poliovirus vaccines to toddlers primed with the same vaccines. Robust immune responses for all 10 vaccine pneumococcal serotypes and protein D following PHiD-CV booster vaccination were indicative of effective priming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3181f2da06DOI Listing
January 2011

The 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) coadministered with DTPw-HBV/Hib and poliovirus vaccines: assessment of immunogenicity.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2009 Apr;28(4 Suppl):S89-96

Research Institute for Tropical Medicine, Filinvest Corporate City, Alabang, Muntinlupa City, The Philippines.

Background: Immunogenicity of the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D-conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) was evaluated when coadministered with DTPw-HBV/Hib and OPV at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age in the Philippines, or with DTPw-HBV/Hib and IPV at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in Poland.

Methods: In this double-blind, controlled study (107007/NCT00344318), 400 Filipino and 406 Polish infants 6 to 12 weeks of age were randomized (3:1) to receive either PHiD-CV or the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7vCRM). Immune responses were assessed 1 month post-dose III.

Results: Percentages of infants with anti-pneumococcal antibody concentrations >or=0.2 microg/mL (GSK's 22F-inhibition ELISA) were within the same range for both pneumococcal conjugate vaccine groups, with the exception of serotypes 6B and 23F for which lower percentages were observed in the PHiD-CV group in Poland. At least 98.2% of PHiD-CV vaccinees had antibody concentrations >or=0.2 microg/mL against pneumococcal serotypes 1, 5, and 7F. In both countries, anti-pneumococcal antibody geometric mean concentrations against serotypes 18C and 19F were higher in the PHiD-CV group than in the 7vCRM group. Antibody geometric mean concentrations for most of the other common serotypes were within the same range for both groups in the Philippines and were lower in the PHiD-CV group in Poland. Functional responses (opsonophagocytic activity [OPA]) were observed for all vaccine serotypes in both countries.

Conclusions: PHiD-CV was immunogenic against each of the 10 pneumococcal vaccine serotypes when coadministered with DTPw-HBV/Hib and poliovirus vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e318199f901DOI Listing
April 2009