Publications by authors named "Edgar R Wood"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Role of Phosphodiesterase 12 (PDE12) as a Negative Regulator of the Innate Immune Response and the Discovery of Antiviral Inhibitors.

J Biol Chem 2015 Aug 8;290(32):19681-96. Epub 2015 Jun 8.

Antiviral Discovery Performance Unit, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 and.

2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) enzymes and RNase-L constitute a major effector arm of interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral defense. OAS produces a unique oligonucleotide second messenger, 2',5'-oligoadenylate (2-5A), that binds and activates RNase-L. This pathway is down-regulated by virus- and host-encoded enzymes that degrade 2-5A. Phosphodiesterase 12 (PDE12) was the first cellular 2-5A- degrading enzyme to be purified and described at a molecular level. Inhibition of PDE12 may up-regulate the OAS/RNase-L pathway in response to viral infection resulting in increased resistance to a variety of viral pathogens. We generated a PDE12-null cell line, HeLaΔPDE12, using transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated gene inactivation. This cell line has increased 2-5A levels in response to IFN and poly(I-C), a double-stranded RNA mimic compared with the parental cell line. Moreover, HeLaΔPDE12 cells were resistant to viral pathogens, including encephalomyocarditis virus, human rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus. Based on these results, we used DNA-encoded chemical library screening to identify starting points for inhibitor lead optimization. Compounds derived from this effort raise 2-5A levels and exhibit antiviral activity comparable with the effects observed with PDE12 gene inactivation. The crystal structure of PDE12 complexed with an inhibitor was solved providing insights into the structure-activity relationships of inhibitor potency and selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M115.653113DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4528132PMC
August 2015

2,3,5-Trisubstituted pyridines as selective AKT inhibitors-Part I: Substitution at 2-position of the core pyridine for ROCK1 selectivity.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 Jan 20;20(2):673-8. Epub 2009 Nov 20.

Oncology Medicinal Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 S. Collegeville, Rd., Collegeville, PA 19426, United States.

2,3,5-Trisubstituted pyridines have been designed as potent AKT inhibitors that are selective against ROCK1 based on the comparison between AKT and ROCK1 structures. Substitution at the 2-position of the core pyridine is the key element to provide selectivity against ROCK1. An X-ray co-crystal structure of 9p in PKA supports the proposed rationale of ROCK1 selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.11.064DOI Listing
January 2010

Discovery of an inhibitor of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor activation: implications for cellular potency and selectivity over insulin receptor.

Biochem Pharmacol 2009 Dec 7;78(12):1438-47. Epub 2009 Aug 7.

Department of Biological Reagents and Assay Development, Research Triangle Park, GlaxoSmithKline, Inc., NC 27709, United States.

Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy due to its anti-apoptotic effect on tumor cells, but inhibition of insulin receptor (IR) may have undesired metabolic consequences. The primary sequences of the ATP substrate-binding sites of these receptors are identical and the crystal structures of the activated kinase domains are correspondingly similar. Thus, most small-molecule inhibitors described to date are equally potent against the activated kinase domains of IGF-1R and IR. In contrast, the non-phosphorylated kinase domains of these receptors have several structural features that may accommodate differences in binding affinity for kinase inhibitors. We used a cell-based assay measuring IGF-1R autophosphorylation as an inhibitor screen, and identified a potent purine derivative that is selective compared to IR. Surprisingly, the compound is a weak inhibitor of the activated IGF-1R tyrosine kinase domain. Biochemical and structural studies are presented that indicate the compound preferentially binds to the ATP site of non-phosphorylated IGF-1R compared to phosphorylated IGF-1R. The potential selectivity and potency advantages of this binding mode are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2009.07.022DOI Listing
December 2009

Synthesis and evaluation of aniline headgroups for alkynyl thienopyrimidine dual EGFR/ErbB-2 kinase inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Mar 7;19(5):1332-6. Epub 2009 Feb 7.

GlaxoSmithKline, Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3398, USA.

Aniline 'headgroups' were synthesized and incorporated into an alkynyl thienopyrimidine series of EGFR and ErbB-2 inhibitors. Potent inhibition of enzyme activity and cellular proliferation was observed. In certain instances, protein binding was reduced and oral exposure was found to be somewhat improved relative to compounds containing the reference aniline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.01.080DOI Listing
March 2009

Thienopyrimidine-based dual EGFR/ErbB-2 inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Feb 7;19(3):817-20. Epub 2008 Dec 7.

Department of Oncology Medicinal Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline, Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3398, USA.

Two new series of potent and selective dual EGFR/ErbB-2 kinase inhibitors derived from novel thienopyrimidine cores have been identified. Isomeric thienopyrimidine cores were evaluated as isosteres for a 4-anilinoquinazoline core and several analogs containing the thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidine core showed anti-proliferative activity with IC(50) values less than 1 microM against human tumor cells in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.12.011DOI Listing
February 2009

Synthesis and stereochemical effects of pyrrolidinyl-acetylenic thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines as EGFR and ErbB-2 inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2009 Jan 13;19(1):21-6. Epub 2008 Nov 13.

Department of Oncology Medicinal Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

A novel class of pyrrolidinyl-acetyleneic thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines has been identified which potently inhibit the EGFR and ErbB-2 receptor tyrosine kinases. Synthetic modifications of the pyrrolidine carbamate moiety result in a range of effects on enzyme and cellular potency. In addition, the impact of the absolute stereochemical configuration on cellular potency and oral mouse pharmacokinetics is described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.11.023DOI Listing
January 2009

Dual EGFR/ErbB-2 inhibitors from novel pyrrolidinyl-acetylenic thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008 Nov 27;18(21):5738-40. Epub 2008 Sep 27.

GlaxoSmithKline Research & Development, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3398, USA.

A novel class of substituted pyrrolidinyl-acetylenic thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidines has been identified that are potent and selective inhibitors of both EGFR/ErbB-2 receptor tyrosine kinases. The inhibitors are found to display a range of enzyme and cellular potency and also to display a varying level of covalent modification of the kinase targets. Selected molecules, including compound 15h, were found to be potent in enzymatic and cellular assays while also demonstrating exposure in the mouse from an oral dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2008.09.090DOI Listing
November 2008

Identification of 4-(2-(4-amino-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-1-ethyl-7-{[(3S)-3-piperidinylmethyl]oxy}-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-yl)-2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (GSK690693), a novel inhibitor of AKT kinase.

J Med Chem 2008 Sep;51(18):5663-79

Oncology Center of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, 1250 South Collegeville Road, Collegeville, Pennsylvania 19426, USA.

Overexpression of AKT has an antiapoptotic effect in many cell types, and expression of dominant negative AKT blocks the ability of a variety of growth factors to promote survival. Therefore, inhibitors of AKT kinase activity might be useful as monotherapy for the treatment of tumors with activated AKT. Herein, we describe our lead optimization studies culminating in the discovery of compound 3g (GSK690693). Compound 3g is a novel ATP competitive, pan-AKT kinase inhibitor with IC 50 values of 2, 13, and 9 nM against AKT1, 2, and 3, respectively. An X-ray cocrystal structure was solved with 3g and the kinase domain of AKT2, confirming that 3g bound in the ATP binding pocket. Compound 3g potently inhibits intracellular AKT activity as measured by the inhibition of the phosphorylation levels of GSK3beta. Intraperitoneal administration of 3g in immunocompromised mice results in the inhibition of GSK3beta phosphorylation and tumor growth in human breast carcinoma (BT474) xenografts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm8004527DOI Listing
September 2008

Characterization of an Akt kinase inhibitor with potent pharmacodynamic and antitumor activity.

Cancer Res 2008 Apr;68(7):2366-74

Oncology Biology, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA 19426, USA.

Akt kinases 1, 2, and 3 are important regulators of cell survival and have been shown to be constitutively active in a variety of human tumors. GSK690693 is a novel ATP-competitive, low-nanomolar pan-Akt kinase inhibitor. It is selective for the Akt isoforms versus the majority of kinases in other families; however, it does inhibit additional members of the AGC kinase family. It causes dose-dependent reductions in the phosphorylation state of multiple proteins downstream of Akt, including GSK3 beta, PRAS40, and Forkhead. GSK690693 inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in a subset of tumor cells with potency consistent with intracellular inhibition of Akt kinase activity. In immune-compromised mice implanted with human BT474 breast carcinoma xenografts, a single i.p. administration of GSK690693 inhibited GSK3 beta phosphorylation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. After a single dose of GSK690693, >3 micromol/L drug concentration in BT474 tumor xenografts correlated with a sustained decrease in GSK3 beta phosphorylation. Consistent with the role of Akt in insulin signaling, treatment with GSK690693 resulted in acute and transient increases in blood glucose level. Daily administration of GSK690693 produced significant antitumor activity in mice bearing established human SKOV-3 ovarian, LNCaP prostate, and BT474 and HCC-1954 breast carcinoma xenografts. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor xenografts after repeat dosing with GSK690693 showed reductions in phosphorylated Akt substrates in vivo. These results support further evaluation of GSK690693 as an anticancer agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5783DOI Listing
April 2008

6-Ethynylthieno[3,2-d]- and 6-ethynylthieno[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-anilines as tunable covalent modifiers of ErbB kinases.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008 Feb 19;105(8):2773-8. Epub 2008 Feb 19.

Department of Assay Development, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

Analysis of the x-ray crystal structure of mono-substituted acetylenic thienopyrimidine 6 complexed with the ErbB family enzyme ErbB-4 revealed a covalent bond between the terminal carbon of the acetylene moiety and the sulfhydryl group of Cys-803 at the solvent interface. The identification of this covalent adduct suggested that acetylenic thienopyrimidine 6 and related analogs might also be capable of forming an analogous covalent adduct with EGFR, which has a conserved cysteine (797) near the ATP binding pocket. To test this hypothesis, we treated a truncated, catalytically competent form of EGFR (678-1020) with a structurally related propargylic amine (8). An investigation of the resulting complex by mass spectrometry revealed the formation of a covalent complex of thienopyrimidine 8 with Cys-797 of EGFR. This finding enabled us to readily assess the irreversibility of various inhibitors and also facilitated a structure-activity relationship understanding of the covalent modifying potential and biological activity of a series of acetylenic thienopyrimidine compounds with potent antitumor activity. Several ErbB family enzyme and cell potent 6-ethynyl thienopyrimidine kinase inhibitors were found to form covalent adducts with EGFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0708281105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2268535PMC
February 2008

Impact of common epidermal growth factor receptor and HER2 variants on receptor activity and inhibition by lapatinib.

Cancer Res 2008 Jan;68(2):571-9

Department of Translational Medicine, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

The goal of this study was to characterize the effects of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)-associated mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1) and HER2 (ErbB2) on interactions with the dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib. Biochemical studies show that commonly observed variants of EGFR [G719C, G719S, L858R, L861Q, and Delta746-750 (del15)] are enzyme activating, increasing the tyrosine kinase V(max) and increasing the K(m)((app)) for ATP. The point mutations G719C and L861Q had minor effects on lapatinib K(i)s, whereas EGFR mutations L858R and del15 had a higher K(i) for lapatinib than wild-type EGFR. Structural analysis of wild-type EGFR-lapatinib complexes and modeling of the EGFR mutants were consistent with these data, suggesting that loss of structural flexibility and possible stabilization of the active-like conformation could interfere with lapatinib binding, particularly to the EGFR deletion mutants. Furthermore, EGFR deletion mutants were relatively resistant to lapatinib-mediated inhibition of receptor autophosphorylation in recombinant cells expressing the variants, whereas EGFR point mutations had a modest or no effect. Of note, EGFR T790M, a receptor variant found in patients with gefitinib-resistant NSCLC, was also resistant to lapatinib-mediated inhibition of receptor autophosphorylation. Two HER2 insertional variants found in NSCLC were less sensitive to lapatinib inhibition than two HER2 point mutants. The effects of lapatinib on the proliferation of human NSCLC tumor cell lines expressing wild-type or variant EGFR and HER2 cannot be explained solely on the basis of the biochemical activity or receptor autophosphorylation in recombinant cells. These data suggest that cell line genetic heterogeneity and/or multiple determinants modulate the role played by EGFR/HER2 in regulating cell proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-2404DOI Listing
January 2008

Optimization and SAR for dual ErbB-1/ErbB-2 tyrosine kinase inhibition in the 6-furanylquinazoline series.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2006 Sep 13;16(17):4686-91. Epub 2006 Jun 13.

GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

Synthetic modifications on a 6-furanylquinazoline scaffold to optimize the dual ErbB-1/ErbB-2 tyrosine kinase inhibition afforded consistent SAR whereby a 4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)-3-haloanilino provided the best enzyme potency and cellular selectivity. Changes made to the 6-furanyl group had little impact on the enzyme activity, but appeared to dramatically affect the cellular efficacy. The discovery of lapatinib emerged from this work.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.05.090DOI Listing
September 2006

Alkynyl pyrimidines as dual EGFR/ErbB2 kinase inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2006 May 17;16(9):2419-22. Epub 2006 Feb 17.

GlaxoSmithKline, Five Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3398, USA.

Anilinoalkynylpyrimidines were prepared and evaluated as dual EGFR/ErbB2 kinase inhibitors. A preference was found for substituted phenyl and heteroaromatic rings attached to the alkyne. In addition, the presence of a potential hydrogen bond donor appended to this ring was favored. Selected molecules in the series demonstrated some activity against human tumor cell lines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2006.01.111DOI Listing
May 2006

Discovery and in vitro evaluation of potent kinase inhibitors: Pyrido[1',2':1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005 Aug;15(16):3778-81

GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

The discovery, synthesis, potential binding mode, and in vitro kinase profile of several pyrido[1',2':1,5]pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines as potent kinase inhibitors are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2005.05.100DOI Listing
August 2005

A unique structure for epidermal growth factor receptor bound to GW572016 (Lapatinib): relationships among protein conformation, inhibitor off-rate, and receptor activity in tumor cells.

Cancer Res 2004 Sep;64(18):6652-9

Department of Computational, Analytical and Structural Sciences, GlaxoSmithKline, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.

GW572016 (Lapatinib) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor in clinical development for cancer that is a potent dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, ErbB-1) and ErbB-2. We determined the crystal structure of EGFR bound to GW572016. The compound is bound to an inactive-like conformation of EGFR that is very different from the active-like structure bound by the selective EGFR inhibitor OSI-774 (Tarceva) described previously. Surprisingly, we found that GW572016 has a very slow off-rate from the purified intracellular domains of EGFR and ErbB-2 compared with OSI-774 and another EGFR selective inhibitor, ZD-1839 (Iressa). Treatment of tumor cells with these inhibitors results in down-regulation of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. We evaluated the duration of the drug effect after washing away free compound and found that the rate of recovery of receptor phosphorylation in the tumor cells reflected the inhibitor off-rate from the purified intracellular domain. The slow off-rate of GW572016 correlates with a prolonged down-regulation of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in tumor cells. The differences in the off-rates of these drugs and the ability of GW572016 to inhibit ErbB-2 can be explained by the enzyme-inhibitor structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1168DOI Listing
September 2004

Discovery and in vitro evaluation of potent TrkA kinase inhibitors: oxindole and aza-oxindoles.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2004 Feb;14(4):953-7

GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

The discovery, synthesis, potential binding mode, and in vitro kinase profile of 3-(3-bromo-4-hydroxy-5-(2'-methoxyphenyl)-benzylidene)-5-bromo-1,3-dihydro-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-2-one, 3-[(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene]-1,3-dihydro-2H-pyrrolo[3,2-b]-pyridin-2-one as potent TrkA inhibitors are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2003.12.002DOI Listing
February 2004

Discovery and biological evaluation of potent dual ErbB-2/EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors: 6-thiazolylquinazolines.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2003 Feb;13(4):637-40

GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA.

We have identified a novel class of 6-thiazolylquinazolines as potent and selective inhibitors of both ErbB-2 and EGFR tyrosine kinase activity, with IC(50) values in the nanomolar range. These compounds inhibited the growth of both EGFR (HN5) and ErbB-2 (BT474) over-expressing human tumor cell lines in vitro. Using xenograft models of the same cell lines, we found that the compounds given orally inhibited in vivo tumor growth significantly compared with control animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0960-894x(02)01047-8DOI Listing
February 2003

Comparison of the biochemical and kinetic properties of the type 1 receptor tyrosine kinase intracellular domains. Demonstration of differential sensitivity to kinase inhibitors.

J Biol Chem 2002 Jan 5;277(2):1576-85. Epub 2001 Nov 5.

Department of Systems Research, GlaxoSmithKline Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), ErbB-2, and ErbB-4 are members of the type 1 receptor tyrosine kinase family. Overexpression of these receptors, especially ErbB-2 and EGFR, has been implicated in multiple forms of cancer. Inhibitors of EGFR tyrosine kinase activity are being evaluated clinically for cancer therapy. The potency and selectivity of these inhibitors may affect the efficacy and toxicity of therapy. Here we describe the expression, purification, and biochemical comparison of EGFR, ErbB-2, and ErbB-4 intracellular domains. Despite their high degree of sequence homology, the three enzymes have significantly different catalytic properties and substrate kinetics. For example, the catalytic activity of ErbB-2 is less stable than that of EGFR. ErbB-2 uses ATP-Mg as a substrate inefficiently compared with EGFR and ErbB-4. The three enzymes have very similar substrate preferences for three optimized peptide substrates, but differences in substrate synergies were observed. We have used the biochemical and kinetic parameters determined from these studies to develop an assay system that accurately measures inhibitor potency and selectivity between the type 1 receptor family. We report that the selectivity profile of molecules in the 4-anilinoquinazoline series can be modified through specific aniline substitutions. Moreover, these compounds have activity in whole cells that reflect the potency and selectivity of target inhibition determined with this assay system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M105907200DOI Listing
January 2002