Publications by authors named "Eddie W Fakhouri"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Recurrent Large Volume Malignant Pleural Effusion in a Patient With Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Cureus 2021 Feb 27;13(2):e13593. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Internal Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian Brooklyn Methodist Hospital, Brooklyn, USA.

Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) due to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is extremely rare, accounting for only 1%-2% of all malignant pleural effusions. This paper presents a case report of a 56-year-old male who presented with a chief complaint of bilateral flank pain with dyspnea and was diagnosed with RCC via immunopathologic pleural fluid analysis and who persistently had recurrent large volume pleural effusion. A 56-year-old male who had a recent admission for dyspnea secondary to a right-sided pleural effusion underwent thoracentesis and returned to the hospital for his worsening shortness of breath. He was found to have recurrent pleural effusion. Thoracentesis studies revealed an exudative pleural effusion positive for malignant cells showing adenocarcinoma, which had an immunopathologic profile (WT-1 and PAX8) favoring an adenocarcinoma of kidney origin. The patient underwent chest tube placement, followed by chemical pleurodesis with 4.3 L of bloody fluid drained immediately. Subsequent x-rays taken while the chest tube was in place showed worsening reaccumulating pleural effusion. A repeat CT scan showed a large right pleural effusion with loculated collections. The patient then underwent right video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, which revealed a loculated effusion with pleural carcinomatosis that was biopsy-positive for RCC. This report presents a rare case displaying how RCC pleural carcinomatosis can cause a patient to present with dyspnea secondary to a pleural effusion, which was revealed to be RCC upon fluid cytology and immunohistopathology studies. This case demonstrates that RCC can cause recurrent large volume MPE, which has not been widely reported in contemporary literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13593DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009455PMC
February 2021

Genetic Polymorphisms Complicate COVID-19 Therapy: Pivotal Role of HO-1 in Cytokine Storm.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Jul 18;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 18.

Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA.

Coronaviruses are very large RNA viruses that originate in animal reservoirs and include severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and other inconsequential coronaviruses from human reservoirs like the common cold. SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 and is believed to originate from bat, quickly spread into a global pandemic. This RNA virus has a special affinity for porphyrins. It invades the cell at the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor and binds to hemoproteins, resulting in a severe systemic inflammatory response, particularly in high ACE-2 organs like the lungs, heart, and kidney, resulting in systemic disease. The inflammatory response manifested by increased cytokine levels and reactive oxygen species results in inhibition of heme oxygenase (HO-1), with a subsequent loss of cytoprotection. This has been seen in other viral illness like human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Ebola, and SARS/MERS. There are a number of medications that have been tried with some showing early clinical promise. This illness disproportionately affects patients with obesity, a chronic inflammatory disease with a baseline excess of cytokines. The majority of the medications used in the treatment of COVID-19 are metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, primarily CYP2D6. This is further complicated by genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6, HO-1, ACE, and ACE-2. There is a potential role for HO-1 upregulation to treat/prevent cytokine storm. Current therapy must focus on antivirals and heme oxygenase upregulation. Vaccine development will be the only magic bullet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9070636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402116PMC
July 2020