Publications by authors named "Eda Acikgoz"

20 Publications

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Spectroscopic and microscopic comparisons of cell topology and chemistry analysis of mouse embryonic stem cell, somatic cell and cancer cell.

Acta Histochem 2021 Jul 29;123(6):151763. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 35100 Izmir, Turkey. Electronic address:

While embryonic stem cells and cancer cells are known to have many similarities in signalling pathways, healthy somatic cells are known to be different in many ways. Characterization of embryonic stem cell is crucial for cancer development and cancer recurrence due to the shared signalling pathways and life course with cancer initiator and cancer stem cells. Since embryonic stem cells are the sources of the somatic and cancer cells, it is necessary to reveal the relevance between them. The past decade has seen the importance of interdisciplinary studies and it is obvious that the reflection of the physical/chemical phenomena occurring on the cell biology has attracted much more attention. For this reason, the aim of this study is to elementally and topologically characterize the mouse embryonic stem cells, mouse lung squamous cancer cells, and mouse skin fibroblast cells by using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) supported with Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques in a complementary way. Our AFM findings revealed that roughness data of the mouse embryonic stem cells and cancer cells were similar and somatic cells were found to be statistically different from these two cell types. However, based on both XPS and SEM-EDS results, surface elemental ratios vary in mouse embryonic stem cells, cancer cells and somatic cells. Our results showed that these complementary spectroscopic and microscopic techniques used in this work are very effective in cancer and stem cell characterization and have the potential to gather more detailed information on relevant biological samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2021.151763DOI Listing
July 2021

CD133+/CD44+ prostate cancer stem cells exhibit embryo-like behavior patterns.

Acta Histochem 2021 Jul 20;123(5):151743. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Van Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Van, Turkey.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which act as an important bridge between cancer formation and embryonic development, represent a small population associated with tumor initiation, drug resistance, metastasis and recurrence. CSCs have the ability to form spheroids in three-dimensional culture systems. Tumor spheroids derived from CSCs with symmetric and asymmetric division patterns were found to contain highly heterogeneous cell groups. The biological behavior patterns which some CSCs display serve as an important bridge between cancer formation and embryonic development. The cell population in the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line with surface markers CD133+/CD44+ was isolated by FACS. Prostate spheroids were formed by using agarose-coated plates. The morphological characteristics of the cell population within spheroid structure and the expression of Ki-67 and Caspase-3 were investigated by histochemical methods. In this study, we observed that CD133+/CD44+ prostate CSCs form different spheroid structures as well as normal spheroid structures: i) some spheroid structures formed with a highly transparent zone on the outer part of the spheroid, in addition to the normal spheroidal zones and ii) spheroidal structures obtained from prostate CD1334+/CD44+ CSCs that share the same microenvironment are hollow spheres similar to the blastula-like structure in the embryo. These spheroidal structures exhibiting embryo-like properties indicate that the expression of embryonic factors might be reiterated in CSCs. Further investigation of the formation mechanism of the transparent zone and the hollow sphere will shed light on the embryonic origin of prostate cancer and the design of new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2021.151743DOI Listing
July 2021

Sonic hedgehog signaling is associated with resistance to zoledronic acid in CD133high/CD44high prostate cancer stem cells.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 4;48(4):3567-3578. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, 35080, Turkey.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a unique population that has been linked to drug resistance and metastasis and recurrence of prostate cancer. The sonic hedgehog (SHH) signal regulates stem cells in normal prostate epithelium by affecting cell behavior, survival, proliferation, and maintenance. Aberrant SHH pathway activation leads to an unsuitable expansion of stem cell lineages in the prostate epithelium and the transformation of prostate CSCs (PCSCs). Zoledronic acid (ZOL), one of the third-generation bisphosphonates, effectively prevented bone metastasis and treated advanced prostate cancer despite androgen deprivation therapy. Despite strong evidence for the involvement of the SHH in human PCSCs survival and drug resistance, the roles of SHH in the PCSCs-related resistance to ZOL remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the role of the SHH pathway in ZOL resistance of PCSCs in 2D and three 3D cell culture conditions. For this purpose, we isolated CD133/ CD44 PCSCs using a flow cytometer. Following ZOL treatment, mRNA and protein expressions of the components of the SHH signaling pathway in PCSCs and non-CSCs were analyzed using qRT-PCR and Immunofluorescence staining, respectively. Our finding suggested that SHH signaling may be activated by different mechanisms that lead to avoidance of the inhibition effect of ZOL. Thereby, SHH pathways may be associated with the resistance to ZOL developed by prostate CSCs. Inhibition of CSCs-related SHH signaling along with ZOL treatment should be considered to achieve improvement in survival or delayed treatment failure and prevention of the CSCs-related drug resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06387-wDOI Listing
April 2021

New Psychoactive Substance 5-MeO-MiPT In vivo Acute Toxicity and Hystotoxicological Study.

Balkan Med J 2021 01;38(1):34-42

Department of Addiction Toxicology, Ege University Institute on Drug Abuse, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, İzmir, Turkey.

Background: The hallucinogenic tryptamine analog 5-methoxy-N-methyl-N-isopropyltryptamine (5-MeO-MiPT) causes social problems worldwide. There are several studies on the metabolism; however, not more studies were found in the literature on acute toxicity.

Aims: To report the acute toxicity of 5-MeO-MiPT in mice, followed by quantitative toxicological analysis of blood and organs, hystotoxicological and immunohistochemical analysis of tissues and cells.

Study Design: Animal experiment Methods: In vivo experiments were performed using CD1 adult female mice (n=26). Animals were caged in 4 groups randomly. First group was a control (n=3). Second group was vehicle control (n=3) and injected 150 μL of blank solution (50% dimethyl sulfoxide in saline /0.9% of NaCl). While for acute toxicity experiments, 5-MeO-MiPT was added to a blank solution in order to obtain a dose of 0.27 mg/kg in 150 μL injection (n=10) and the last group were injected 2.7 mg/kg 5-MeO-MiPT in a 150 μL injection (n=10). Quantitative toxicological analysis, hystotoxicological and immunohistochemical analysis were performed.

Results: In the toxicological analysis, 5-MeO-MiPT was found negative in biological samples which were control, vehicle control, and 0.27 mg/kg dose mice groups. 5-MeO-MiPT was found 2.7-13.4 ng/mL in blood, 11-29 ng/g in kidney, 15.2-108.3 ng/g in liver, and 1.5-40.6 ng/g in the brain in 2,7 mg/kg injected group. In a low dose of the 5-MeO-MiPT liver section, compared with normal tissues, the difference in staining was statistically significant (p<0.0001). In high-dose of 5-MeO-MiPT, H-score showed that the increase in the number of Caspase-3 positive cells was significant compared to the control (p<0.05). In high-dose of 5-MeO-MiPT, intense Caspase-3 immunoreactivity was observed and the increase in the number of Caspase-3 positive cells compared to the control was statistically significant (p<0.05). In brain section, the statistics of the results obtained from the H-score showed that the increase in the number of Caspase-3 positive cells was significant compared to the control (p=0.0183). In vehicle control liver section, there were few Caspase-8 positive cells characterized by a light brown appearance (p=0.0117). In the high-dose 5-MeO-MiPT group, the numbers of positive cells at low and high doses of 5-MeO-MiPT group were statistically significant compared to the control (p<0.05). In the high-dose 5-MeO-MiPT group, Caspase-8 immunoreactivity was detected in the glomerular structures. Compared to control, the increase in Caspase-8 immunoreactivity was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Low-dose 5-MeO-MiPT did not cause any serious histopathological effects on the liver, kidney, and brain. High doses induce apoptotic cell death through caspase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/balkanmedj.galenos.2020.2019.11.68DOI Listing
January 2021

Adaptive phenotypic modulations lead to therapy resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(2):e0229104. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir, Turkey.

Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance is a major problem in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We generated a TKI-resistant K562 sub-population, K562-IR, under selective imatinib-mesylate pressure. K562-IR cells are CD34-/CD38-, BCR-Abl-independent, proliferate slowly, highly adherent and form intact tumor spheroids. Loss of CD45 and other hematopoietic markers reveal these cells have diverged from their hematopoietic origin. CD34 negativity, high expression of E-cadherin and CD44; decreased levels of CD45 and β-catenin do not fully confer with the leukemic stem cell (LSC) phenotype. Expression analyses reveal that K562-IR cells differentially express tissue/organ development and differentiation genes. Our data suggest that the observed phenotypic shift is an adaptive process rendering cells under TKI stress to become oncogene independent. Cells develop transcriptional instability in search for a gene expression framework suitable for new environmental stresses, resulting in an adaptive phenotypic shift in which some cells partially display LSC-like properties. With leukemic/cancer stem cell targeted therapies underway, the difference between treating an entity and a spectrum of dynamic cellular states will have conclusive effects on the outcome.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0229104PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046262PMC
May 2020

Triptolide inhibits CD133 /CD44 colon cancer stem cell growth and migration through triggering apoptosis and represses epithelial-mesenchymal transition via downregulating expressions of snail, slug, and twist.

J Cell Biochem 2020 06 6;121(5-6):3313-3324. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Stem Cell, Institute of Health Science, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

High recurrence and metastatic behavior patterns are the most important reasons for the failure of treatment strategies in patients with colon cancer. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which are considered root of cancer, are thought to be associated with therapy resistance, relapse, and metastasis, and, therefore, targeting CSCs rather than the bulk population may be an effective approach. In cancer studies, there is an increasing interest in close friendship between epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CSCs. Triptolide (TPL) isolated from Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii has important effects on the prevention of migration and metastasis as well as cytotoxic effect against cancer cells. The potential lethal efficacy of TPL on CSCs that is highly resistant to the drug is an unsolved mystery. Fundamentally, the present study basically aims to find answers to two questions: (a) is it possible to target colon CSCs with TPL? and (b) what are the mechanisms underlying TPL's potential to eliminate CSCs? Cytotoxic effects of TPL on CSCs were evaluated by WST-1 and Muse count and viability assays. Apoptosis assay and cell-cycle analysis were performed to investigate the inhibitory effect of TPL. Moreover, the effects of TPL on spheroid formation capacity, migration, and EMT processes, which are associated with CSC phenotype, were also investigated. The results revealed that TPL triggered cell death and apoptosis and altered cell cycle distribution. Moreover, TPL significantly reduced the snail slug and twist expressions associated with EMT. TPL has been shown to be effective in colon CSCs by in vitro experiments, and it might be a highly effective agent against colon cancer has been implicated in need of supporting in vivo and clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.29602DOI Listing
June 2020

Holistic Approach to Cell Characteristics and Behavioral Analysis.

Crit Rev Oncog 2019 ;24(1):21-26

Department of Histology and Embryology, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; Department of Histology and Embryology, Yüzüncü Yil University, Van, Turkey.

Cancer is a group of diseases of our era that affects not only medical status but also lowers the tone of social and emotional well-being. It also has severe impacts on economies. Cancer cells are linked to the somatic cells and stem cells, with their characteristic similarities and differences. Variations in cell-signaling pathways, such as cell death and proliferation balances, kinetic behavior of the cells, and their differentiation potentials, are the featured parameters for therapeutic targeting. The detection of target points should be based not only on the molecular biology methods but also on the physical and topological analyses from the aspect of "geography is fate". In this review, we focus on the importance of the holistic analyses of intracellular and extracellular dynamics and multidisciplinary cooperation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/CritRevOncog.2019029527DOI Listing
July 2020

The effect of extracellular matrix on the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells.

J Cell Biochem 2020 01 6;121(1):269-283. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are promising research materials to investigate cell fate determination since they have the capability to differentiate. Stem cell differentiation has been extensively studied with various microenvironment mimicking structures to modify cellular dynamics associated with the cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions and cell-cell communications. In the current study, our aim was to determine the effect of microenvironmental proteins with different concentrations on the capacity and differentiation capability of mouse ESCs (mESCs), combining the biochemical assays, imaging techniques, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and unsupervised multivariate analysis. Based on our data, coating the surface of mESCs with Matrigel, used as an acellular matrix substrate, resulted in morphological and biochemical changes. mESCs exhibited alterations in their phenotype after growing on the Matrigel-coated surfaces, including their differentiation capacity, cell cycle phase pattern, membrane fluidity, and metabolic activities. In conclusion, mESCs can be stimulated physiologically, chemically, or mechanically to convert them a new phenotype. Thus, identification of ESCs' behavior in the acellular microenvironment could be vital to elucidate the mechanism of diseases. It might also be promising to control the cell fate in the field of tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.29159DOI Listing
January 2020

Autophagy and mTOR pathways in mouse embryonic stem cell, lung cancer and somatic fibroblast cell lines.

J Cell Biochem 2019 10 30;120(10):18066-18076. Epub 2019 May 30.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Embryonic developmental stages and regulations have always been one of the most intriguing aspects of science. Since the cancer stem cell discovery, striking for cancer development and recurrence, embryonic stem cells and control mechanisms, as well as cancer cells and cancer stem cell control mechanisms become important research materials. It is necessary to reveal the similarities and differences between somatic and cancer cells which are formed of embryonic stem cells divisions and determinations. For this purpose, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), mouse skin fibroblast cells (MSFs) and mouse lung squamous cancer cells (SqLCCs) were grown in vitro and the differences between these three cell lines signalling regulations of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and autophagic pathways were demonstrated by immunofluorescence and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expressional differences were clearly shown between embryonic, cancer and somatic cells that mESCs displayed higher expressional level of Atg10, Hdac1 and Cln3 which are related with autophagic regulation and Hsp4, Prkca, Rhoa and ribosomal S6 genes related with mTOR activity. LC3 and mTOR protein levels were lower in mESCs than MSFs. Thus, the mechanisms of embryonic stem cell regulation results in the formation of somatic tissues whereas that these cells may be the causative agents of cancer in any deterioration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.29110DOI Listing
October 2019

Effects of Glycogen Synthase Kinase Inhibitor on Glioblastoma Multiforme Cell Line via Apoptosis and Cell Signaling Pathways.

Turk Neurosurg 2019 ;29(4):513-521

University of Health Sciences, Tepecik Training and Research Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Izmir, Turkey.

Aim: To investigate the apoptotic and molecular effects of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM).

Material And Methods: Human primary glioblastoma cell line (U-87 MG) and the human fetal glial cell line (SVGp12) were used. The cells were exposed to the different doses of GSK inhibitor for 24, 48 and 72 hours. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation (TUNEL) assay. EGFR and NF-kB expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence analyses.

Results: GSK-3 inhibitor IX induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in dose-dependent manner in GBM cells. Our results indicated that GSK-3 inhibitor IX induces apoptosis, resulting in a significant decrease in the expression of NF-kB and EGF.

Conclusion: Inhibition through GSK-3 has been found promising in creating therapeutic management of GBM cells. Proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis are mechanisms that must be interpreted as a whole. Components associated with EGFR, NF-kB, and apoptosis affect the mechanism solely and collectively. Our collective data suggest that GSK-3 inhibitor IX inhibited cellular proliferation and induced apoptotic events by modulating EGFR and NF-kB expression in GBM cells. GSK-3 inhibition holds promise for the development of new approaches for the therapeutic management of GBM cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.23987-18.2DOI Listing
October 2019

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition in glioblastoma multiforme cells induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and changing biomolecular structure.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2019 Feb 24;209:150-164. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, 35100 Izmir, Turkey.

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant and aggressive primary human brain tumors. The regulatory pathways of apoptosis are altered in GBMs, leading to a survival advantage of the tumor cells. Thus, identification of target molecules, which are effective in triggering of the cell death mechanisms in GBM, is an essential strategy for therapeutic purposes. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) plays an important role in apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle. This study focused on the effect of GSK-3 inhibitor IX in the GBM cells. Apoptosis induction was determined by Annexin-V assay, multicaspase activity and immunofluorescence analyses. Concentration-dependent effects of GSK-3 inhibitor IX on the cell cycle were also evaluated. Moreover, the effect of GSK inhibitor on the cellular biomolecules was assessed by using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Our assay results indicated that GSK-3 inhibitor IX induces apoptosis, resulting in a significant increase in the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-8 proteins. Cell cycle analyses revealed that GSK-3 inhibitor IX leads to dose-dependent G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest. Based on the FTIR data, treatment of GBM cells causes dysregulation in the carbohydrate metabolism and induces apoptotic cell death which was characterized by the spectral alterations in nucleic acids, an increment in the lipid amount with disordering state and compositional changes in the cellular proteins. These findings suggest that GSK-3 inhibitor IX exhibits anti-cancer effects by inducing apoptosis and changing biomolecular structure of membrane lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and proteins, and thus, may be further evaluated as a potential effective candidate agent for the GBM combination therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2018.10.036DOI Listing
February 2019

Deciphering the biochemical similarities and differences among mouse embryonic stem cells, somatic and cancer cells using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

Analyst 2018 Mar;143(7):1624-1634

Center for Drug Research & Development and Pharmacokinetic Applications (ARGEFAR), Ege University, 35100, Izmir, Turkey.

Cellular macromolecules play important roles in cellular behaviors and biological processes. In the current work, cancer (KLN205), normal (MSFs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are compared using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Modifications in the composition, concentration, structure and function-related changes in the cellular components were deciphered using the infrared spectra. Our results revealed that cancer and embryonic stem cells are very similar but highly different from the normal cells based on the spectral variations in the protein, lipid, carbohydrate and nucleic acid components. The longest lipid acyl chains exist in mESCs, while cancer cells harbor the lowest lipid amount, short lipid acyl chains, a high content of branched fatty acids and thin cell membranes. The highest cellular growth rate and accelerated cell divisions were observed in the cancer cells. However, the normal cells harbor low nucleic acid and glycogen amounts but have a higher lipid composition. Any defect in the signaling pathways and/or biosynthesis of these cellular parameters during the embryonic-to-somatic cell transition may lead to physiological and molecular events that promote cancer initiation, progression and drug resistance. We conclude that an improved understanding of both similarities and differences in the cellular mechanisms among the cancer, normal and mESCs is crucial to develop a potential clinical relevance, and ATR-FITR can be successfully used as a novel approach to gain new insights into the stem cell and cancer research. We suggest that targeting the cellular metabolisms (glycogen and lipid) can provide new strategies for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8an00017dDOI Listing
March 2018

Ribosome biogenesis mediates antitumor activity of flavopiridol in CD44/CD24 breast cancer stem cells.

Oncol Lett 2017 Dec 22;14(6):6433-6440. Epub 2017 Sep 22.

Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, 06560 Ankara, Turkey.

Flavopiridol is a synthetically produced flavonoid that potently inhibits the proliferation of human tumor cell lines. Flavopiridol exerts strong antitumor activity via several mechanisms, including the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and the modulation of transcriptional regulation. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of flavopiridol on a subpopulation of cluster of differentiation (CD)44/CD24 human breast cancer MCF7 stem cells. The CD44/CD24 cells were isolated from the MCF7 cell line by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and treated with 100, 300, 500, 750 and 1,000 nM flavopiridol for 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell viability and proliferation assays were performed to determine the inhibitory effect of flavopiridol. Gene expression profiling was analyzed using Illumina Human HT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip microarray. According to the results, the half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) value of flavopiridol was 500 nM in monolayer cells. Flavopiridol induced growth inhibition and cytotoxicity in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) at the IC dose. The present study revealed several differentially regulated genes between flavopiridol-treated and untreated cells. The result of the pathway analysis revealed that flavopiridol serves an important role in translation, the ribosome biogenesis pathway, oxidative phosphorylation, the electron transport chain pathway, carbon metabolism and cell cycle. A notable result from the present study is that ribosome-associated gene expression is significantly affected by flavopiridol treatment. The data of the present study indicate that flavopiridol exhibits antitumor activity against CD44/CD24 MCF7 BCSCs through different mechanisms, mainly by inhibiting translation and the ribosome biogenesis pathway, and could be an effective chemotherapeutic molecule to target and kill BCSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2017.7029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5770605PMC
December 2017

Repression of the Notch pathway prevents liver damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2017 10;55(3):140-148. Epub 2017 Oct 10.

1Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Van, Turkey. 2Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Izmir, Turkey..

Introduction: Sunitinib is an oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor that is used to treat a variety of cancer. There are limited data regarding the effect of sunitinib on diabetes. In the liver, Notch signaling plays an important role in liver tissue development and homeostasis and its dysfunction is associated with liver pathol-ogies. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of sunitinib on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic liver in mice models.

Material And Methods: An experimental diabetes mellitus (DM) model was created in 28 male CD-1 mice. Twenty-eight male CD-1 mice divided in four groups (n = 7 each) were used; control mice (C), control mice treated with sunitinib (C + S), diabetic mice (DM), and diabetic mice treated with sunitinib (DM + S) for four weeks. The histopathological changes in the liver were examined by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactivity of Notch1, Jagged1, DLL-1 and VEGF were evaluated in control and diabetic mice after sunitinib treatment.

Results: The significant morphological changes in the liver were mostly seen in hepatocytes that were hyper-trophied in the DM mice, with an increased amount of eosinophilic granules; moreover, some hepatocytes contained empty vacuole-like structures. The livers of the DM mice revealed increased deposition of collagen fibers. After sunitinib treatment the hepatocytes and hepatic lobules had almost similar morphology to control mice. The immunoreactivities of Notch1, Jagged1, DLL-1 and VEGF in hepatocytes were significantly lower in the DM group when compared with the C, DM + S and C + S group treated with sunitinib.

Conclusions: These results suggest that sunitinib effectively protects the liver from diabetes-induced damage through the inhibition of the Notch pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/FHC.a2017.0014DOI Listing
November 2018

Effects of flavopiridol on critical regulation pathways of CD133high/CD44high lung cancer stem cells.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Oct;95(43):e5150

Department of Medical Biology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir Department of Histology and Embryology, Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Van Department of Histology and Embryology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.

Background: Flavopiridol a semisynthetic flavone that inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and has growth-inhibitory activity and induces a blockade of cell-cycle progression at G1-phase and apoptosis in numerous human tumor cell lines and is currently under investigation in phase II clinical trials. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are comprised of subpopulation of cells in tumors that have been proposed to be responsible for recurrence and resistance to chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of flavopiridol in cancer stem cell cytoskeleton, cell adhesion, and epithelial to mesenchymal transition in CSCs.

Methods: The cells were treated with flavopiridol to determine the inhibitory effect. Cell viability and proliferation were determined by using the WST-1 assay. Caspase activity and immunofluorescence analyses were performed for the evaluation of apoptosis, cell cytoskeleton, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers. The effects of flavopiridol on the cell cycle were also evaluated. Flow cytometric analysis was used to detect the percentages of CSCs subpopulation. We analyzed the gene expression patterns to predict cell cycle and cell cytoskeleton in CSCs by RT-PCR.

Results: Flavopiridol-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis at the IC50 dose, resulting in a significant increase expression of caspases activity. Cell cycle analyses revealed that flavopiridol induces G1 phase cell cycle arrest. Flavopiridol significantly decreased the mRNA expressions of the genes that regulate the cell cytoskeleton and cell cycle components and cell motility in CSCs.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that Flavopiridol has activity against lung CSCs and may be effective chemotherapeutic molecule for lung cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000005150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5089099PMC
October 2016

Comparison of cell cycle components, apoptosis and cytoskeleton-related molecules and therapeutic effects of flavopiridol and geldanamycin on the mouse fibroblast, lung cancer and embryonic stem cells.

Tumour Biol 2016 Sep 21;37(9):12423-12440. Epub 2016 Jun 21.

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Similarities and differences in the cell cycle components, apoptosis and cytoskeleton-related molecules among mouse skin fibroblast cells (MSFs), mouse squamous cell lung carcinomas (SqCLCs) and mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) are important determinants of the behaviour and differentiation capacity of these cells. To reveal apoptotic pathways and to examine the distribution and the role of cell cycle-cell skeleton comparatively would necessitate tumour biology and stem cell biology to be assessed together in terms of oncogenesis and embryogenesis. The primary objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of flavopiridol, a cell cycle inhibitor, and geldanamycin, a heat shock protein inhibitor on mouse somatic, tumour and embryonic stem cells, by specifically focusing on alterations in cytoskeletal proteins, cell polarity and motility as well as cell cycle regulators. To meet these objectives, expression of several genes, cell cycle analysis and immunofluorescence staining of intracellular cytoskeletal molecules were performed in untreated and flavopiridol- or geldanamycin-treated cell lines. Cytotoxicity assays showed that SqCLCs are more sensitive to flavopiridol than MSFs and mESCs. Keratin-9 and keratin-2 expressions increased dramatically whereas cell cycle regulatory genes decreased significantly in the flavopiridol-treated MSFs. Flavopiridol-treated SqCLCs displayed a slight increase in several cell cytoskeleton regulatory genes as well as cell cycle regulatory genes. However, gene expression profiles of mESCs were not affected after flavopiridol treatment except the Cdc2a. Cytotoxic concentrations of geldanamycin were close to each other for all cell lines. Cdkn1a was the most increased gene in the geldanamycin-treated MSFs. However, expression levels of cell cytoskeleton-associated genes were increased dramatically in the geldanamycin-treated SqCLCs. Our results revealing differences in molecular mechanisms between embryogenesis and carcinogenesis may prove crucial in developing novel therapeutics that specifically target cancer cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-016-5108-9DOI Listing
September 2016

JAK/STAT pathway interacts with intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) while prostate cancer stem cells form tumor spheroids.

J BUON 2015 Sep-Oct;20(5):1250-7

Department of Stem Cell, Institute of Health Sciences, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

Purpose: JAK/STAT is an evolutionarily conserved pathway and very important for second messenger system. This pathway is important in malignant transformation and accumulated evidence indicates that this pathway is involved in tumorigenesis and progression of several cancers. It was possible to assume that activation of JAK/STAT pathway is associated with increase in the expressions of ICAM/1 and VCAM-1. In this study we hypothesized that when cells were maintained as spheroids or monolayers, the structure of cancer stem cells (CSCs) could show differentiation when compared with non-CSCs.

Methods: DU-145 human prostate cancer cells were cultured using the Ege University molecular embryology laboratory medium supplemented wıth 10% fetal bovine serum. Clusters of differentiation 133 (CD133)(+high)/CD44(+high) prostate CSCs were isolated from the DU145 cell line by using BD FACSAria. CD133//CD44+ CSCs were cultured until confluent with 3% noble agar. The expression of these proteins in CSCs and non-CSCs was analyzed by immunohistochemistry.

Results: Different expression profiles were observed in the conventional two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) experimental model system when CSCs and non-CSCs were compared. Human prostate CSCs exhibited intense ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 immunoreaction when compared with non-CSCs. These findings were supported by the fact that VCAM-1 on the surface of cancer cells binds to its counterreceptor, the α4β1 integrin (also known as very-late antigen, VLA-4), on metastasis-associated macrophages, triggering VCAM-1-mediated activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase growth and survival pathway in cancer cells.

Conclusions: The results of this study showed that changes in JAK/STAT pathway are related with adhesion molecules and could affect cancer progression.
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January 2016

Enhanced G2/M Arrest, Caspase Related Apoptosis and Reduced E-Cadherin Dependent Intercellular Adhesion by Trabectedin in Prostate Cancer Stem Cells.

PLoS One 2015 20;10(10):e0141090. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

Trabectedin (Yondelis, ET-743) is a marine-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid. It is originally derived from the Caribbean marine tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata and currently produced synthetically. Trabectedin is active against a variety of tumor cell lines growing in culture. The present study focused on the effect of trabectedin in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and spheroid formation in prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Cluster of differentiation (CD) 133+high/CD44+high prostate CSCs were isolated from the DU145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line through flow cytometry. We studied the growth-inhibitory effects of trabectedin and its molecular mechanisms on human prostate CSCs and non-CSCs. DU-145 and PC-3 CSCs were treated with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 nM trabectedin for 24, 48 and 72 h and the growth inhibition rates were examined using the sphere-forming assay. Annexin-V assay and immunofluorescence analyses were performed for the detection of the cell death. Concentration-dependent effects of trabectedin on the cell cycle were also evaluated. The cells were exposed to the different doses of trabectedin for 24, 48 and 72 h to evaluate the effect of trabectedin on the number and diameter of spheroids. According to the results, trabectedin induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis at the IC50 dose, resulting in a significant increase expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, p53 and decrease expression of bcl-2 in dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analyses revealed that trabectedin induces dose-dependent G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest, particularly at high-dose treatments. Three-dimensional culture studies showed that trabectedin reduced the number and diameter of spheroids of DU145 and PC3 CSCs. Furthermore, we have found that trabectedin disrupted cell-cell interactions via E-cadherin in prostasphere of DU-145 and PC-3 CSCs. Our results showed that trabectedin inhibits cellular proliferation and accelerates apoptotic events in prostate CSCs; and may be a potential effective therapeutic agent against prostate cancer.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0141090PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4618065PMC
June 2016

miR-15a enhances the anticancer effects of cisplatin in the resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells.

Tumour Biol 2016 Feb 28;37(2):1739-51. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Department of Medical Biology, Ege University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.

Platinum-based chemotherapies have long been used as a standard treatment in non-small cell lung cancer. However, cisplatin resistance is a major problem that restricts the use of cisplatin. Deregulated cell death mechanisms including apoptosis and autophagy could be responsible for the development of cisplatin resistance and miRNAs are the key regulators of these mechanisms. We aimed to analyse the effects of selected miRNAs in the development of cisplatin resistance and found that hsa-miR-15a-3p was one of the most significantly downregulated miRNAs conferring resistance to cisplatin in Calu1 epidermoid lung carcinoma cells. Only hsa-miR-15a-3p mimic transfection did not affect cell proliferation or cell death, though decreased cell viability was found when combined with cisplatin. We found that induced expression of hsa-miR-15a-3p via mimic transfection sensitised cisplatin-resistant cells to apoptosis and autophagy. Our results demonstrated that the apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing effects of hsa-miR-15a-3p might be due to suppression of BCL2, which exhibits a major connection with cell death mechanisms. This study provides new insights into the mechanism of cisplatin resistance due to silencing of the tumour suppressor hsa-miR-15a-3p and its possible contribution to apoptosis, autophagy and cisplatin resistance, which are the devil's triangle in determining cancer cell fate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13277-015-3950-9DOI Listing
February 2016

Induced growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CD133+/CD44+ prostate cancer stem cells by flavopiridol.

Int J Mol Med 2014 Nov 11;34(5):1249-56. Epub 2014 Sep 11.

Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Bornova 35100, Izmir, Turkey.

Flavopiridol is a flavone that inhibits several cyclin‑dependent kinases and exhibits potent growth‑inhibitory activity, apoptosis and G1‑phase arrest in a number of human tumor cell lines. Flavopiridol is currently undergoing investigation in human clinical trials. The present study focused on the effect of flavopiridol in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Therefore, cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133)(+high)/CD44(+high) prostate CSCs were isolated from the DU145 human prostate cancer cell line. The cells were treated with flavopiridol in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner to determine the inhibitory effect. Cell viability and proliferation were analyzed and the efficiency of flavopiridol was assessed using the sphere‑forming assay. Flavopiridol was applied to monolayer cultures of CD133(high)/CD44(high) human prostate CSCs at the following final concentrations: 100, 300, 500 and 1000 nM . The cultures were incubated for 24, 48 and 72 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of the drug was determined as 500 nM for monolayer cells. Dead cells were analyzed prior and subsequent to exposure to increasing flavopiridol doses. Annexin‑V and immunofluorescence analyses were performed for the evaluation of apoptotic pathways. According to the results, flavopiridol treatment caused significant growth inhibition at 500 and 1000 nM when compared to the control at 24 h. G(0)/G(1) analysis showed a statistically significant difference between 100 and 500 nM (P<0.005), 100 and 1000 nM (P<0.001), 300 and 1000 nM (P<0.001), and 500 and 1000 nM (P<0.001). Flavopiridol also significantly influenced the cells in the G(2)/M phase, particularly at high‑dose treatments. Flavopiridol induced growth inhibition and apoptosis at the IC(50) dose (500 nM), resulting in a significant increase in immunofluorescence staining of caspase‑3, caspase‑8 and p53. In conclusion, the present results indicated that flavopiridol could be a useful therapeutic agent for prostate CSCs by inhibiting tumor growth and malignant progression, and inducing apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2014.1930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199402PMC
November 2014
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