Publications by authors named "Ebrahim Shakiba"

41 Publications

Epidemiological features of HIV/AIDS in the Middle East and North Africa from 1990 to 2017.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 Mar 1;32(3):257-265. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The growing trend of HIV/AIDS is a major concern in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions, as its incidence in the region has increased by 31% in the last decade. The study population in the countries of the MENA region included 21 countries with a population of approximately 400 million. The Global Burden of Disease database was used to calculate the number of HIV/AIDS cases. Modeling for each country is based on the availability and quality of data. The highest incidence rates of HIV/AIDS were in Sudan, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Tunisia, and Iran, respectively, and the highest mortality rates were in Sudan, UAE, Oman, and Morocco, respectively. The incidence, prevalence and mortality rates, as well as the disability adjusted life years (DALYs) rate declined in 2017 compared to 1990. The highest percentage of changes in DALY rates was reported for Turkey, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Sudan, respectively, and the lowest for Qatar, Kuwait, and Bahrain. In general, unsafe sex had the highest impact on the DALY index in all countries in the region except Iran and Bahrain. Policymakers should therefore be encouraged to develop harm reduction programs for people living with HIV, and invest globally in reducing HIV prevalence rates in commercial sex workers, people who inject drugs, and men who have sex with men in the region, as well as eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462420960632DOI Listing
March 2021

Variants of Genes Involved in Metabolism of Folate Among Patients with Breast Cancer: Association of 3R Allele with Susceptibility to Breast Cancer and Metastasis.

Iran J Pathol 2021 10;16(1):62-68. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background & Objective: Breast cancer (BC) is known to be the most prevalent cancer among women. One-carbon metabolism disturbance might play an important role in the etiology of BC. The present study aimed to investigate the thymidylate synthase (TYMS), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), and methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) variants as good candidates for studying the role of genetic variants of folate metabolizing enzymes in the risk of BC.

Methods: The present case-control study includes 100 BC patients and 141 healthy females. The  2R/3R (rs34743033),  c.2756A>G (rs1805087), and c.66A>G (rs1801394) variants were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and a designed amplification-refractory mutation system (ARMS) method, respectively.

Results: The 3R allele of enhanced the risk of BC by 2.84-fold (<0.001). In the presence of 3R/3R, compared to 2R/3R, there was a trend toward enhancing the risk of metastasis by 4.15-fold (95% CI: 0.96-17.85, =0.055). The frequencies of c.2756A>G and c.66A>G variants were not significantly different among patients and controls.

Conclusion: We observed that the 3R is a risk allele for susceptibility to BC and this allele may increase the risk of metastasis in BC patients. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/ijp.2020.117676.2283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691710PMC
November 2020

SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in the general population and high-risk occupational groups across 18 cities in Iran: a population-based cross-sectional study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 04 15;21(4):473-481. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Digestive Oncology Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Digestive Diseases Research Center, Digestive Diseases Research Institute, Shariati Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Rapid increases in cases of COVID-19 were observed in multiple cities in Iran towards the start of the pandemic. However, the true infection rate remains unknown. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 18 cities of Iran as an indicator of the infection rate.

Methods: In this population-based cross-sectional study, we randomly selected and invited study participants from the general population (from lists of people registered with the Iranian electronic health record system or health-care centres) and a high-risk population of individuals likely to have close social contact with SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals through their occupation (from employee lists provided by relevant agencies or companies, such as supermarket chains) across 18 cities in 17 Iranian provinces. Participants were asked questions on their demographic characteristics, medical history, recent COVID-19-related symptoms, and COVID-19-related exposures. Iran Food and Drug Administration-approved Pishtaz Teb SARS-CoV-2 ELISA kits were used to detect SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in blood samples from participants. Seroprevalence was estimated on the basis of ELISA test results and adjusted for population weighting (by age, sex, and city population size) and test performance (according to our independent validation of sensitivity and specificity).

Findings: From 9181 individuals who were initially contacted between April 17 and June 2, 2020, 243 individuals refused to provide blood samples and 36 did not provide demographic information and were excluded from the analysis. Among the 8902 individuals included in the analysis, 5372 had occupations with a high risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and 3530 were recruited from the general population. The overall population weight-adjusted and test performance-adjusted prevalence of antibody seropositivity in the general population was 17·1% (95% CI 14·6-19·5), implying that 4 265 542 (95% CI 3 659 043-4 887 078) individuals from the 18 cities included were infected by the end of April, 2020. The adjusted seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies varied greatly by city, with the highest estimates found in Rasht (72·6% [53·9-92·8]) and Qom (58·5% [37·2-83·9]). The overall population weight-adjusted and test performance-adjusted seroprevalence in the high-risk population was 20·0% (18·5-21·7) and showed little variation between the occupations included.

Interpretations: Seroprevalence is likely to be much higher than the reported prevalence of COVID-19 based on confirmed COVID-19 cases in Iran. Despite high seroprevalence in a few cities, a large proportion of the population is still uninfected. The potential shortcomings of current public health policies should therefore be identified to prevent future epidemic waves in Iran.

Funding: Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education.

Translation: For the Farsi translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30858-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833828PMC
April 2021

Gene variants and haplotypes of Vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and function in preeclampsia.

Hypertens Pregnancy 2021 Feb 11;40(1):1-8. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah, Iran.

: To find whether the gene variants and haplotypes of cytochrome (CYP) 27B1 (1α-hydroxylase), group-specific component (GC) that is a vitamin D binding protein, vitamin D receptor (VDR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and retinoid-X receptor (RXR) affect the risk of preeclampsia. : In a case-control study 100 women with preeclampsia and 100 healthy pregnant women were investigated for gene variants and haplotypes of vitamin D biosynthesis, transport, and function using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. : The frequency of gene variants of PPARγ Pro12Ala and RXR -α (A/G, rs749759) were not significantly different comparing patients and controls. The TT genotype of CYP 27B1 (G > T) was associated with 2.2-fold (95% CI 1.04-4.7, p = 0.039) increased risk of early-onset preeclampsia. Also, the TT genotype of GC rs7041 (T > G) increased the risk of preeclampsia [OR = 2.13 (95% CI 1.09-4.17, p = 0.027)]. The VDR ApaI GT genotype elevated susceptibility to preeclampsia (OR = 2.55, p = 0.04). Further, the presence of VDR ApaI GT+TT genotype was associated with higher levels of body mass index, and systolic blood pressure, and lower level of 25 (OH)-D3. In the presence of haplotype CYP T, VDR T, and RXR A (TTA) compared to haplotype GTG the risk of preeclampsia was 6.71-fold (p = 0.044). : The present study indicated an association between the CYP 27B1, GC, and VDR ApaI variants with the risk of preeclampsia. Also, the variants of the latter polymorphism influenced BMI, blood pressure, and vitamin D levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10641955.2020.1849274DOI Listing
February 2021

Classification of cutaneous leishmaniasis patients based on its risk factors using latent class analysis.

Trop Doct 2021 Jan 23;51(1):91-95. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Research assistant, Deputy of Public Health, 48464Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the main health-economic problems around the world. Data were collected from all patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis referred to the health centres of Kermanshah province between 2013 and 2019. Latent class analysis was conducted by PROC LCA in SAS 9.2 and a significant level was set at 0.05. Four latent classes were identified: low (33.8%), moderate (9.8%), high (22.4%) and very high risk (34.0%). The probability of having a travel history was high in the third class. Our study indicated that having history of an eschar has no role in the classification of patients. On the other hand, a positive smear test is important in classifying subjects. Our results indicate that more than half of all patients fell under high risk or very high-risk class. This emphasises the importance of planning preventive intervention by considering different risk factors of cutaneous leishmaniasis simultaneously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0049475520971596DOI Listing
January 2021

Pattern of cigarette smoking: intensity, cessation, and age of beginning: evidence from a cohort study in West of Iran.

Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy 2020 10 27;15(1):83. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Substance Abuse Prevention Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Smoking is a social epidemic and one of the main risk factors for premature deaths and disabilities worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the Pattern of Cigarette Smoking: intensity, cessation, and age of the beginning.

Methods: Data collected from the recruitment phase of Ravansar (a Kurd region in western Iran) Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study was analyzed by using Chi-square test, univariate and multivariate logistic regressions, Poisson regression, and linear regression.

Results: Totally 10,035 individuals (47.42% males) participated in the study. Mean age was lower for males (47.45 yr) than for females (48.36 yr). Prevalence of smoking was 20% (36.4% of males and 5.23% of females). Compared to female participants, males showed a 7-fold higher prevalence of smoking and started smoking about 4 years earlier. Being married, having a lower BMI, living in rural areas, and being exposed to secondhand smoke (SHS) were predictors of higher smoking prevalence rates. Furthermore, current exposure to SHS, higher smoking intensity, later smoking initiation, male gender, younger age, lower education, and lower BMI were related to lower likelihood of stopping smoking. Heavy smokers began to smoke about 4 years earlier than casual smokers did. Finally, being divorced/ widow/ widower/ single and childhood exposure to SHS were found to increase the likelihood of becoming a smoker.

Conclusions: Based on present research results, health programs specific to smoking cessation should take socio-demographic factors, smoking history, and current smoking behavior into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13011-020-00324-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7590452PMC
October 2020

Establishing hematological reference intervals in healthy adults: Ravansar non-communicable disease cohort study, Iran.

Int J Lab Hematol 2021 Apr 23;43(2):199-209. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Introduction: It is necessary to establish hematological reference intervals (RIs) in each population to improve disease management and healthcare quality. This study aimed to establish age- and sex-specific hematological RIs in a healthy adult Kurdish population and evaluate the influence of select lifestyle factors.

Methods: Hematological parameters were studied in 6518 individuals (3006 females, 3512 males) from Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study. Hematological parameters were measured by Beckman Coulter HmX Analyzer. After combined application of exclusion criteria and statistical outlier removal, RIs for all partitions were calculated using nonparametric methods.

Results: The present study established hematological RIs for 14 parameters in a healthy adult Iranian population. Reference values for some analytes demonstrated significant age- and sex-specific differences and were slightly different when compared to RIs determined in other populations. Furthermore, the current smokers had higher levels of white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular volume than ex- and nonsmokers. Also, in the presence of high physical activity, elevated levels of RBC, hemoglobin, hematocrit, monocytes, and MCH were observed, as well as lower WBC levels. Further, a significant positive association was observed between body mass index (BMI) and WBC, red cell distribution width, and plateletcrit levels.

Conclusion: Our study suggests hematological parameters are influenced by age, sex, and lifestyle factors such as physical activity and BMI. Additionally, discrepancies when compared to other population studies suggest that ethnic-specific differences need to be considered when establishing RIs for hematological parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ijlh.13371DOI Listing
April 2021

Better muscle strength can decrease the risk of arthralgia and back &joint stiffness in Kurdish men; a cross-sectional study using data from RaNCD cohort study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 Oct 16;21(1):686. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Musculoskeletal disorders can reduce the quality of life and work capacity. The study assessed handgrip strength (HGS) in relation to low back pain and arthralgia in Kurdish men.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted using data from Ravansar non-communicable diseases (RaNCD) cohort study on 2164 men aged 35-65 years. HGS was measured using a hand-held hydraulic handgrip dynamometer. Low back pain, arthralgia, and joint stiffness were evaluated by the RaNCD cohort study physician using a standard questionnaire.

Results: The results showed that 21.39 and 24.58% of studied participants had low back pain and arthralgia, respectively. Among the participants with low back pain, 14.5% had back stiffness, and among those with arthralgia, 12.8% had joint stiffness. The mean of HGS in participants with arthralgia and back & joint stiffness was significantly less than those without these disorders (P < 0.001, P = 0.05, and P = 0.005, respectively). Multiple-adjusted OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for arthralgia and back and joint stiffness across muscle strength showed the HGS increase to be associated with a lower risk of arthralgia and back &joint stiffness, but not low back pain.

Conclusions: Higher HGS was associated with a lower risk of arthralgia and back & joint stiffness. However, there was no association between HGS and low back pain. Exercise and adherence to proper nutrition are suggested to enhance muscle strength in order to reduce musculoskeletal pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03712-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7568357PMC
October 2020

Primary Symptoms, Comorbidities, and Outcomes of 431 Hospitalized Patients with Confirmative RT-PCR Results for COVID-19.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 08 24;103(2):834-837. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Epidemiology and Biostatistics Unit, Rheumatology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

This study aimed to evaluate the primary symptoms, comorbidities, and outcomes of inpatients with confirmed reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 infection among 2077 suspected/diagnosed cases of COVID-19. Based on the results of Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) logistic regression, age, and suggestive chest X-ray (CXR) findings for SARS-CoV-2 infection, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, chronic lung diseases, and intensive care units admission had significant associations with positive RT-PCR results for COVID-19 infection. Also, the highest area under the curve (AUC) was related to cough (AUC = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.51-0.56), dyspnea (AUC = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.50-0.54), and abnormal CXR (AUC = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.50-0.54), as significant predictors. This study showed that some symptoms including cough and dyspnea, as well as abnormal CXR, could be proper predictors of positive RT-PCR result for SARS-CoV-2 infection. It seems that patients with underlying disease(s), such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and chronic lung diseases, had a higher probability to have positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 infection than those with no underlying disease(s).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410435PMC
August 2020

Association between dyslipidemia and blood lipids concentration with smoking habits in the Kurdish population of Iran.

BMC Public Health 2020 May 13;20(1):673. Epub 2020 May 13.

Student's research committee, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of medical sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: Smoking is the most preventable cause of most chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dyslipidemia is also an important risk factor for CVD. Yet, research has provided contradicting findings regarding the association between smoking and blood lipids. This paper examines the relationship between dyslipidemia and smoking based on the results of a cross-sectional sample of a Kurdish population in western Iran.

Methods: This population-based study was derived from the recruitment phase of Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study. Logistic regression model adjusted by confounding variables was used to determine the relationship between smoking and blood lipid components. In addition, dose-response relationship between blood lipids and the number of smoked cigarettes was evaluated.

Results: For the purpose of this study, 7586 participants were examined. The lifetime prevalence of smoking was 19.9%, and 11.8% were current smokers. The prevalence of dyslipidemia in current smokers (54.9%) was higher than former smokers (43.9%) and in turn former smokers higher than non-smokers (38.0%). Current smokers had greater risk of abnormal HDL cholesterol [OR (95% CI), 2.28(1.98 -2.62)] and triglyceride [OR (95% CI), 1.37(1.15 -1.67)] compared to non-smokers. There was no significant difference in total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol between the two groups. A dose-response relationship was found between the number of cigarettes smoked and HDL-C and TG but no relationship was observed in terms of total cholesterol and LDL-C.

Conclusions: As compared to non-smokers, current smokers and former smokers had abnormal HDL-C and triglyceride and abnormal total cholesterol and triglyceride, respectively. After quitting smoking, heavy smokers showed a more normal HDL-C and total cholesterol levels than the people who tended to smoke a lower number of cigarettes per day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08809-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218585PMC
May 2020

Lifetime Prevalence of Abortion and Risk Factors in Women: Evidence from a Cohort Study.

J Pregnancy 2020 27;2020:4871494. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: 10-20% of pregnancies end due to spontaneous abortions. In recent years, nondocumentary evidence has been indicative of an increase in the prevalence of nonspontaneous abortions in Iran, especially in the Kurdish regions. The aim of this study is to assess the lifetime prevalence of spontaneous abortions and factors affecting spontaneous abortion in women 35-65 years old.

Method: Data from the recruitment phase of Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study was used. All of the 4831 married women 35-65 years old and with history of pregnancy were included in this study. In order to determine the abortion ratio, the number of abortions was divided by the number of live births, and multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to determine associated factors affecting abortion.

Results: About 25.7% of women had a history of spontaneous abortion. The abortion ratio in women was 0.10. The abortion ratio in women with secondary education, first pregnancy and marriage age at ≥26, socioeconomic condition, and hyperthyroid and diabetes was high while the abortion ratio of women with high physical activity and BMI < 18.9 or residents of rural area was low. After assessing the effective variables, it was found that women with high blood pressure have 63% less odds for nonspontaneous abortion, which is statistically significant ( value < 0.05).

Conclusion: Considering the effect of factors such as level of education, older age at the first marriage, and age at the first pregnancy on increased chance of spontaneous abortion, measures should be taken to take more care for these people.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/4871494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7201453PMC
August 2020

Association between CYP19A

Int J Mol Cell Med 2019 20;8(2):162-168. Epub 2019 Jul 20.

Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Acne vulgaris (AV) is a common skin disease that causes physical and psychological problems for the affected individual. In addition to systemic changes in hormone levels, overproduction of local steroids, especially androgens are associated with AV. Cytochrome (CYP) 19 is involved in the synthesis of estrogens. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of CYP19A
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/IJMCM.BUMS.8.2.162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081083PMC
July 2019

The Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (G>A) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (C677T) Gene Variants and the Serum Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1, Insulin, and Homeostasis Model Assessment in Patients with .

Iran J Pathol 2020 ;15(1):23-29

Department of Internal Medicine, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background & Objective: To find an association between gene variants of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with the risk of acne vulgaris (AV).

Methods: In a case-control study, we investigated 150 AV patients and 148 healthy individuals (aged 18-25 years) for the IGF-1 G>A and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, as well as the serum levels of IGF-1, insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The serum biochemical parameters and the genotypes of IGF-1 G>A and MTHFR C677T were detected by using appropriate kits and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods, respectively.

Results: The frequencies of IGF-1 and the MTHFR polymorphisms were not significantly different comparing patients and controls. The serum level of IGF-1 was 179.8±72.8 µg/L in AV patients compared to 164.6±63.7 µg/L in controls (=0.056). The serum level of insulin in female patients was significantly higher than controls. The HOMA was 3.54±5.6 in patients compared to 1.16±1.4 (<0.001) in controls. Significantly higher levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were detected in female patients than controls. However, the level of estradiol was significantly lower in female patients than in controls. In females, the presence of the MTHFR T allele was associated with significantly higher levels of FBS and LDL-C, as well as a significantly lower level of estradiol compared to those carriers of the C allele.

Conclusion: We found the absence of an association between IGF-1 and MTHFR polymorphisms with the risk of AV. However, increased insulin, IGF-1, and HOMA levels in AV patients indicated the effect of insulin and insulin resistance in the risk of AV and its severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/IJP.2019.105695.2098DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995677PMC
January 2020

A systematic review and meta-analysis of evaluation of serum interleukin 8 levels in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Clin Exp Hepatol 2019 May 30;5(2):123-128. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Students Research Committee, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Aim Of The Study: To estimate serum interleukin 8 (IL-8) level in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared to controls and patients with chronic hepatitis (CH) and liver cirrhosis (LC).

Material And Methods: Three databases, i.e. PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus, were searched up to November 2017 without language restriction. The mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used by a random-effects analysis in RevMan version 5.3, and sensitivity analysis was performed as the secondary analysis.

Results: Out of 239 studies found, 10 studies recruiting 659 HCC patients, 237 controls, 357 patients with LC, and 48 patients with CH were included and analyzed in the meta-analysis. The pooled MDs were 39.48 (95%CI: 152.31, 406.47, < 0.00001), 21.32 (95% CI: -6.04, 48.68, = 0.13), and 36.46 (95% CI: 21.77, 51.15, < 0.00001) in the patients with HCC compared to the controls, the patients with LC and those with CH, respectively.

Conclusions: An elevated serum IL-8 level in the HCC patients compared to the three other groups showed an increased risk for this cytokine in HCC patients. Therefore, this interleukin can be used as a new biomarker replacing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) or as a clinical assay for evaluation of the pathogenesis and probably the progression or development of HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceh.2019.84780DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6728862PMC
May 2019

Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and their determinants: Results from the first cohort of non-communicable diseases in a Kurdish settlement.

Sci Rep 2019 08 27;9(1):12409. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Kermanshah Cardiovascular Research Center, Health Institute, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Hypertension is a public health issue in Iran. The study aimed to estimate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and to explore their determinants among 10,040 Kurdish adults from Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease (RaNCD) cohort study in Iran. Univariate, and multivariate analyses were used for statistical analysis. Prevalence of hypertension was 15.7%. Among hypertensive patients, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were 80.7%, 73.2%, and 53.3%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, significant associations were found between awareness and female sex, older age, being married rather than being single, literacy, living in rural areas, having family history, and comorbidities, with a higher probability for those who had both diabetes and dyslipidemia. Being married, living in rural areas, being ex-smokers, having less physical activity and individuals who had diabetes and dyslipidemia had higher odds of receiving treatment. Being female had a statistically significant association with the control of hypertension. The Kurdish population had higher awareness, with a greater proportion of treated, and controlled patients compared to populations included in previous studies for the last 20 years in Iran. With the continuing health promotion programs in Iran, it is expected to observe a lower prevalence of hypertension, higher awareness and greater number of treated individuals with controlled hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48232-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6711962PMC
August 2019

Validity of Self-reported Hypertension and Factors Related to Discordance Between Self-reported and Objectively Measured Hypertension: Evidence From a Cohort Study in Iran.

J Prev Med Public Health 2019 Mar 29;52(2):131-139. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science (CDU), Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Objectives: Self-reporting can be used to determine the incidence and prevalence of hypertension (HTN). The present study was conducted to determine the validity of self-reported HTN and to identify factors affecting discordance between self-reported and objectively measured HTN in participants in the Ravansar Non-Communicable Diseases (RaNCD) cohort.

Methods: The RaNCD cohort included permanent residents of Ravansar, Iran aged 35-65 years. Self-reported data were collected before clinical examinations were conducted by well-trained staff members. The gold standard for HTN was anti-hypertensive medication use and blood pressure measurements. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and overall accuracy of self-reporting were calculated. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the discordance between self-reported HTN and the gold standard.

Results: Of the 10 065 participants in the RaNCD, 4755 (47.4%) were male. The prevalence of HTN was 16.8% based on self-reporting and 15.7% based on medical history and HTN measurements. Of the participants with HTN, 297 (18.8%) had no knowledge of their disease, and 313 (19.9%) had not properly controlled their HTN despite receiving treatment. The sensitivity, specificity, and kappa for self-reported HTN were 75.5%, 96.4%, and 73.4%, respectively. False positives became more likely with age, body mass index (BMI), low socioeconomic status, and female sex, whereas false negatives became more likely with age, BMI, high socioeconomic status, smoking, and urban residency.

Conclusions: The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported HTN were acceptable, suggesting that this method can be used for public health initiatives in the absence of countrywide HTN control and detection programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3961/jpmph.18.257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6459766PMC
March 2019

Dietary patterns, nutrition, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in the west of Iran.

Epidemiol Health 2019 24;41:e2019003. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Health Services Management, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Objectives: Unhealthy dietary patterns are the most important changeable risk factors for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer among under-50 year women in the west of Iran.

Methods: All women under 50 years old with pathologically confirmed breast cancer between 2013 and 2015 who were referred to oncology clinics in the west of Iran, and 408 under-50 women referred to other outpatient clinics who were without breast or other cancers at the time of the study and 2 years later were selected as the control group. The data were collected using the middle-aged periodical care form of the Iranian Ministry of Health and analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression in Stata.

Results: The most powerful risk factor for breast cancer was fried foods; the odds ratio of consuming fried foods more than once a month for breast cancer was 4.5 (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 9.4). A dose-response model indicated that increasing vegetable and fruit consumption up to 90 servings per month decreased the odds of breast cancer, but consuming more than 90 servings per month increased the risk.

Conclusions: Inadequate consumption of vegetables and consumption of soft drinks, industrially produced juices, fried foods, and sweets were identified as risk factors for breast cancer. In response to these findings, it is necessary to raise awareness and to provide education about healthy diets and the need to change unhealthy dietary patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6446065PMC
March 2019

Cohort Profile: Ravansar Non-Communicable Disease cohort study: the first cohort study in a Kurdish population.

Int J Epidemiol 2019 06;48(3):682-683f

Centre for Longitudinal and Life Course Research, School of Public Health, University of Queensland, Queensland, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyy296DOI Listing
June 2019

Association between activity and genotypes of paraoxonase1 LM (rs854560) increases the disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis through oxidative stress.

Mol Biol Rep 2019 Feb 1;46(1):741-749. Epub 2018 Dec 1.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee, Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered as a long-term autoimmune disorder. Gene polymorphism and oxidative stress might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. We aimed to determine the association between PON-1L55M polymorphism and its effects on inflammatory markers such as anti-cytroline circulated-peptide (CCP)-antibodies, C-reactive protein (CRP), neopterin serum concentration, arylesterase (ARE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activities and total-antioxidant-capacity (TAC) level with the activity of disease in RA patients. This case-control study consisted of 419 RA patients and 397 gender-age-matched unrelated healthy controls from the west of Iran. PON1-L55M polymorphism was detected by real-time-PCR. The TAC level, serum BuChE and ARE activities were determined spectrophotometrically. Anti-CCP-antibody and CRP were measured by ELISA and neopterin level was detected by HPLC. The PON1-M55 allele was associated with increased risk of the RA in cases with moderate or high activity (OR = 1.43, p = 0.023) and also in cases with the presence of anti-CCP antibody (OR = 1.51, p = 0.009). Synergistic effects of PON1 M55 and Q192 alleles resulted in 2.14 times (p = 0.021) increased disease activity among RA patients with moderate or high activity of the disease. RA patients carried both M (PON1 L55M) and Q alleles (PON1Q192R) had higher concentrations of neopterin (p = 0.003), anti-CCP-antibody (p < 0.001) and CRP (p = 0.026) and significantly lower TAC level (p < 0.001) and ARE (p < 0.001) activity compared to controls. The current study suggests there might be a relationship between genetic and activity of PON. Also, the PON1L55M and PON1Q192R could act in synergy to increase the risk of RA and enhance the level of oxidative stress markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-018-4530-zDOI Listing
February 2019

Evaluation of serum interleukin-6 levels in hepatocellular carcinoma patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Exp Hepatol 2018 Sep 10;4(3):182-190. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Aim Of The Study: This meta-analysis evaluated serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients compared with healthy controls and hepatitis and cirrhotic patients.

Material And Methods: The three databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for assessment of IL-6 levels in HCC patients (without cirrhosis and hepatitis) compared with healthy controls (without HCC, cirrhosis and hepatitis) and the studies were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. A random-effect meta-analysis was performed with RevMan 5.3 software, using mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

Results: Out of 503 studies searched in databases, 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled analysis with continuous data demonstrated that the IL-6 level in HCC patients was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (MD = 12.44; 95% CI: 9.02-15.85; < 0.00001). Also, the pooled analysis demonstrated that the IL-6 levels in cirrhotic patients (MD = -6.98; 95% CI: -12.91-1.05; < 0.02) and patients with hepatitis (MD = -8.43; 95% CI: -11.91-4.95; < 0.00001) were significantly lower than the level in HCC patients, and the subgroup analyses had high heterogeneity.

Conclusions: The elevated IL-6 levels in HCC patients compared with hepatitis and cirrhosis patients and healthy controls may show a significant association of this cytokine with increased risk of HCC and its potential as a diagnostic marker for HCC in future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceh.2018.78122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6185933PMC
September 2018

Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (rs106180) and angiotensin type 1 receptor A C (rs106165) genotypes and psoriasis: Correlation with cellular immunity, lipid profile, and oxidative stress markers.

J Cell Biochem 2018 Oct 10. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin condition and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a key circulating enzyme converting angiotensin (Ang) I to the vasoactive peptide Ang II. The exact role of ACE insertion (I)/deletion (D) polymorphism (rs106180) in psoriasis is not clear. We aimed to examine whether the ACE I/D and Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) A C-polymorphisms (rs106165), lipid profile, and stress oxidative are associated with susceptibility to psoriasis. One hundred patients with psoriasis and 100 sex- and age-matched unrelated healthy controls were recruited for this case-control study. ACE I/D and AT1R A C polymorphisms were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, respectively, malondialdehyde (MDA) was detected by the high-performance liquid chromatography, serum arylesterase (ARE) activity of paraoxonase and catalase activities were detected by the spectrophotometry, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and vascular adhesion protein (VAP)-1 were measured by ELISA. The presence of C allele of AT1R A C and I allele of ACE considerably increased the risk of psoriasis by 6.42-fold (P < 0.001). The distribution of II-genotype of ACE was significantly higher in psoriasis patients than in control group and increased the risk of disease by 3.11-times (P = 0.023). The higher levels of MDA in patients and the higher activity of SOD, ARE, and CAT was observed in healthy controls with I/D+I/I-genotype of ACE I/D. This study for the first time demonstrated that the ACE I/D and AT1R A C genes polymorphisms robustly increases the risk of developing psoriasis in population from west of Iran. In addition, these individuals had significantly higher VAP-1 and MDA concentration and lower enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant-status, suggesting that psoriatic patients carrying C allele of AT1R polymorphism may be more susceptible to cardiovascular disease and myocardial infarction compared with A allele.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.27569DOI Listing
October 2018

Association between the -11377 C/G and -11391 G/A polymorphisms of adiponectin gene and adiponectin levels with susceptibility to type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in population from the west of Iran, correlation with lipid profile.

J Cell Biochem 2019 03 11;120(3):3574-3582. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Biochemistry, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Adipose tissue, an endocrine organ, secretes bioactive factors including adiponectin. Adiponectin is a protein hormone that enhances insulin sensitivity through increased fatty acid oxidation and inhibition of hepatic glucose production. We assessed the association of the adiponectin promoter region polymorphisms -11391 G/A and -11377 C/G with susceptibility to type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 (T2DM) diabetes mellitus in the population of west Iran. Also, we investigated the effect of adiponectin level and lipid profile on T1DM and T2DM development. In this case-control study, we recruited 189 patients with diabetes (100 T2DM and 89 T1DM) and 161 sex and age-matched unrelated healthy controls. Adiponectin mutations were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and the protein level was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Other biochemical parameters were determined by routine laboratory methods. The G allele of adiponectin gene at -11377 position (C/G) significantly increased the risk of T1DM. With respect to genotype models, codominant (2.97 times), dominant (3.6-fold), and over-codominant (2.9-fold) patients with T1DM who carried -11377 C > G single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly susceptible to the development of the disease. A significantly higher level of adiponectin in T1DM was oberved compared with the control group. In contrast, patients with T2DM had lower adiponectin levels compared with healthy controls. The genotype distributions of -11391 G/A polymorphisms were the same for patients with diabetes and control groups. The presence of G allele at -11377 C/G adiponectin gene significantly increased serum adiponectin level and may be a risk factor for T1DM susceptibility among the western Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.27634DOI Listing
March 2019

The type of training program affects appetite-regulating hormones and body weight in overweight sedentary men.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019 Mar 27;44(3):282-287. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

c Department of Cardiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Exercise-induced weight loss can occur for several reasons, including changes in circulatory levels of appetite-regulating hormones. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of various training programs on fasting serum levels of acylated ghrelin, peptide YY 3-36 (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), as well as weight and body mass index (BMI) changes. Forty-four overweight men were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 11 individuals, which included (i) endurance group (3 sets of 10 min with 80%-90% of maximum heart rate), (ii) resistance group (4 sets of 8 repetitions with 80% of 1-repetition maximum), (iii) concurrent group (combination of programs of endurance and resistance groups in an alternate manner), and (iv) control group. Training protocols were conducted for 12 weeks for 3 sessions per week. Results showed that all 3 types of training programs resulted in weight loss (p = 0.000, p = 0.000, and p = 0.036 for resistance, concurrent, and endurance groups, respectively), BMI reduction (p = 0.000, p = 0.000, and p = 0.034), decreased serum acylated ghrelin (p = 0.000, p = 0.000, and p = 0.004), and increased PYY hormone levels (p = 0.028, p = 0.035, and p = 0.036). However, the effect of resistance training on these changes was more pronounced. Moreover, none of the exercise programs had any effect on serum levels of GLP-1. In addition, there was a significant positive correlation between weight (p = 0.003) and BMI (p = 0.009) changes with ghrelin while a negative correlation was observed between weight (p = 0.003) and BMI (p = 0.03) changes with PYY. The findings suggest that regular exercise training, in particular resistance training, is likely to reduce body weight and improve body composition of overweight inactive people by suppressing orexigenic hormones and stimulating the anorexigenic hormones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2018-0197DOI Listing
March 2019

The Association of PPARγ Pro12Ala and C161T Polymorphisms with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Their Influence on Lipid and Lipoprotein Profiles.

Int J Fertil Steril 2018 Jul 18;12(2):147-151. Epub 2018 Mar 18.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Background: The aim of present study was to clarify the role of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and their influence on lipid and lipoprotein profiles of patients.

Materials And Methods: The present cross-sectional study consisted of 50 women with PCOS, who referred to the Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Clinic between April and October 2015, and 233 unrelated age-matched healthy women from the same region (West Iran). The PPARγ Pro12Ala and PPARγ C161T polymorphisms were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), serum triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoproteincholesterol (HDL-C) and estradiol levels were measured.

Results: The serum level of estradiol was significantly lower in PCOS patients compared to healthy women. The PPARγ Pro12Ala (CG) genotype increased the risk of PCOS 2.96-fold. The frequency of the PPARγ T allele (at C161T) was 21% in patients and 17.2% in controls with no significant difference (P=0.52). In all studied individuals, the PPARγ CG genotype was associated with significantly higher levels of TG. However, significantly lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL-C were observed in PPARγ TT individuals compared with those with the CC genotype. Within the PCOS group, the PPARγ CG genotype was significantly associated with lower levels of estradiol compared with the CC genotype. Also, the CG genotype was significantly associated with higher levels of TG when compared with the CC genotype.

Conclusion: Our study shows that, unlike PPARγ C161T, PPARγ Pro12Ala is associated with the risk of PCOS. Also, we found that the lipid and lipoprotein profiles significantly vary based on PPARγ Pro12Ala and C161T genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22074/ijfs.2018.5270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5936613PMC
July 2018

Chemerin rs17173608 and vaspin rs2236242 gene variants on the risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD) and correlation with plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level.

Ren Fail 2018 Nov;40(1):350-356

a Department of Clinical Biochemistry , Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences , Kermanshah , Iran.

Introduction: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with critical kidney illness that seriously affects the lifespan. Genetic factors and oxidative stress could play critical role in the development of ESRD. We assessed the association between chemerin rs17173608 T/G and vaspin rs2236242 T/A genes variants with the risk of ESRD and their correlation with plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) level.

Materials And Methods: In a case-control study, 131 gender and age-matched unrelated healthy controls and 110 ESRD patients were enrolled. The chemerin rs17173608 T/G and vaspin rs2236242 T/A were detected by Tetra primer-amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction (T-ARMS-PCR). The MDA concentration was determined by HPLC.

Results: Our findings for the first time revealed that in codominant genetic model (T/G vs. T/T genotype), the T/G genotype of chemerin gene significantly had a protective role against ESRD susceptibility. Also, in the presence of chemerin G allele, the risk of ESRD decreased by 0.79-fold (p = .048) in Kurdish population of Iran. The MDA serum levels in ESRD patients carrying the chemerin T/G + G/G genotype of rs17173608 T/G and also in carriers of A/A + T/A genotype of vaspin rs2236242 T/A were significantly higher compared to those in control subjects. The overall distribution of vaspin rs2236242 T/A genotypes and alleles comparing ESRD patients and healthy subjects were not statistically significant.

Conclusion: We found that the G allele of chemerin rs17173608 compared to T allele decreased the risk of ESRD, and there was a significant association between chemerin and vaspin variants with plasma MDA level in a sample of the Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0886022X.2018.1459698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014516PMC
November 2018

Evaluation of serum interleukin-10 levels in hepatocellular carcinoma patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Clin Exp Hepatol 2018 Mar 9;4(1):35-40. Epub 2018 Feb 9.

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

Aim Of The Study: This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate serum IL-10 levels in HCC patients.

Material And Methods: The three databases PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science were checked on July 2017 for assessment of IL-10 levels in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients compared with healthy controls in publications with an English abstract. A random-effect meta-analysis was performed using mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Also, publication bias was evaluated through funnel plot analysis with the Begg's and Egger's tests.

Results: Out of 171 studies searched in the databases, nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled analysis with continuous data concluded that IL-10 level in the patients was significantly higher than the controls (MD = 6.96; 95% CI = 4.91-9.01; < 0.00001), in the HCC patients was significantly higher than the cirrhotic patients (MD = 2.92; 95% CI = 0.72-5.12; = 0.009), and was similar in the HCC patients compared with the patients with hepatitis (MD = 3.91; 95% CI = -4.25-12.07; = 0.35).

Conclusion: The increased IL-10 levels in the HCC patients compared with the cirrhotic patients and the healthy controls may show a significant role of this cytokine in the elevated risk of HCC, but the lack of significant difference in the levels between HCC and hepatitis makes it an unreliable tumor marker in the latter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/ceh.2018.73484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5865908PMC
March 2018

Subgroup dairy products consumption on the risk of stroke and CHD: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2017;31:25. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Department of General Linguistics, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.

There is no global consensus about the relationship between dairy consumption and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study aimed at integrating the results of several studies to predict the dairy effects on CVD, e.g. stroke and CHD. In the present study, some major databases such as Scopus, Science Direct, and PubMed were searched up to September 2014. All prospective cohort studies dealing with dairy products consumption and CVD were surveyed regardless of their publication date or language. This reference population includes all individuals without any delimitation with regard to age, gender, or race. The quality of the study was evaluated using STROBE Checklist. Study selection and data extraction were done by 2 independent researchers separately. The indices in this study were RR and HR. The random model was used to combine the results. Out of 6234 articles, 11 were included in the meta-analysis. No relationship was found between stroke and consumption of milk, cream, and butter, and the results are as follow: RR = 0.91 (95%CI: 0.81-1.01) for milk, RR = 0.97 (95%CI: 0.88-1.06) for cream, and RR = 0.95 (95%CI: 0.85-1.07) for butter. However, cheese was found to decrease stroke risk: RR = 0.93 (95%CI: 0.88-0.99). The relationship of CHD with consumption of milk, cheese, cream, and butter are as follows, respectively: RR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.96- 1.15), RR = 0.90 (95%CI: 0.81-1.01), RR = 0.96 (95% CI: 0.87-1.06), and RR = 0.99 (95%CI: 0.89-1.11). In other words, no relationship existed between dairy products and CHD. No relationship was found between consumption of various dairy products and CHD or stroke, except for cheese that decreased stroke risk by 7%. Considering the small number of studies, the result of the present study is not generalizable and more studies need to be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18869/mjiri.31.25DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5804434PMC
March 2017

Synergism between apolipoprotein E Ɛ4 allele and paraoxonase (PON1) 55-M allele is associated with risk of systemic lupus erythematosus.

Clin Rheumatol 2018 Apr 22;37(4):971-977. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Daneshgah Avenue, PO Box 6714869914, Kermanshah, Iran.

Evidences indicate that abnormal lipid metabolism and lipid peroxidation can affect the progression of complications in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) and paraoxonase-1 (PON1) play important role in lipid metabolism and protection of lipid peroxidation. The polymorphisms of ApoE and paraoxonase (PON1) L55M (Met < Leu) allele genes lead to disorders in lipid metabolism and are related to atherosclerosis. This study is the first investigation to examine the possible association between ApoE and PON1-L55M polymorphisms and correlation with serum arylesterase (ARE) activities of PON, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), neopterin, and lipid lipoprotein in SLE patients from Iranian western population. The present case-control study consisted of 107 SLE patients and 101 gender- and age-matched, unrelated, healthy controls from Iran's western population. The ApoE and PON1-L55M genotypes were identified using PCR-RFLP method. The serum level of MDA, neopterin, lipid levels, and ARE activity were determined by HPLC, commercial kits, and spectrophotometry, respectively. Our results showed that ApoE ε4 and PON1-55M alleles act synergistically to increase the risk of SLE by 1.47 times (p = 0.038). We found that the frequency of ApoE Ɛ3/Ɛ4 genotype was higher in SLE patients (11.2%) compared with control subjects (5%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.087). This study for the first time not only demonstrates that ApoE Ɛ4 and PON-55M alleles synergistically increase the risk of SLE but also reveals that serum levels of MDA, neopterin, and LDL-C are high in SLE patients. This information may be in value for evaluating SLE progression and in the elucidation of the mechanisms of the disease pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-017-3859-3DOI Listing
April 2018

Preparation and characterization of retinoic acid-loaded poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) micelles.

Res Pharm Sci 2017 Dec;12(6):465-478

Nano Drug Delivery Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, I.R. Iran.

In order to achieve the controlled release of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), poly(ε-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL-PEG-PCL) copolymer with average molecular weight of 5.34 kDa was synthesized. The nanosized micelles were prepared from copolymer by nano-precipitation method. Critical association concentration (CAC) of micelles was measured by fluorimetry and results indicated low CAC value of micelles (1.9 × 10 g/L). ATRA was encapsulated in the core of micelles using different ratios of drug to copolymer. In the case of 10% drug to polymer ratio, more than 80% of the drug was released within 3 days, whereas for ratio of 2% more than 90% of the drug was released within 3 h. The cytotoxic study performed by MTT assay showed that H1299 survival percent decreased significantly ( ≤ 0.05) after exposure to drug-loaded micelles, while no proliferation inhibition effect was observed by either free ATRA or blank PCL-PEG-PCL micelles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.217427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691573PMC
December 2017

PPARγ Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms in patients with acne vulgaris: Contribution to lipid and lipoprotein profile.

Adv Med Sci 2018 Mar 6;63(1):147-151. Epub 2017 Nov 6.

Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Medical School, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: The aim of present study was to clarify the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) Pro12Ala and C161T variants in the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris (AV) and their influence on lipid and lipoprotein profile.

Methods: The present case-control study consisted of 393 individuals including 198 patients with AV (mild-, moderate-, and severe-AV) and 195 unrelated age-matched healthy individuals from Western Iran. The PPARγ Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms were identified using polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism method. Also, serum lipid and lipoprotein profile and fasting blood sugar (FBS) were detected in studied individuals.

Results: In women patients with AV significantly higher serum levels of FBS, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared to healthy women were detected. Neither PPARγ Pro12Ala nor C161T polymorphism was associated with the risk of AV but the Pro allele was a risk factor for AV among all men and women patients ≥20years. The variant genotype of PPARγ CG (Pro/Ala) was associated with significantly higher levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides compared to CC (Pro/Pro) genotype. We detected a significantly lower level of FBS in the presence of CT+TT genotype of PPARγ C161T compared to CC genotype. Also, carriers of PPARγ TT genotype had significantly lower serum level of total cholesterol and LDL-C compared to CC genotype.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrated the association of PPARγ Pro allele with susceptibility to AV in patients ≥20years and the influence of PPARγ Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms on the lipid and lipoprotein profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.advms.2017.09.003DOI Listing
March 2018