Publications by authors named "Eba Abdisa"

10 Publications

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Determinants of adverse birth outcomes among women delivered in public hospitals of Ethiopia, 2020.

Arch Public Health 2022 Jan 4;80(1):12. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

School of Nursing and midwifery, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Adverse birth outcome is a common health problem consisting of several health effects involving pregnancy and the newborn infant. Infants with one or more adverse birth outcomes are at greater risk for mortality and a variety of health and developmental problems. Factors such as the age of the mother, antepartum hemorrhage, history of abortion, gestational age, anemia, and maternal undernutrition have predisposed the mother to adverse birth outcome. For appropriate prevention of the adverse birth outcomes, data pertaining to determinants of adverse birth outcomes are important. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the determinants of adverse birth outcomes among women who give birth in public hospitals of western Ethiopia.

Methods: An institutional-based unmatched prospective case-control study was conducted from February 15 to April 15, 2020, in selected public hospitals of western Ethiopia. From mothers who gave birth in public hospitals of Wollega zones, 165 cases and 330 controls were selected. Mothers with adverse birth outcomes were cases and mothers without adverse birth were controls. Data was collected by structured interviewer-administered questionnaires. In addition to the interview, the data collectors abstracted clinical data by reviewing the mother and the babies' medical records. The collected data were entered into Epi info version 7 and exported to SPSS version 21 for analysis. Finally, multivariable logistic regression was used to identify determinants of adverse birth outcomes at P-value < 0.05.

Results: A total of 495 mothers (165 cases and 330 controls) were included in the study with a mean age of 28.48 + 5.908. Low ANC visit (AOR = 3.92: 95% CI; 1.86, 8.2), premature rupture of membrane (AOR = 2.83: 95% CI; 1.72,4.64), being Anemic (AOR = 2: 95% CI; 1.16,3.44), pregnancy induced-hypertension (AOR = 2.3:95% CI; 1.4,3.85), not getting dietary supplementation (AOR = 2.47:95% CI; 1.6,3.82), and physical abuse (AOR = 2.13: 95% CI; 1.05,4.32) were significantly associated with the development of the adverse birth outcome.

Conclusion: Low antenatal care visit, being anemic, premature rupture of membrane, pregnancy-induced hypertension, not getting dietary supplementation, and physical abuse were determinants of adverse birth outcomes. The clinicians should play a pivotal role to improve antenatal care follow up, counsel, and supplement recommended diets and minimize violence and abuse during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-021-00776-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8728986PMC
January 2022

COVID-19's Negative Impacts on Clinical Learning and Proposed Compensation Mechanisms Among Undergraduate Midwifery and Nursing Students of Jimma University.

Adv Med Educ Pract 2021 4;12:1411-1417. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Department of Midwifery, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Background: Even though lockdown measures contributed to reducing the rate of COVID-19 transmission, it resulted in great distraction in clinical learning. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess COVID-19's negative impacts on clinical learning, and proposed compensation mechanisms among midwifery and nursing undergraduate students of Jimma University, southwest Ethiopia.

Methods: This study was conducted among 147 midwifery and nursing students of Jimma University in March 2021 using cross-sectional study design. The respondents were selected by simple random sampling method. Data were collected by using a self-administered questionnaire and analyzed descriptively by SPSS v.23. The results were presented in tables, and narrated.

Results: Three fifths (88 (59.9%)) of the study participants perceived high negative impacts of COVID-19 on their recent clinical learning. The proposed compensation mechanisms to be implemented before and during the next clinical practice include: using teacher-facilitated skill demonstration laboratory, case scenarios, clinical teaching videos, and clinical conferences. Students' effort to understand the objectives of their clinical learning and using multi-media to achieve it was another proposed compensation mechanism. Also, providing pre-placement training and in-service training with priority for students graduating during COVID-19 pandemic were proposed compensation mechanisms.

Conclusion: COVID-19's negative impacts on clinical learning were great among the participants of this study. The proposed compensation mechanisms should be applied by all concerned bodies with great emphasis to end the long-term negative impact of the pandemic, thereby ensuring the production of competent midwives and nurses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S342386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8653910PMC
December 2021

Time to Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Its Predictors Among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Positive People in Nekemte Town, Western Ethiopia: Claim of Universal Test and Treat.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2021 9;13:959-972. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Midwifery, Institutes of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: HIV continuum of care demands early ART initiation for all HIV-infected individuals. Early ART initiation reduces onward HIV transmission facilitating rapid viral suppression. Despite this, delayed ART use is a challenge among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals, and there is limited evidence on time to ART initiation among this group in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to assess time to ART initiation and its predictors among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals in Nekemte town, Western Ethiopia.

Methods: An institution-based retrospective follow-up study was conducted on 518 newly diagnosed HIV-positive people from September 5, 2016 to December 20, 2020 at Nekemte town, Western Ethiopia. Data were collected from ART intake forms, registration log books and patient charts. The collected data were entered into Epi Data version 3.1 and STATA version 14.0 was used for analysis. Survival probability was checked graphically by Kaplan-Meier curve and statistically by Log rank test. Both bivariable and multivariable Cox Proportional hazards regression models were conducted to identify the predictors of ART initiation. Hazard ratio with 95% CI and p-value of <0.05 was used to declare a statistical significance.

Results: By the end of the follow-up, 371 (71.6%) individuals had initiated ART with an overall incidence rate of 51.9 per 1000 [95% CI: 54.07-66.32] person days; median time to ART initiation was 4 [IQR: 1-9] days. Being female (AHR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.06-1.67), urban dwellers (AHR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.37-2.97), having baseline OIs (AHR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.60-4.30); being tested via VCT (AHR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.02-1.74); linked from OPD (AHR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.47-0.85); disclosing HIV sero-status (AHR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.17-3.68); and college and above education level (AHR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.00-2.0) were identified as significant predictors of early initiation of ART.

Conclusion: The proportion and incidence of ART initiation was high; a short median time to ART initiation was revealed in this study. Strictly screening OIs, encouraging HIV sero-status disclosure and voluntary HIV testing are recommended to increase early ART initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S327967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8519411PMC
October 2021

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on chronic diseases care follow-up and current perspectives in low resource settings: a narrative review.

Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol 2021 15;13(3):86-93. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Pharmacy, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Coronavirus is a respiratory disease that spreads globally. The severity and mortality risk of the disease is significant in the elderly, peoples having co-morbidities, and immunosuppressive patients. The outbreak of the pandemic created significant barriers to diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of chronic diseases. Delivering regular and routine comprehensive care for chronic patients was disrupted due to closures of healthcare facilities, lack of public transportation or reductions in services. The purpose of this narrative review was to update how patients with chronic care were affected during the pandemic, healthcare utilization services and available opportunities for better chronic disease management during the pandemic in resources limited settings. Moreover, this review may call to the attention of concerned bodies to make decisions and take measures in the spirit of improving the burden of chronic diseases by forwarding necessary recommendations for possible change and to scale up current intervention programs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310882PMC
June 2021

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on chronic diseases care follow-up and current perspectives in low resource settings: a narrative review.

Int J Physiol Pathophysiol Pharmacol 2021 15;13(3):86-93. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

School of Pharmacy, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Coronavirus is a respiratory disease that spreads globally. The severity and mortality risk of the disease is significant in the elderly, peoples having co-morbidities, and immunosuppressive patients. The outbreak of the pandemic created significant barriers to diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of chronic diseases. Delivering regular and routine comprehensive care for chronic patients was disrupted due to closures of healthcare facilities, lack of public transportation or reductions in services. The purpose of this narrative review was to update how patients with chronic care were affected during the pandemic, healthcare utilization services and available opportunities for better chronic disease management during the pandemic in resources limited settings. Moreover, this review may call to the attention of concerned bodies to make decisions and take measures in the spirit of improving the burden of chronic diseases by forwarding necessary recommendations for possible change and to scale up current intervention programs.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310882PMC
June 2021

Nurses' knowledge about palliative care and attitude towards end- of-life care in public hospitals in Wollega zones: A multicenter cross-sectional study.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(10):e0238357. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Mathematics, College of Natural and Computational Science, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Palliative care is nowadays essential in nursing care, due to the increasing number of patients who require attention in the final stages of their life. Lack of knowledge of and negative attitude palliative care among nurses is one of the most common barriers to quality palliative care. This study, therefore, aimed to assess nurses' knowledge about palliative care and attitude toward end-of-life care in public hospitals in Wollega zones, Ethiopia.

Methods: A multicenter institutional-based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from 372 nurses working in public hospitals in Wollega zones from October 02-22, 2019. A self-administered questionnaire with three different parts: Demographic characteristics of nurses, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN), and the Frommelt Attitudes Towards Care of the Dying (FATCOD). SPSS version 21 was used for analysis used for data analysis. The binary logistic regression test was used for analysis at p < 0.05.

Findings: Our final sample size was 422 nurses (response rate = 88%). With the mean total PCQN scores (9.34), the majority of them showed an inadequate level of knowledge about palliative care. The mean total FATCOD scores (79.58) displayed a positive attitude toward end-of-life care, with 52% of respondents eager to care for a dying person and their family. Nurses who had PC service experience [AOR = 1.94 CI (1.10-3.42), p = 0.02] and had ever attended training/lecture on PC [AOR = 1.87 CI (1.01-3.46), p = 0.04] were independently associated with nurses' knowledge about PC. Similarly, nurses who had no PC service experience [AOR = 0.41, CI (0.21-0.79), p = 0.008], who read articles/brochures about PC [AOR = 1.94, CI (1.11-3.39), p = 0.01] and had provided care for a smaller number of terminally ill patients [AOR = 1.74, CI (1.01-2.97), p = 0.04] were significantly associated with nurses' attitude towards end-of-life care.

Conclusion: The study highlighted that nurses' knowledge about palliative care is inadequate, and showed a less favorable attitude toward end-of-life care. The findings also provide evidence for greater attentions and resources should be directed towards educating and supporting nurses caring for patients with palliative care needs in Wollega Zones.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238357PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540839PMC
November 2020

Self-stigma and medication adherence among patients with mental illness treated at Jimma University Medical Center, Southwest Ethiopia.

Int J Ment Health Syst 2020 29;14:56. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Nursing, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Self-stigma associated with mental illness has remained a global public health issue affecting social interactions, health care, productivity and acceptance among others. It is one of important factors contributing to non-adherence to medication that leads to increased hospitalization and higher healthcare costs. Hence, the study aimed to assess self-stigma and medication adherence among patients with mental illness treated at the psychiatric clinic of Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC).

Methods: A cross-sectional, community-level study was conducted at Jimma town. The patient's data was collected from records between April and June 2017 and the collected data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. The Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) tool was utilized to measure internalized stigma. Linear regression analysis was performed to get the final model. Statistical significance association was considered at p-values less than 0.05 and 95% confidence interval was used.

Results: Males comprised more than half (61%) of the total sample of 300 respondents and with a mean age of 34.99 (SD ± 11.51) years. About one-third (32%) of patients had a working diagnosis of schizophrenia followed by major depressive disorder (24.3%). More than half of them, 182 (60.7%) were adherent to their psychotropic medication. The overall mean value of self-stigma was 2.16 (SD = 0.867) and 84 (28%) of the respondents had moderate to high self-stigma. Using ISMI the mean score of alienation was 2.26 (SD = 0.95), stereotype endorsement 2.14 (SD = 0.784), perceived discrimination 2.18 (SD = 0.90), social withdrawal 2.10 (SD = 0.857) and stigma resistance 2.11 (SD = 0.844). Increasing age of the patients (std. β = - 0.091, p = 0.009) and living with kids and spouse (std. β = - 0.099, p = 0.038) were negatively associated with self-stigma whereas increased world health organization disability assessment schedule (WHODAS) score (β = 0.501, p < 0.001), number of relapses (std. β = 0.183, p < 0.01) and medication non-adherence (std. β = 0.084, p = 0.021) were positively associated with self-stigma.

Conclusion: The study revealed that there was high self-stigma among patients with mental illness and a significant association between overall ISMI score and level of medication adherence. These require mental health professionals and policy-makers should give attention to ways to overcome self-stigma and increase medication adherence among patients with mental illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13033-020-00391-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391813PMC
July 2020

Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and associated factors among Human immunodeficiency virus positive patients accessing treatment at Nekemte referral hospital, west Ethiopia, 2019.

PLoS One 2020 11;15(5):e0232703. Epub 2020 May 11.

School of Nursing and midwifery, Institute of Health Sciences, Wollega University, Nekemte, Ethiopia.

Background: Antiretroviral therapy has a remarkable clinical effect in reducing the progress of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. The clinical outcome of Anti-Retroviral therapy depends on strict adherence. Poor adherence reduces the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy and increases viral replication. With changes in service delivery over time and differences in socio-demographic status from region to region, it is essential to measure adherence. Therefore, this study aimed to assess adherence to antiretroviral therapy and its associated factors among HIV/AIDS patients accessing treatment at Nekemte referral hospital, West Ethiopia.

Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on 311 HIV/AIDS patients from March 01 to March 30, 2019. The study participants were selected by a simple random sampling method and interviewed using structured questionnaires. Bivariable logistic regression was conducted to find an association between each independent variable and adherence to antiretroviral medication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to find the independent variables which best predict adherence. The statistical significance was measured using odds ratio at a 95% confidence interval with a p-value of less than 0.05.

Results: Out of a total of 311 patients sampled, 305 were participated in the study, making a response rate of 98.07%. From these 305 study participants,73.1% (95% CI = 68.2, 78.0) were adherent to their medication. Having knowledge about HIV and its treatment (AOR = 8.24, 95% CI: 3.10, 21.92), having strong family/social support (AOR = 6.21, 95% CI: 1.39, 27.62), absence of adverse drug reaction (AOR = 5.33, 95% CI: 1.95, 14.57), absence of comorbidity of other chronic diseases (AOR = 5.72, 95% CI: 1.91, 17.16) and disclosing HIV status to the family (AOR = 5.08, 95% CI: 2.09, 12.34) were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of adherence to antiretroviral medication.

Conclusion: The level of adherence to antiretroviral therapy was found low compared to WHO recommendation. The clinician should emphasize reducing adverse drug reaction, detecting and treating co-morbidities early, improving knowledge through health education, and encouraging the patients to disclose their HIV status to their families.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232703PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7213685PMC
July 2020

Medication prescribing errors among hospitalized pediatric patients at Nekemte Referral Hospital, western Ethiopia: cross-sectional study.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Jul 16;12(1):421. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Clinical Pharmacy Unit, School of Pharmacy, Institute of Health, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia.

Objective: Incidence and clinical outcomes of medication prescribing errors are common and potentially more harmful in the pediatric population than in the adult population. Hence, this study was aimed to assess the prevalence and types of medication prescribing errors in the pediatric wards of Nekemte Referral Hospital (NRH).

Results: Of 384 pediatric patients included in the study, 241 (63%) were males and 116 (30.21%) of them were aged between 1-3 years. About 241 (62.76%) of the patients were treated based on empirical diagnosis and only 10 (2.60%) pediatrics had co-morbid disease. The most category of medication prescribing error was dosing error 251 (48.6%) followed by incorrect drug selection 98 (19.0%). Being critically ill (AOR = 5.31, 95% CI = 1.80-12.31, p = 0.003), route of administration via IV (AOR = 3.98, 95% CI = 1.85-11.15, p = 0.011) and via IV + IM route (AOR = 2.22, 95% CI = 1.05-9.25, p = 0.045) as well as 4-6 medications per patient (AOR = 3.10, 95% CI = 3.43-12.42, p = 0.012) and > 6 medications per patient (AOR = 7.23, 95% CI = 3.91-21.45, p < 0.001) were independent predictors of medication prescribing errors. Antibiotics were the most common classes of drugs responsible for prescribing errors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4455-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6636091PMC
July 2019

Maternal Common Mental Disorder as Predictors of Stunting among Children Aged 6-59 Months in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study.

Int J Pediatr 2019 10;2019:4716482. Epub 2019 Mar 10.

School of Nursing, Wollega University, Ethiopia.

Background: Child malnutrition in low- and middle-income countries still continues to be an alarming. Africa and Asia bear the greatest share of all forms of malnutrition. The association between maternal common mental disorder and stunting has not been studied well even in developed countries; much less in developing countries and even the findings are conflicting. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to investigate the relationship of maternal common mental disorder and child stunting.

Methods: Institution based unmatched case-control study design was employed from March to April 2017. Two hundred thirty-four sampled children (78 cases and 156 controls) were randomly selected. Anthropometric measurements (height/length and weight) were taken by calibrated instruments. Maternal common mental disorder (CMD) was measured by using the locally validated Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20). Data entry was done by Epi data version 3.1 and analysis was done by SPSS 21.0 statistical software.

Result: Finding of this study found out about three-fourths of cases (71.8%) and three-fourths of controls (69.9%) were residing in rural and urban areas, respectively. Regarding maternal common mental disorder, more than half of cases mother (53.8%) and more than one-tenth of controls mother (13.5%) were found to have common mental disorder. The study showed that children of mothers who had common mental disorder were found to be three times more likelihood of developing stunting than children whose mothers had not common mental disorder.

Conclusion And Recommendation: The study indicated that maternal common mental disorder was significantly associated with stunting. Therefore, emphasis should be given in preventing, managing, and maintaining maternal mental health in order to prevent stunting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4716482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6431429PMC
March 2019
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