Publications by authors named "E Yvonne Jones"

5,372 Publications

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Megafire affects stream sediment flux and dissolved organic matter reactivity, but land use dominates nutrient dynamics in semiarid watersheds.

PLoS One 2021 23;16(9):e0257733. Epub 2021 Sep 23.

Department of Plant and Wildlife Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, United States of America.

Climate change is causing larger wildfires and more extreme precipitation events in many regions. As these ecological disturbances increasingly coincide, they alter lateral fluxes of sediment, organic matter, and nutrients. Here, we report the stream chemistry response of watersheds in a semiarid region of Utah (USA) that were affected by a megafire followed by an extreme precipitation event in October 2018. We analyzed daily to hourly water samples at 10 stream locations from before the storm event until three weeks after its conclusion for suspended sediment, solute and nutrient concentrations, water isotopes, and dissolved organic matter concentration, optical properties, and reactivity. The megafire caused a ~2,000-fold increase in sediment flux and a ~6,000-fold increase in particulate carbon and nitrogen flux over the course of the storm. Unexpectedly, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration was 2.1-fold higher in burned watersheds, despite the decreased organic matter from the fire. DOC from burned watersheds was 1.3-fold more biodegradable and 2.0-fold more photodegradable than in unburned watersheds based on 28-day dark and light incubations. Regardless of burn status, nutrient concentrations were higher in watersheds with greater urban and agricultural land use. Likewise, human land use had a greater effect than megafire on apparent hydrological residence time, with rapid stormwater signals in urban and agricultural areas but a gradual stormwater pulse in areas without direct human influence. These findings highlight how megafires and intense rainfall increase short-term particulate flux and alter organic matter concentration and characteristics. However, in contrast with previous research, which has largely focused on burned-unburned comparisons in pristine watersheds, we found that direct human influence exerted a primary control on nutrient status. Reducing anthropogenic nutrient sources could therefore increase socioecological resilience of surface water networks to changing wildfire regimes.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257733PLOS
September 2021

TRIM21/Ro52 - Roles in Innate Immunity and Autoimmune Disease.

Front Immunol 2021 6;12:738473. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Kennedy Institute of Rheumatology, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology, and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

TRIM21 (Ro52/SSA1) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with key roles in immune host defence, signal transduction, and possibly cell cycle regulation. It is also an autoantibody target in Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and other rheumatic autoimmune diseases. Here, we summarise the structure and function of this enzyme, its roles in innate immunity, adaptive immunity and cellular homeostasis, the pathogenesis of autoimmunity against TRIM21, and the potential impacts of autoantibodies to this intracellular protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.738473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8450407PMC
September 2021

Implementation of an anticoagulation practice guideline for COVID 19 via a clinical decision support system in a large academic health system and its RE-AIM evaluation.

JMIR Med Inform 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

University of Minnesota, Department of Surgery, 420 Delaware St SE, MMC 195, Minneapolis, US.

Background: Studies evaluating strategies for the rapid development, implementation and evaluation of clinical decision support(CDS) systems supporting guidelines for diseases with poor knowledge base, such as COVID-19, are limited.

Objective: We developed an anticoagulation clinical practice consensus guideline(CPG) for COVID-19 delivered and scaled via CDS across a 12-hospital Midwest healthcare system. This study represents a pre-planned 6-month post-implementation evaluation guided by the RE-AIM framework.

Methods: Implementation outcomes evaluated include reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. To evaluate effectiveness, the association of CPG adherence on hospital admission was assessed via multivariable logistic regression and nearest neighbor propensity score matching. A time-to-event analysis was conducted. Sensitivity analyses were also conducted to evaluate the competing risk of death prior to ICU admission. Models were risk adjusted to account for age, gender, race/ethnicity, non-English speaking status, area deprivation index, month of admission, remdesivir, tocilizumab, steroid treatments, body mass index, Elixhauser Comorbidity Index, Oxygen Saturation/FiO2 ratio, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, treating hospital, and source of admission. A preplanned subgroup analysis was also conducted in patients that had lab values: D-dimer, C-reactive Protein, Creatinine, and Absolute neutrophil-absolute lymphocyte ratio present. The primary effectiveness endpoint was the need for ICU admission within 48 hours of hospital admission.

Results: 2,503 patients were included in this study. CDS reach approached 95% during implementation. Adherence achieved a peak of 72% during implementation. Variation was noted in adoption across sites and nursing units. Adoption was best at COVID-19 cohorted hospitals(74-82%) and lowest at academic settings(47-55%). CPG delivery via CDS was associated with improved adherence (OR 1.43, 95%CI 1.2-1.7, p<0.001). Adherence with the anticoagulation CPG was associated with a significant reduction in the need for ICU within 48 hours (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.30-0.51, p<0.001) on multivariable logistic regression analysis. Similar findings were noted following 1:1 propensity score matching for patients that received adherence vs non-adherent care (21.5% vs 34.3% incidence of ICU admission within 48 hours, log-rank test p < 0.001).

Conclusions: CDS are an effective means to rapidly scale a CPG across a heterogeneous healthcare system. Further research is needed to investigate factors associated with adherence at low and high adopting sites and nursing units.

Clinicaltrial:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/30743DOI Listing
September 2021

Development of an intracellular quantitative assay to measure compound binding kinetics.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Medicine Design, Medicinal Science and Technology, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage SG1 2NY, UK; GSK-Francis Crick Institute Linklabs, Medicinal Science and Technology, GlaxoSmithKline, Stevenage SG1 2NY, UK. Electronic address:

Contemporary drug discovery typically quantifies the effect of a molecule on a biological target using the equilibrium-derived measurements of IC, EC, or K. Kinetic descriptors of drug binding are frequently linked with the effectiveness of a molecule in modulating a disease phenotype; however, these parameters are yet to be fully adopted in early drug discovery. Nanoluciferase bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (NanoBRET) can be used to measure interactions between fluorophore-conjugated probes and luciferase fused target proteins. Here, we describe an intracellular NanoBRET competition assay that can be used to quantify cellular kinetic rates of compound binding to nanoluciferase-fused bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) proteins. Comparative rates are generated using a cell-free NanoBRET assay and by utilizing orthogonal recombinant protein-based methodologies. A screen of known pan-BET inhibitors is used to demonstrate the value of this approach in the investigation of kinetic selectivity between closely related proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2021.07.018DOI Listing
September 2021

Continuing bonds following stillbirth: protective and risk factors associated with parental bereavement adaptation.

J Reprod Infant Psychol 2021 Sep 12:1-17. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

School of Psychology, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, UK.

Objective: To investigate any association between expressions of parents' continuing bond with their stillborn baby and bereavement adaptation.

Background: Continuing bonds theory suggests that bereaved parents adapt to the loss of their child by sharing and transforming mental representations of the child, allowing them to be integrated into parents' everyday lives. Little is known about the mental health benefits of expressing continuing bonds following stillbirth. This study examined any association between aspects of parents' relationship with their stillborn baby, social support for the relationship, and bereavement adaptation.

Methods: Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Parents of stillborn babies (=170) completed an online questionnaire examining engagement in continuing bonds expressions; characteristics of parents' relationship with their stillborn baby and their experience of sharing it; social support, and meaning-making. Measures of mental health were included to quantify bereavement adaptation.

Results: Regression analyses showed that time since death, meaning-making, engaging with nature, and legacy building are positively linked to bereavement adaptation. Risk factors included inadequate social support for the relationship, a greater desire to share it more freely, an increased sense of integration with baby, and societal pressure to move on.

Conclusion: Key aspects of parents' ongoing relationship with their stillborn baby and the social context are related to bereavement adaptation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2021.1972951DOI Listing
September 2021
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