Publications by authors named "E K Vellios"

18 Publications

Algorithm for Treatment of Focal Cartilage Defects of the Knee: Classic and New Procedures.

Cartilage 2021 Mar 20:1947603521993219. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY, USA.

Objective: To create a treatment algorithm for focal grade 3 or 4 cartilage defects of the knee using both classic and novel cartilage restoration techniques.

Design: A comprehensive review of the literature was performed highlighting classic as well as novel cartilage restoration techniques supported by clinical and/or basic science research and currently being employed by orthopedic surgeons.

Results: There is a high level of evidence to support the treatment of small to medium size lesions (<2-4 cm) without subchondral bone involvement with traditional techniques such as marrow stimulation, osteochondral autograft transplant (OAT), or osteochondral allograft transplant (OCA). Newer techniques such as autologous matrix-induced chondrogenesis and bone marrow aspirate concentrate implantation have also been shown to be effective in select studies. If subchondral bone loss is present OAT or OCA should be performed. For large lesions (>4 cm), OCA or matrix autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) may be performed. OCA is preferred over MACI in the setting of subchondral bone involvement while cell-based modalities such as MACI or particulated juvenile allograft cartilage are preferred in the patellofemoral joint.

Conclusions: Numerous techniques exist for the orthopedic surgeon treating focal cartilage defects of the knee. Treatment strategies should be based on lesion size, lesion location, subchondral bone involvement, and the level of evidence supporting each technique in the literature.
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March 2021

Osteochondral Autograft Transfer for Focal Cartilage Lesions of the Knee With Donor-Site Back-Fill Using Precut Osteochondral Allograft Plugs and Micronized Extracellular Cartilage Augmentation.

Arthrosc Tech 2021 Jan 20;10(1):e181-e192. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Sports Medicine and Shoulder Surgery Service, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York.

Osteochondral autograft transfer (OAT) allows for the treatment of focal chondral lesions of the femoral condyles. Patients undergoing OAT have been shown to have the greatest rate and quickest return to sport of any cartilage-restoration procedure. Disadvantages encountered with the OAT procedure include limited donor sources, small treatable lesion size, and donor-site morbidity. Here, we describe our preferred technique of open OAT with donor-site back-filling using precut fresh osteochondral allograft plugs and micronized extracellular cartilage augmentation. Advantages to this technique include single-stage transfer of living autologous osteochondral grafts allowing for early ambulation, predictable return to sport, enhanced long-term graft survival, and decreased donor-site morbidity secondary to fresh osteochondral allograft back-fill.
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January 2021

Ulnar Collateral Ligament Tear Location May Affect Return-to-Sports Rate but Not Performance Upon Return to Sports After Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction Surgery in Professional Baseball Players.

Am J Sports Med 2020 09 18;48(11):2608-2612. Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, New York, USA.

Background: The number of ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) tears in professional baseball players is increasing. UCL reconstruction (UCLR) is the treatment of choice in players with failed nonoperative treatment who wish to return to sports (RTS). It is unknown if UCL tear location influences the ability of players to RTS or affects their performance upon RTS.

Purpose/hypothesis: The purpose was to compare the RTS rate and performance upon RTS in professional baseball players who underwent UCLR based on UCL tear location (proximal vs distal). It was hypothesized that no difference in RTS rate or performance upon RTS will exist between players with proximal or distal UCL tears.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: All professional baseball players who underwent primary UCLR by a single surgeon between 2016 and 2018 were eligible for inclusion. Players with purely midsubstance tears or revision UCLR were excluded. Tear location was determined based on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intraoperative findings. RTS rate and performance were compared between players with proximal versus distal UCL tears.

Results: Overall, 25 pitchers (15 proximal and 10 distal tears) and 5 position players (2 proximal and 3 distal) underwent primary UCLR between 2016 and 2018. Of the 25 pitchers, 84% were able to RTS. Of the 5 position players, 80% were able to RTS. Among the total cohort of pitchers and position players, 12 out of 17 (71%) players with proximal tears were able to RTS, while of the 13 distal tears, 13 out of 13 (100%) players were able to RTS ( = .05). With regard to performance data, pitchers with distal tears had higher utilization postoperatively and, as such, allowed statistically more hits ( = .03), runs ( = .015), and walks ( = .021) postoperatively. However, the WHIP ([walks + hits]/innings pitched) was not different between players with proximal or distal tears, indicating that efficacy in games was not significantly different between groups.

Conclusion: Professional baseball players who sustain a distal UCL tear and undergo UCLR may be more likely to RTS than those who sustain a proximal UCL tear and undergo UCLR. Players with distal UCL tears who underwent UCLR saw higher utilization postoperatively than those with proximal UCL tears. Further work is needed in this area to confirm this result.
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September 2020

Technology Used in the Prevention and Treatment of Shoulder and Elbow Injuries in the Overhead Athlete.

Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2020 Aug;13(4):472-478

Sports Medicine and Shoulder Surgery Service, Sports Medicine Institute, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY, 10021, USA.

Purpose Of Review: To review the current technology available for the prevention and treatment of shoulder and elbow injuries in the overhead athlete.

Recent Findings: Shoulder and elbow injuries are common in recreational and high-level overhead athletes. Injury prevention in these athletes include identifying modifiable risk factors, offering effective preventative training programs, and establishing safe return-to-sport criteria. The advent and use of technologies and wearable devices with concomitant development of software and data analytic programs has significantly changed the role of sports technology in injury identification and prevention. Over the last few decades, leveraging new technologies to better understand and treat patients has become an increasing focus of healthcare. Technologies currently being applied to the treatment of the overhead athlete include kinesiotaping, heart rate monitors, accelerometers/gyroscopes, dynamometers/force plates, camera-based monitoring systems (optical motion analysis), and inertial sensor monitoring units. Advances in technology have made it possible to acquire large amounts of data on athletes that may be used to guide treatment and injury prevention programs; however, literature validating the clinical efficacy of many of these technologies is limited. Further research is needed to continue to allow team physicians to provide better, cost-efficient, and individualized care to the overhead athlete using technology.
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August 2020

Recurrent Patellofemoral Instability in the Pediatric Patient: Management and Pitfalls.

Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med 2020 Feb;13(1):58-68

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of the review is to discuss the relevant pathoanatomy, management, complications, and technical considerations for recurrent patellofemoral instability (PFI) in the pediatric population. Special consideration is given to recent literature and management of the patient with repeat instability following surgery.

Recent Findings: Patellar stabilization surgery is in principle dependent upon restoration of normal patellofemoral anatomy and dynamic alignment. Historically, treatment options have been numerous and include extensor mechanism realignment, trochleoplasty, and more recently repair and/or reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) as a dynamic check rein during initial knee flexion. In skeletally immature patients, preference is given to physeal-sparing soft tissue procedures. While medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction has become a popular option, postoperative failure is a persistent issue with rates ranging from 5 to 30% for PFI surgery in general without any single procedure (e.g., distal realignment, MPFL reconstruction) demonstrating clear superiority. Failure of surgical patellar stabilization is broadly believed to occur for three main reasons: (1) technical failure of the primary stabilization method, (2) unaddressed static and dynamic pathoanatomy during the primary stabilization, and (3) intrinsic risk factors (e.g., collagen disorders, ligamentous laxity). PFI is a common orthopedic condition affecting the pediatric and adolescent population. Treatment of repeat instability following surgery in the PFI patient requires understanding and addressing underlying pathoanatomic risk factors as well as risks and reasons for failure.
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February 2020