Publications by authors named "E I Schultz"

587 Publications

Low serum albumin and the risk of hospitalization in COVID-19 infection: A retrospective case-control study.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(4):e0250906. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Cape Fear Valley Medical Center, Fayetteville, NC, United States of America.

Background: The data on the COVID-19 patients who were discharged to self-quarantine is lacking.

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the percentage of COVID-19 positive patients that were hospitalized within a three-week period after discharge from ED to self-quarantine.

Methods: The patients who had confirmed SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR of the nasopharyngeal swab and were discharged from ED of a tertiary care hospital in the USA to self-quarantine from March 01- July 31, 2020, were included. Patients were divided into two groups based on serum albumin levels and were followed up for three weeks to see if low level of albumin increased the risk of hospitalization. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the effect of albumin level and outcomes.

Results: A total of 112 patients were included in the study out of which 65 had low serum albumin (<3.5 g/dL) and 47 had normal serum albumin (≥3.5 g/dL). More than 10% of patients discharged to self-quarantine needed hospitalization within three weeks. The Low albumin group had more co-morbidities at baseline. The low serum albumin group had 10 (15.38%) vs 2 (4.26%), p = 0.06 hospitalizations as compared to the normal serum albumin group. The multivariate logistic regression analysis did not reveal lower odds of hospitalization in the group with normal albumin, (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.03-1.92, p = 0.19) after controlling for age, sex, and various co-morbidities.

Conclusion: The low serum albumin was not associated with the risk of hospitalization in COVID-19 patients who were initially discharged to self-quarantine.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250906PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087007PMC
May 2021

Roquin is a major mediator of iron-regulated changes to transferrin receptor-1 mRNA stability.

iScience 2021 Apr 26;24(4):102360. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Transferrin receptor-1 (TfR1) has essential iron transport and proposed signal transduction functions. Proper TfR1 regulation is a requirement for hematopoiesis, neurological development, and the homeostasis of tissues including the intestine and muscle, while dysregulation is associated with cancers and immunodeficiency. TfR1 mRNA degradation is highly regulated, but the identity of the degradation activity remains uncertain. Here, we show with gene knockouts and siRNA knockdowns that two Roquin paralogs are major mediators of iron-regulated changes to the steady-state TfR1 mRNA level within four different cell types (HAP1, HUVEC, L-M, and MEF). Roquin is demonstrated to destabilize the TfR1 mRNA, and its activity is fully dependent on three hairpin loops within the TfR1 mRNA 3'-UTR that are essential for iron-regulated instability. We further show in L-M cells that TfR1 mRNA degradation does not require ongoing translation, consistent with Roquin-mediated instability. We conclude that Roquin is a major effector of TfR1 mRNA abundance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058555PMC
April 2021

Public perceptions of scientific advice: toward a science savvy public culture?

Authors:
É Schultz J K Ward

Public Health 2021 Apr 15;194:86-88. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

INSERM, CNRS, EHESS, Université de Paris, CERMES3, Villejuif, France; Université Aix-Marseille, IRD, AP-HM, VITROME, Marseille, France.

Objectives: Both the political appetite for a science-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) policy and its acceptability to the public are little understood, at a time of sharp distrust not only of governments but also of scientists and their journals' review practices. We studied the case of France, where the independent Scientific Council on COVID-19 was appointed by President Macron on March 12, 2020.

Study Design: We conducted a survey on a representative sample of the French adult population.

Methods: Our data were collected by the French Institute of Public Opinion using a self-administered online questionnaire. This was completed by a sample of 1016 people stratified to match French official census statistics for gender, age, occupation, and so on. We conducted statistical analysis using Python (Pandas-SciPy-Statsmodels) with Chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to control for statistical significance.

Results: Intense media coverage has given the council a very high public profile, with three respondents out of four (73%) having heard about it. Perceptions are positive but complex. French citizens expect science to be important in political decision-making. Four of five (81.5%) want political decisions, in general, to be based on scientific knowledge. But one in two (55%) says that the government has not relied enough on science and only 36% are satisfied with the government's crisis management to date. Although most feel that the council has a legitimate advisory role even in situations of uncertainty (only 15% disagree), it is not perceived as fully independent. Only 44% think that it directly represents the scientific community, and only one of three people considers it completely independent from the government (39%) and the pharmaceutical industry (36%).

Conclusions: Our study confirms that while the transparency of scientific advice is important, it alone cannot ensure public confidence in political decision-making. We suggest that efforts made today to instill a 'science-savvy' public culture-one that allows the complex articulation between scientific knowledge, uncertainty, and political decision-making to be understood and accounted for would greatly benefit evidence-based policy in future crises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2021.02.007DOI Listing
April 2021

[Influence of resection quality on postoperative outcomes in children with atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system].

Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko 2021 ;85(2):17-25

Voino-Yasenetsky Research and Practical Center for Specialized Medical Care, Moscow, Russia.

The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of resection quality on overall survival and disease-free survival in children with atypical teratoid-rhabdoid tumors (ATRT). The study included children younger than 18 years old for the period from 2008 to 2019. There were 134 interventions in 105 patients with ATRT including 11 redo resections («second-look» surgery) and 18 procedures for tumor recurrence. Age of patients ranged from 2 to 168 months (median 21 months). Patients with supratentorial tumors prevailed (50.5%), infratentorial neoplasms were diagnosed in 45.7% of patients, spinal cord lesion - 3.8% of cases. At the first stage, all patients underwent surgical treatment. Total resection was achieved in 34 (32.4%) patients, subtotal - 37 (35.2%) patients, partial resection - 30 (28.6%) patients. Biopsy was performed in 4 (3.8%) patients. Quality of resection and age at surgery significantly influenced overall and disease-free survival. Extended resection of tumor followed by adjuvant chemo- and radiotherapy are required to improve survival although ATRTs are high-grade neoplasms with poor prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17116/neiro20218502117DOI Listing
April 2021

Relationships between avian malaria resilience and corticosterone, testosterone and prolactin in a Hawaiian songbird.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2021 Apr 20;308:113784. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurobiology, Physiology and Behavior, University of California Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

Glucocorticoids, androgens, and prolactin regulate metabolism and reproduction, but they also play critical roles in immunomodulation. Since the introduction of avian malaria to Hawaii a century ago, low elevation populations of the Hawaii Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens) that have experienced strong selection by avian malaria have evolved increased resilience (the ability to recover from infection), while high elevation populations that have undergone weak selection remain less resilient. We investigated how variation in malaria selection has affected corticosterone, testosterone, and prolactin hormone levels in Amakihi during the breeding season. We predicted that baseline corticosterone and testosterone (which have immunosuppressive functions) would be reduced in low elevation and malaria-infected birds, while stress-induced corticosterone and prolactin (which have immunostimulatory functions) would be greater in low elevation and malaria-infected birds. As predicted, prolactin was significantly higher in malaria-infected than uninfected females (although more robust sample sizes would help to confirm this relationship), while testosterone trended higher in malaria-infected than uninfected males and, surprisingly, neither baseline nor stress-induced CORT varied with malaria infection. Contrary to our predictions, stress-induced corticosterone was significantly lower in low than high elevation birds while testosterone in males and prolactin in females did not vary by elevation, suggesting that Amakihi hormone modulation across elevation is determined by variables other than disease selection (e.g., timing of breeding, energetic challenges). Our results shed new light on relationships between introduced disease and hormone modulation, and they raise new questions that could be explored in experimental settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2021.113784DOI Listing
April 2021