Publications by authors named "E Guerra"

434 Publications

Detecting child sexual abuse images: Traits of child sexual exploitation hosting and displaying websites.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Sep 21;122:105336. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Justice Studies, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Automated detection of child sexual abuse images (CSAI) often relies on image attributes, such as hash values. However, electronic service providers and others without access to hash value databases are limited in their ability to detect CSAI. Additionally, the increasing amount of CSA content being distributed means that a large percentage of images are not yet cataloged in hash value databases. Therefore, additional detection criteria need to be determined to improve identification of non-hashed CSAI.

Objective: We aim to identify patterns in the locations and folder/file naming practices of websites hosting and displaying CSAI, to use as additional detection criteria for non-hashed CSAI.

Methods: Using a custom-designed web crawler and snowball sampling, we analyzed the locations and naming practices of 103 Surface Web websites hosting and/or displaying 8108 known CSAI hash values.

Results: Websites specialize in either hosting or displaying CSAI with only 20% doing both. Neither hosting nor displaying websites fear repercussions. Over 27% of CSAI were displayed in the home directory (i.e., main page) with only 6% located in at least 4th-level sub-folder. Websites focused more on organizing images than hiding them with 68% of hosted and 54% of displayed CSAI being found in folders formatted year/month. Qualitatively, hosting websites were likely to use alphanumeric or disguised folder and file names to conceal images, while displaying websites were more explicit.

Conclusion: File and folder naming patterns can be combined with existing criteria to improve automated detection of websites and website locations likely hosting and/or displaying CSAI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105336DOI Listing
September 2021

Mid-Term outcomes following fresh-frozen humeral head osteochondral allograft reconstruction for reverse Hill Sachs lesion: a case series.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Sep 8;22(1):768. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

II Clinica Ortopedica e Traumatologica, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Locked posterior glenohumeral dislocations with a reverse Hill-Sachs impaction fracture involving less than 30% of the humeral head are most frequently treated with lesser tuberosity transfer into the defect, whereas those involving more than 50% undergo humeral head arthroplasty. Reconstruction of the defect with segmental femoral osteochondral allografts has been proposed to treat patients between these two ranges, but the medium-/long-term outcomes of this joint-preserving procedure are controversial.

Methods: Between 2001 and 2018, 12 consecutive patients with a unilateral locked posterior shoulder dislocation and an impaction fracture from 30 to 50% (mean 31% ± 1.32) of the humeral head were treated with segmental reconstruction of the defect with fresh-frozen humeral head osteochondral allografts. Patients were assessed clinically, radiographically and with computed tomography (CT) at a medium follow-up of 66 ± 50.25 months (range, 24-225).

Results: All twelve shoulders presented a slight limitation in anterior elevation (average, 166.6° ± 22.76). The mean active external rotation with the shoulder at 90° of abduction was 82.5° ± 6.61, and that with the arm held in stable adduction was 79.16 ± 18.80. The mean abduction was 156.25° ± 25.09. The mean Constant-Murley score (CS) was 82 ± 15.09 points (range, 40-97 points), and the mean ASES was 94 ± 8.49 points. The mean pre- and postoperatively Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index (WOSI) was 236.5 ± 227.9 and 11.20 ± 10.85, respectively. Development of osteoarthrosis (OA) was minimal. The average allograft resorption rate was 4% ± 2.4. There were no cases of failure (reoperation for any reason) in this series.

Conclusion: Segmental humeral head reconstruction with humeral head fresh-frozen osteochondral allografts provides good to excellent clinical results with low-grade OA and low allograft resorption in patients with locked posterior shoulder dislocation.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov PRS, ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04823455 . Registered 29 March 2021 - Retrospectively registered, https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/prs/app/action/SelectProtocol?sid=S000AU8P&selectaction=Edit&uid=U0004J36&ts=12&cx=6cykp8 LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level IV, Case Series, Treatment Study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04657-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8427886PMC
September 2021

Diagnostic performance and clinical implications of rapid SARS-CoV-2 antigen testing in Mexico using real-world nationwide COVID-19 registry data.

PLoS One 2021 31;16(8):e0256447. Epub 2021 Aug 31.

MD/PhD (PECEM), Faculty of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: SARS-CoV-2 testing capacity is important to monitor epidemic dynamics and as a mitigation strategy. Given difficulties of large-scale quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) implementation, rapid antigen tests (Rapid Ag-T) have been proposed as alternatives in settings like Mexico. Here, we evaluated diagnostic performance of Rapid Ag-T for SARS-CoV-2 infection and its associated clinical implications compared to qRT-PCR testing in Mexico.

Methods: We analyzed data from the COVID-19 registry of the Mexican General Directorate of Epidemiology up to April 30th, 2021 (n = 6,632,938) and cases with both qRT-PCR and Rapid Ag-T (n = 216,388). We evaluated diagnostic performance using accuracy measures and assessed time-dependent changes in the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (AUROC). We also explored test discordances as predictors of hospitalization, intubation, severe COVID-19 and mortality.

Results: Rapid Ag-T is primarily used in Mexico City. Rapid Ag-T have low sensitivity 37.6% (95%CI 36.6-38.7), high specificity 95.5% (95%CI 95.1-95.8) and acceptable positive 86.1% (95%CI 85.0-86.6) and negative predictive values 67.2% (95%CI 66.2-69.2). Rapid Ag-T has optimal diagnostic performance up to days 3 after symptom onset, and its performance is modified by testing location, comorbidity, and age. qRT-PCR (-) / Rapid Ag-T (+) cases had higher risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes (HR 1.54 95% CI 1.41-1.68) and were older, qRT-PCR (+)/ Rapid Ag-T(-) cases had slightly higher risk or adverse outcomes and ≥7 days from symptom onset (HR 1.53 95% CI 1.48-1.59). Cases detected with rapid Ag-T were younger, without comorbidities, and milder COVID-19 course.

Conclusions: Rapid Ag-T could be used as an alternative to qRT-PCR for large scale SARS-CoV-2 testing in Mexico. Interpretation of Rapid Ag-T results should be done with caution to minimize the risk associated with false negative results.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0256447PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8407542PMC
September 2021

Syntactic and Semantic Influences on the Time Course of Relative Clause Processing: The Role of Language Dominance.

Brain Sci 2021 Jul 27;11(8). Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Linguistics Program, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, 365 Fifth Ave, New York, NY 10016, USA.

We conducted a visual world eye-tracking experiment with highly proficient Spanish-English bilingual adults to investigate the effects of relative language dominance, operationalized as a continuous, multidimensional variable, on the time course of relative clause processing in the first-learned language, Spanish. We found that participants exhibited two distinct processing preferences: a semantically driven preference to assign agency to referents of lexically animate noun phrases and a syntactically driven preference to interpret relative clauses as subject-extracted. Spanish dominance was found to exert a distinct influence on each of these preferences, gradiently attenuating the semantic preference while gradiently exaggerating the syntactic preference. While these results might be attributable to particular properties of Spanish and English, they also suggest a possible generalization that greater dominance in a language increases reliance on language-specific syntactic processing strategies while correspondingly decreasing reliance on more domain-general semantic processing strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11080989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391599PMC
July 2021
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