Publications by authors named "E Boaretto"

36 Publications

Early production of table olives at a mid-7th millennium BP submerged site off the Carmel coast (Israel).

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 26;11(1):2218. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Biotechnology and Food Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, 3200003, Haifa, Israel.

We present here the earliest evidence for large-scale table olive production from the mid-7 millennium BP inundated site of Hishuley Carmel on the northern Mediterranean coast of Israel. Olive pit size and fragmentation patterns, pollen as well as the architecture of installations associated with pits from this site, were compared to finds from the nearby and slightly earlier submerged Kfar Samir site. Results indicate that at Kfar Samir olive oil was extracted, while at Hishuley Carmel the data showed that large quantities of table olives, the oldest reported to date, were prepared. This process was most probably facilitated by the site's proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, which served as a source of both sea water and salt required for debittering/pickling/salting the fruit, as experimentally demonstrated in this study. Comparison of pit morphometry from modern cultivars, wild-growing trees and the archaeological sites, intimates that in pit morphology the ancient pits resemble wild olives, but we cannot totally exclude the possibility that they derive from early cultivated trees. Our findings demonstrate that in this region, olive oil production may have predated table olive preparation, with each development serving as a milestone in the early exploitation of the olive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80772-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838305PMC
January 2021

Discovery of annual growth in a modern olive branch based on carbon isotopes and implications for the Bronze Age volcanic eruption of Santorini.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 12;11(1):704. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

D-REAMS Radiocarbon Laboratory, Scientific Archaeology Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science, 7610001, Rehovot, Israel.

The volcanic eruption of Santorini in the Bronze Age left detectable debris across the Mediterranean, serving as an anchor in time for the region, synchronizing chronologies of different sites. However, dating the eruption has been elusive for decades, as radiocarbon indicates a date about a century earlier than archaeological chronologies. The identification of annual rings by CT in a charred olive branch, buried alive beneath the tephra on Santorini, was key in radiocarbon dating the eruption. Here, we detect a verified annual growth in a modern olive branch for the first time, using stable isotope analysis and high-resolution radiocarbon dating, identifying down to the growing season in some years. The verified growth is largely visible by CT, both in the branch's fresh and charred forms. Although these results support the validity of the Santorini branch date, we observed some chronological anomalies in modern olive and simulated possible date range scenarios of the volcanic eruption of Santorini, given these observed phenomena. The results offer a way to reconcile this long-standing debate towards a mid-sixteenth century BCE date.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79024-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804959PMC
January 2021

Site formation processes at Manot Cave, Israel: Interplay between strata accumulation in the occupation area and the talus.

J Hum Evol 2020 Oct 15:102883. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Kimmel Center for Archaeological Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 76100, Israel.

Manot Cave contains important human fossils and archaeological assemblages related to the origin and dispersal of anatomically modern humans and the Upper Paleolithic period. This record is divided between an elevated in situ occupation area and a connecting talus. We, thus, investigated the interplay between the accumulation of the sediments and their associated artifacts in the occupation areas and the translocation of part of these sediments and artifacts down the talus. We examined the lithostratigraphy of two excavation locations in the occupation area (areas E and I), and two in the talus (areas C and D). We also assessed the diagenetic processes that have affected all these areas. A linear array of stalagmites and stalactites separates the occupation area from the talus, demarcating a major topographic barrier between the two. We infer that during human occupation, sediment accumulation of soil, wood ash, and bone was rapid and that some sediments with their associated artifacts overflowed the barrier and translocated down the talus. During periods of nonoccupation, the ash in the occupation area partially dissolved owing to the release of acid from the degrading bat and bird guano, and the layer thicknesses decreased. The south side of the talus (area C) has a normally stratified archaeological record, with the older archaeological materials underlying the younger materials. This suggests that the barrier between the occupation area and area C was relatively shallow and allowed a fairly continuous sediment accumulation in the talus. In the central part of the talus (area D), the stratigraphy is complex and shows mixing, presumably owing to the steep underlying bedrock topography and the mixing that occurs when sediments move down a steep slope. Finally, the distribution of secondary phosphates is consistent with the location of a main cave entrance to the south of the Paleolithic occupation area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102883DOI Listing
October 2020

The Marine Isotope Stage 3 landscape around Manot Cave (Israel) and the food habits of anatomically modern humans: New insights from the anthracological record and stable carbon isotope analysis of wild almond (Amygdalus sp.).

J Hum Evol 2020 Sep 29:102868. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Kimmel Center for Archaeological Science and DANGOOR Research Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 7610001, Israel.

The excavation of Manot Cave (Israel) reveals intensive occupation during the Early Upper Paleolithic and provides the first continuous set of anthracological data available for the Ahmarian, Levantine Aurignacian and post-Levantine Aurignacian periods. The paper aims to study the vegetal landscape around Manot Cave in the context of climate changes that characterized the last part of the Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) and to address the issue of firewood and food procurement among Paleolithic hunter-gatherers. Charcoal samples recovered from the archaeological layers at Manot Cave shed light on the fuel and food procurement strategies while radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analysis (ΔC) of selected charcoals provide information about the ancient climate. The results show that five woody taxa were exploited at the site; Amygdalus sp. was the most common species, whereas Quercus ithaburensis, Tamarix sp., Pomoideae indet., and Pistacia atlantica were relatively rare. The representations of the recovered wooden species suggest that an open forest of almonds and oaks existed in the area during MIS 3. Radiocarbon dating of Amygdalus sp. charcoals, coupled with stable carbon isotope analysis (ΔC) of modern and archaeological Amygdalus sp. clearly indicate variations in rainfall that could have decreased the density of tree cover. These analyses provide high-resolution data on the climate changes affecting the surroundings of Manot Cave between ∼46 and 28 ka cal BP and indicate two drier phases corresponding to the Ahmarian and post-Levantine Aurignacian cultures while a more humid period identified during the Levantine Aurignacian.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2020.102868DOI Listing
September 2020

Radiocarbon dating and microarchaeology untangle the history of Jerusalem's Temple Mount: A view from Wilson's Arch.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(6):e0233307. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

D-REAMS Radiocarbon Laboratory, Scientific Archaeology Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Radiocarbon dating is rarely applied in Classical and Post-Classical periods in the Eastern Mediterranean, as it is not considered precise enough to solve specific chronological questions, often causing the attribution of historic monuments to be based on circumstantial evidence. This research, applied in Jerusalem, presents a novel approach to solve this problem. Integrating fieldwork, stratigraphy, and microarchaeology analyses with intense radiocarbon dating of charred remains in building materials beneath Wilson's Arch, we absolutely dated monumental structures to very narrow windows of time-even to specific rulers. Wilson's Arch was initiated by Herod the Great and enlarged during the Roman Procurators, such as Pontius Pilatus, in a range of 70 years, rather than 700 years, as previously discussed by scholars. The theater-like structure is dated to the days of Emperor Hadrian and left unfinished before 132-136 AD. Through this approach, it is possible to solve archaeological riddles in intensely urban environments in the historical periods.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233307PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269203PMC
August 2020

Precipitation variability differently affects radial growth, xylem traits and ring porosity of three Mediterranean oak species at xeric and mesic sites.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jan 6;699:134285. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Weizmann Institute of Science, Center for Integrative Archaeology and Anthropology, Herzl St 234, 7610001 Rehovot, Israel.

In the Mediterranean basin, diffuse-porous, semi-ring-porous and ring-porous tree species coexist in the same regions. Climate change might differently affect these types, but a mechanistic understanding of drought effects on their xylem structure is lacking. We investigated tree-ring width and xylem functional traits in ring-porous Quercus boissieri, semi-ring-porous Q. ithaburensis and diffuse-porous Q. calliprinos, at xeric (Galilee) and mesic (Golan) sites in the South-Eastern Mediterranean basin. We quantitatively assessed how dry and wet years affect growth and xylem traits in different porosity type oaks, and evaluated whether porosity type is preserved or altered during these years. We measured, counted or computed tree-ring width, vessel number, maximum lumen area, frequency, tree-ring and xylem theoretical hydraulic conductivity along 40-year ring series of 50 trees in total. We also quantified ring porosity in each year using two indices, the Gini coefficient and the porosity ratio of vessel area, and described vessel area intra-ring variations by distribution profiles. We then compared these parameters in the five driest and five wettest years of the 40-year period. Radial growth and functional trait variations were more similar between species in the same site (strong drought effects in Q. ithaburensis and Q. calliprinos in Galilee, moderate effects in Q. boissieri and Q. calliprinos in Golan) than between sites for the same species (Q. calliprinos was more affected in Galilee than in Golan). Ring porosity indices and distribution profiles showed that diffuse-porous xylem structure of Q. calliprinos was maintained even under dry conditions at both sites. However, Q. boissieri xylem shifted from ring-porous in wet and normal years to semi-ring-porous in dry years, i.e. the porous ring cannot be completely built under water constraint. This suggests that ring porous strategy, typical of temperate regions with strong seasonality, might not be realized under future drier conditions in the Mediterranean basin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134285DOI Listing
January 2020

Climatic and environmental conditions in the Western Galilee, during Late Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods, based on speleothems from Manot Cave, Israel.

J Hum Evol 2019 Jun 15:102605. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Geological Survey of Israel, 32 Yesha'ayahu Leibowitz Street, Jerusalem, 9692100, Israel.

Early Ahmarian, Levantine Aurignacian and Post-Levantine Aurignacian archeological assemblages show that the karstic Manot Cave, located 5 km east of the Mediterranean coast in the Western Galilee region of Israel, was intensively occupied during the Early Upper Paleolithic. The coexistence of these rich archaeological layers with speleothems in Manot Cave provides a window of opportunity for determining the relationships between climatic conditions and the nature of human activity and mobility patterns in the Western Galilee region during the Early Upper Paleolithic period. This study, based on four stalagmites that grew almost continuously from ∼75 to 26.5 ka, covers most of the last glacial, and overlaps with the human occupation of the cave. The speleothems oxygen (δO) and carbon (δC) isotopic records indicate that climate and environmental conditions fluctuated during the last glacial, some of which correspond with Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) cycles 12, 10, 7 and Heinrich (H) events VI and V. Consistent with independent evidence from botanic and faunal remains, these climatic shifts brought about significant environmental changes in the region, ranging from dominant thick Mediterranean forest to more open landscape. A good correlation with less negative δC values is most pronounced during the Early Ahmarian time period, but there was also a change to less negative δC values during the Levantine Aurignacian and Post-Levantine Aurignacian industries in the Levant. These positive δC shifts suggest that environmental transformation towards a more open grassy landscape dominated by C4 vegetation might have played an important role in the development of these cultural entities (mainly the Early Ahmarian) in Manot Cave region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.04.004DOI Listing
June 2019

Ancient trash mounds unravel urban collapse a century before the end of Byzantine hegemony in the southern Levant.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 04 25;116(17):8239-8248. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Dangoor Research Accelerator Mass Spectrometer Radiocarbon Laboratory, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot, Israel.

The historic event of the Late Antique Little Ice Age (LALIA) was recently identified in dozens of natural and geological climate proxies of the northern hemisphere. Although this climatic downturn was proposed as a major cause for pandemic and extensive societal upheavals in the sixth-seventh centuries CE, archaeological evidence for the magnitude of societal response to this event is sparse. This study uses ancient trash mounds as a type of proxy for identifying societal crisis in the urban domain, and employs multidisciplinary investigations to establish the terminal date of organized trash collection and high-level municipal functioning on a city-wide scale. Survey, excavation, sediment analysis, and geographic information system assessment of mound volume were conducted on a series of mounds surrounding the Byzantine urban settlement of Elusa in the Negev Desert. These reveal the massive collection and dumping of domestic and construction waste over time on the city edges. Carbon dating of charred seeds and charcoal fragments combined with ceramic analysis establish the end date of orchestrated trash removal near the mid-sixth century, coinciding closely with the beginning of the LALIA event and outbreak of the Justinian Plague in the year 541. This evidence for societal decline during the sixth century ties with other arguments for urban dysfunction across the Byzantine Levant at this time. We demonstrate the utility of trash mounds as sensitive proxies of social response and unravel the time-space dynamics of urban collapse, suggesting diminished resilience to rapid climate change in the frontier Negev region of the empire.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1900233116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6486770PMC
April 2019

Radiocarbon analysis of modern olive wood raises doubts concerning a crucial piece of evidence in dating the Santorini eruption.

Sci Rep 2018 08 9;8(1):11841. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

D-REAMS Radiocarbon Laboratory, Kimmel Center for Archaeological Science, Scientific Archaeology Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, 7610001, Israel.

Charred olive wood is abundant in the archaeological record, especially around the Mediterranean. As the outermost ring closest to the bark is assumed to represent the latest time that the tree was alive, the radiocarbon date obtained from the outermost rings of an olive branch buried during the Santorini volcanic eruption is regarded as crucial evidence for the date of this cataclysmic event. The date of this eruption has far reaching consequences in the archaeology of the Aegean, Egypt and the Levant, and the understanding of their interconnections. We analyzed the radiocarbon concentrations in cross-sections from a modern olive tree trunk as well as from a living branch, and obtained near-annual resolution dates using the radiocarbon "bomb peak". In both cases we show that radiocarbon dates of the last formed wood along the circumference are not chronologically homogenous, and can differ by up to a few decades. Thus the outermost wood layer does not necessarily represent the date of the last year of growth. These findings challenge the interpretation of the results obtained from dating the olive branch from the Santorini volcanic eruption, as it could predate the eruption by a few decades. In addition, our results are also significant for any future studies based on archaeologically preserved olive wood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-29392-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6085306PMC
August 2018

High Resolution AMS Dates from Shubayqa 1, northeast Jordan Reveal Complex Origins of Late Epipalaeolithic Natufian in the Levant.

Sci Rep 2017 12 5;7(1):17025. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Max-Planck-Weizmann Center for Integrative Archaeology and Anthropology, 76100 Rehovot, Israel and D-REAMS Radiocarbon Laboratory, 76100, Rehovot, Israel.

The Late Epipalaeolithic Natufian (~14,600 - 11,500 cal BP) is a key period in the prehistory of southwest Asia. Often described as a complex hunting and gathering society with increased sedentism, intensive plant exploitation and associated with an increase in artistic and symbolic material culture, it is positioned between the earlier Upper- and Epi-Palaeolithic and the early Neolithic, when plant cultivation and subsequently animal domestication began. The Natufian has thus often been seen as a necessary pre-adaptation for the emergence of Neolithic economies in southwest Asia. Previous work has pointed to the Mediterranean woodland zone of the southern Levant as the 'core zone' of the Early Natufian. Here we present a new sequence of 27 AMS radiocarbon dates from the Natufian site Shubayqa 1 in northeast Jordan. The results suggest that the site was occupied intermittently between ~14,600 - 12,000 cal BP. The dates indicate the Natufian emerged just as early in eastern Jordan as it did in the Mediterranean woodland zone. This suggests that the origins and development of the Natufian were not tied to the ecological conditions of the Mediterranean woodlands, and that the evolution of this hunting and gathering society was more complex and heterogeneous than previously thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-17096-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5717003PMC
December 2017

Radiocarbon Dating of an Olive Tree Cross-Section: New Insights on Growth Patterns and Implications for Age Estimation of Olive Trees.

Front Plant Sci 2017 10;8:1918. Epub 2017 Nov 10.

D-REAMS Radiocarbon Laboratory, Kimmel Center for Archaeological Science, Scientific Archaeology Unit, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

The age of living massive olive trees is often assumed to be between hundreds and even thousands of years. These estimations are usually based on the girth of the trunk and an extrapolation based on a theoretical annual growth rate. It is difficult to objectively verify these claims, as a monumental tree may not be cut down for analysis of its cross-section. In addition, the inner and oldest part of the trunk in olive trees usually rots, precluding the possibility of carting out radiocarbon analysis of material from the first years of life of the tree. In this work we present a cross-section of an olive tree, previously estimated to be hundreds of years old, which was cut down in 2013. The cross-section was radiocarbon dated at numerous points following the natural growth pattern, which was made possible to observe by viewing the entire cross-section. Annual growth rate values were calculated and compared between different radii. The cross-section also revealed a nearly independent segment of growth, which would clearly offset any estimations based solely on girth calculations. Multiple piths were identified, indicating the beginning of branching within the trunk. Different radii were found to have comparable growth rates, resulting in similar estimates dating the piths to the 19th century. The estimated age of the piths represent a for the age of the tree, as these are piths of separate branches. However, the tree is likely not many years older than the dated piths, and certainly not centuries older. The oldest radiocarbon-datable material in this cross-section was less than 200 years old, which is in agreement with most other radiocarbon dates of internal wood from living olive trees, rarely older than 300 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5686044PMC
November 2017

Radiocarbon chronology of Manot Cave, Israel and Upper Paleolithic dispersals.

Sci Adv 2017 11 15;3(11):e1701450. Epub 2017 Nov 15.

Max Planck-Weizmann Center for Integrative Archaeology and Anthropology, DANGOOR Research Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 7610001, Israel.

The timing of archeological industries in the Levant is central for understanding the spread of modern humans with Upper Paleolithic traditions. We report a high-resolution radiocarbon chronology for Early Upper Paleolithic industries (Early Ahmarian and Levantine Aurignacian) from the newly excavated site of Manot Cave, Israel. The dates confirm that the Early Ahmarian industry was present by 46,000 calibrated years before the present (cal BP), and the Levantine Aurignacian occurred at least between 38,000 and 34,000 cal BP. This timing is consistent with proposed migrations or technological diffusions between the Near East and Europe. Specifically, the Ahmarian could have led to the development of the Protoaurignacian in Europe, and the Aurignacian in Europe could have spread back to the Near East as the Levantine Aurignacian.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1701450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5687856PMC
November 2017

Early Neolithic wine of Georgia in the South Caucasus.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2017 11 13;114(48):E10309-E10318. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Georgian National Museum, Tbilisi 0159, Georgia;

Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics from sites in Georgia in the South Caucasus region, dating to the early Neolithic period (ca. 6,000-5,000 BC), provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from the Near East, at ca. 6,000-5,800 BC. The chemical findings are corroborated by climatic and environmental reconstruction, together with archaeobotanical evidence, including grape pollen, starch, and epidermal remains associated with a jar of similar type and date. The very large-capacity jars, some of the earliest pottery made in the Near East, probably served as combination fermentation, aging, and serving vessels. They are the most numerous pottery type at many sites comprising the so-called "Shulaveri-Shomutepe Culture" of the Neolithic period, which extends into western Azerbaijan and northern Armenia. The discovery of early sixth millennium BC grape wine in this region is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1714728114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5715782PMC
November 2017

Farming legumes in the pre-pottery Neolithic: New discoveries from the site of Ahihud (Israel).

PLoS One 2017 24;12(5):e0177859. Epub 2017 May 24.

Max Planck-Weizmann Center for Integrative Archaeology and Anthropology, Rehovot, Israel.

New discoveries of legumes in the lower Galilee at the prehistoric site of Ahihud in Israel shed light on early farming systems in the southern Levant. Radiocarbon dating of twelve legumes from pits and floors indicate that the farming of legumes was practiced in southern Levant as early as 10.240-10.200 (1σ) ago. The legumes were collected from pits and other domestic contexts dated to the Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic B. The legumes identified include Vicia faba L. (faba bean), V. ervilia (bitter vetch), V. narbonensis (narbon vetch), Lens sp. (lentil), Pisum sp. (pea), Lathyrus inconspicuus (inconspicuous pea) and L. hirosolymitanus (jerusalem vetchling). Comparison with coeval sites in the region show how the presence of peas, narbon vetches, inconspicuous peas, jerusalem vetchlings and bitter vetches together with faba bean and lentils is unique to the Pre-Pottery Neolithic, and might indicate specific patterns in farming or storing at the onset of agriculture.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0177859PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5443508PMC
September 2017

The dawn of dentistry in the late upper Paleolithic: An early case of pathological intervention at Riparo Fredian.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2017 07 27;163(3):446-461. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Department of Cultural Heritage, Laboratory of Anthropology, University of Bologna, Via degli Ariani 1, Ravenna, 48121, Italy.

Objectives: Early evidence for the treatment of dental pathology is found primarily among food-producing societies associated with high levels of oral pathology. However, some Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers show extensive oral pathology, suggesting that experimentation with therapeutic dental interventions may have greater antiquity. Here, we report the second earliest probable evidence for dentistry in a Late Upper Paleolithic hunter-gatherer recovered from Riparo Fredian (Tuscany, Italy).

Materials And Methods: The Fredian 5 human consists of an associated maxillary anterior dentition with antemortem exposure of both upper first incisor (I ) pulp chambers. The pulp chambers present probable antemortem modifications that warrant in-depth analyses and direct dating. Scanning electron microscopy, microCT and residue analyses were used to investigate the purported modifications of external and internal surfaces of each I .

Results: The direct date places Fredian 5 between 13,000 and 12,740 calendar years ago. Both pulp chambers were circumferentially enlarged prior to the death of this individual. Occlusal dentine flaking on the margin of the cavities and striations on their internal aspects suggest anthropic manipulation. Residue analyses revealed a conglomerate of bitumen, vegetal fibers, and probable hairs adherent to the internal walls of the cavities.

Discussion: The results are consistent with tool-assisted manipulation to remove necrotic or infected pulp in vivo and the subsequent use of a composite, organic filling. Fredian 5 confirms the practice of dentistry-specifically, a pathology-induced intervention-among Late Pleistocene hunter-gatherers. As such, it appears that fundamental perceptions of biomedical knowledge and practice were in place long before the socioeconomic changes associated with the transition to food production in the Neolithic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23216DOI Listing
July 2017

DNA analysis of a 30,000-year-old Urocitellus glacialis from northeastern Siberia reveals phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels.

Sci Rep 2017 02 16;7:42639. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Department of Vertebral Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation.

In contrast to the abundant fossil record of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, from eastern Beringia, only a limited number of fossils is known from its western part. In 1946, unnamed GULAG prisoners discovered a nest with three mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels in the permafrost sediments of the El'ga river, Yakutia, Russia, that were later attributed to a new species, Citellus (Urocitellus) glacialis Vinogr. To verify this assignment and to explore phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels, we performed C dating and ancient DNA analyses of one of the El'ga mummies and four contemporaneous fossils from Duvanny Yar, northeastern Yakutia. Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on complete cytochrome b gene sequences of five Late Pleistocene arctic ground squirrels and those of modern U. parryii from 21 locations across western Beringia, provided no support for earlier proposals that ancient arctic ground squirrels from Siberia constitute a distinct species. In fact, we observed genetic continuity of the glacialis mitochondrial DNA lineage in modern U. parryii of the Kamchatka peninsula. When viewed in a broader geographic perspective, our findings provide new insights into the genetic history of U. parryii in Late Pleistocene Beringia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep42639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5311991PMC
February 2017

14,000-year-old seeds indicate the Levantine origin of the lost progenitor of faba bean.

Sci Rep 2016 11 23;6:37399. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Max Planck-Weizmann Center for Integrative Archaeology and Anthropology, 76100 Rehovot, Israel.

The understanding of crop domestication is dependent on tracking the original geographical distribution of wild relatives. The faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is economically important in many countries around the world; nevertheless, its origin has been debated because its ancestor could not be securely identified. Recent investigations in the site of el-Wad (Mount Carmel, Israel), provide the first and, so far, only remains of the lost ancestor of faba bean. X-ray CT scan analysis of the faba beans provides the first set of measurements of the biometry of this species before its domestication. The presence of wild specimens in Mount Carmel, 14,000 years ago, supports that the wild variety grew nearby in the Lower Galilee where the first domestication was documented for Neolithic farmers 10,200 years ago.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep37399DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5120295PMC
November 2016

A Unique Assemblage of Engraved Plaquettes from Ein Qashish South, Jezreel Valley, Israel: Figurative and Non-Figurative Symbols of Late Pleistocene Hunters-Gatherers in the Levant.

PLoS One 2016 24;11(8):e0160687. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Department of Maritime Civilizations, Charney School of Marine Studies and the Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies (RIMS), University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel.

Three engraved limestone plaquettes from the recently excavated Epipaleolithic open-air site Ein Qashish South in the Jezreel Valley, Israel comprise unique evidence for symbolic behavior of Late Pleistocene foragers in the Levant. The engravings, uncovered in Kebaran and Geometric Kebaran deposits (ca. 23ka and ca. 16.5ka BP), include the image of a bird-the first figurative representation known so far from a pre-Natufian Epipaleolithic-along with geometric motifs such as chevrons, crosshatchings and ladders. Some of the engravings closely resemble roughly contemporary European finds interpreted as "systems of notations" or "artificial memory systems"-records related to timing of seasonal resources and associated aggregation events of nomadic groups. Moreover, similarly looking signs and patterns are well known from the context of the local Natufian-a final Epipaleolithic culture of sedentary or semi-sedentary foragers who started practicing agriculture. The investigation of the engravings found in Ein Qashish South involves conceptualizations developed in studies of European and local parallels, a selection of ethnographic examples and preliminary microscopic observations of the plaquettes. This shows that the figurative and non-figurative images comprise a coherent assemblage of symbols that might have been applied in order to store, share and transmit information related to social and subsistence realms of mobile bands. It further suggests that the site functioned as a locality of groups' aggregation and indicates social complexity of pre-Natufian foragers in the Levant. While alterations in social and subsistence strategies can explain the varying frequency of image use characterizing different areas of the Late Pleistocene world-the apparent similarity in graphics and the mode of their application support the possibility that symbol-mediated behavior has a common and much earlier origin.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0160687PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4996494PMC
July 2017

Nahal Ein Gev II, a Late Natufian Community at the Sea of Galilee.

PLoS One 2016 27;11(1):e0146647. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 02138, United States of America.

The Natufian culture is of great importance as a starting point to investigate the dynamics of the transition to agriculture. Given its chronological position at the threshold of the Neolithic (ca. 12,000 years ago) and its geographic setting in the productive Jordan Valley, the site of Nahal Ein Gev II (NEG II) reveals aspects of the Late Natufian adaptations and its implications for the transition to agriculture. The size of the site, the thick archaeological deposits, invested architecture and multiple occupation sub-phases reveal a large, sedentary community at least on par with Early Natufian camps in the Mediterranean zone. Although the NEG II lithic tool kit completely lacks attributes typical of succeeding Pre Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) assemblages, the artistic style is more closely related to the early PPNA world, despite clear roots in Early Natufian tradition. The site does not conform to current perceptions of the Late Natufians as a largely mobile population coping with reduced resource productivity caused by the Younger Dryas. Instead, the faunal and architectural data suggest that the sedentary populations of the Early Natufian did not revert back to a nomadic way of life in the Late Natufian in the Jordan Valley. NEG II encapsulates cultural characteristics typical of both Natufian and PPNA traditions and thus bridges the crossroads between Late Paleolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0146647PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729465PMC
July 2016

The onset of faba bean farming in the Southern Levant.

Sci Rep 2015 Oct 13;5:14370. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

Max Planck-Weizmann Center for Integrative Archaeology and Anthropology, 76100, Rehovot, Israel.

Even though the faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the most ubiquitously cultivated crops, very little is known about its origins. Here, we report discoveries of charred faba beans from three adjacent Neolithic sites in the lower Galilee region, in the southern Levant, that offer new insights into the early history of this species. Biometric measurements, radiocarbon dating and stable carbon isotope analyses of the archaeological remains, supported by experiments on modern material, date the earliest farming of this crop to ~10,200 cal BP. The large quantity of faba beans found in these adjacent sites indicates intensive production of faba beans in the region that can only have been achieved by planting non-dormant seeds. Selection of mutant-non-dormant stock suggests that the domestication of the crop occurred as early as the 11(th) millennium cal BP. Plant domestication| Vicia faba L.| Pre-Pottery Neolithic B| radiocarbon dating| Δ(13)C analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14370DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4602238PMC
October 2015

Levantine cranium from Manot Cave (Israel) foreshadows the first European modern humans.

Nature 2015 Apr 28;520(7546):216-9. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

Israel Antiquities Authority, PO Box 586, Jerusalem 91004, Israel.

A key event in human evolution is the expansion of modern humans of African origin across Eurasia between 60 and 40 thousand years (kyr) before present (bp), replacing all other forms of hominins. Owing to the scarcity of human fossils from this period, these ancestors of all present-day non-African modern populations remain largely enigmatic. Here we describe a partial calvaria, recently discovered at Manot Cave (Western Galilee, Israel) and dated to 54.7 ± 5.5 kyr bp (arithmetic mean ± 2 standard deviations) by uranium-thorium dating, that sheds light on this crucial event. The overall shape and discrete morphological features of the Manot 1 calvaria demonstrate that this partial skull is unequivocally modern. It is similar in shape to recent African skulls as well as to European skulls from the Upper Palaeolithic period, but different from most other early anatomically modern humans in the Levant. This suggests that the Manot people could be closely related to the first modern humans who later successfully colonized Europe. Thus, the anatomical features used to support the 'assimilation model' in Europe might not have been inherited from European Neanderthals, but rather from earlier Levantine populations. Moreover, at present, Manot 1 is the only modern human specimen to provide evidence that during the Middle to Upper Palaeolithic interface, both modern humans and Neanderthals contemporaneously inhabited the southern Levant, close in time to the likely interbreeding event with Neanderthals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14134DOI Listing
April 2015

A possible case of cherubism in a 17th-century Korean mummy.

PLoS One 2014 5;9(8):e102441. Epub 2014 Aug 5.

Department of Anatomy, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea; Institute of Forensic Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Cherubism is a benign fibro-osseous disease of childhood limited specifically to the maxilla and mandible. The progressive replacement of the jaw bones with expansile multilocular cystic lesions causes eventual prominence of the lower face, and hence the classic "cherubic" phenotype reflecting variable extents of jaw hypertrophy. Histologically, this condition has been characterized as replacement of the normal bone matrix with multicystic pockets of fibrous stroma and osteoclastic giant cells. Because of radiographic features common to both, primarily the presence of multiloculated lucencies with heterogeneous "ground-glass" sclerosis on CT imaging, cherubism was long mistaken for a craniofacial subtype of fibrous dysplasia. In 1999, however, the distinct genetic basis for cherubism was mapped to chromosome 4p16.3 and the SH-3 binding protein SH3BP2. But while there are already three suspected cases of fibrous dysplasia amongst archaeological populations, no definitive cases of cherubism have yet been reported in historical populations. In the current study we describe micro- and macro-structural changes in the face of a 17th century Joseon Dynasty Korean mummy which may coincide with the clinic-pathologic and radiologic features of cherubism.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0102441PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4122385PMC
April 2015

Towards an absolute chronology for the Aegean iron age: new radiocarbon dates from Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth.

PLoS One 2013 26;8(12):e83117. Epub 2013 Dec 26.

Kimmel Center for Archaeological Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel ; Weizmann Institute-Max Planck Center for Integrative Archaeology, D-REAMS Radiocarbon Laboratory, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

The relative chronology of the Aegean Iron Age is robust. It is based on minute stylistic changes in the Submycenaean, Protogeometric and Geometric styles and their sub-phases. Yet, the absolute chronology of the time-span between the final stages of Late Helladic IIIC in the late second millennium BCE and the archaic colonization of Italy and Sicily toward the end of the 8(th) century BCE lacks archaeological contexts that can be directly related to events carrying absolute dates mentioned in Egyptian/Near Eastern historical sources, or to well-dated Egyptian/Near Eastern rulers. The small number of radiocarbon dates available for this time span is not sufficient to establish an absolute chronological sequence. Here we present a new set of short-lived radiocarbon dates from the sites of Lefkandi, Kalapodi and Corinth in Greece. We focus on the crucial transition from the Submycenaean to the Protogeometric periods. This transition is placed in the late 11(th) century BCE according to the Conventional Aegean Chronology and in the late 12(th) century BCE according to the High Aegean Chronology. Our results place it in the second half of the 11(th) century BCE.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0083117PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3873300PMC
September 2014

Ancient DNA and population turnover in southern levantine pigs--signature of the sea peoples migration?

Sci Rep 2013 Nov 4;3:3035. Epub 2013 Nov 4.

1] Institute of Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel [2] Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel.

Near Eastern wild boars possess a characteristic DNA signature. Unexpectedly, wild boars from Israel have the DNA sequences of European wild boars and domestic pigs. To understand how this anomaly evolved, we sequenced DNA from ancient and modern pigs from Israel. Pigs from Late Bronze Age (until ca. 1150 BCE) in Israel shared haplotypes of modern and ancient Near Eastern pigs. European haplotypes became dominant only during the Iron Age (ca. 900 BCE). This raises the possibility that European pigs were brought to the region by the Sea Peoples who migrated to the Levant at that time. Then, a complete genetic turnover took place, most likely because of repeated admixture between local and introduced European domestic pigs that went feral. Severe population bottlenecks likely accelerated this process. Introductions by humans have strongly affected the phylogeography of wild animals, and interpretations of phylogeography based on modern DNA alone should be taken with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep03035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3816294PMC
November 2013

Earliest floral grave lining from 13,700-11,700-y-old Natufian burials at Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Jul 1;110(29):11774-8. Epub 2013 Jul 1.

The Zinman Institute of Archaeology, University of Haifa, 91905 Israel.

Flowering plants possess mechanisms that stimulate positive emotional and social responses in humans. It is difficult to establish when people started to use flowers in public and ceremonial events because of the scarcity of relevant evidence in the archaeological record. We report on uniquely preserved 13,700-11,700-y-old grave linings made of flowers, suggesting that such use began much earlier than previously thought. The only potentially older instance is the questionable use of flowers in the Shanidar IV Neanderthal grave. The earliest cemeteries (ca. 15,000-11,500 y ago) in the Levant are known from Natufian sites in northern Israel, where dozens of burials reflect a wide range of inhumation practices. The newly discovered flower linings were found in four Natufian graves at the burial site of Raqefet Cave, Mt. Carmel, Israel. Large identified plant impressions in the graves include stems of sage and other Lamiaceae (Labiatae; mint family) or Scrophulariaceae (figwort family) species; accompanied by a plethora of phytoliths, they provide the earliest direct evidence now known for such preparation and decoration of graves. Some of the plant species attest to spring burials with a strong emphasis on colorful and aromatic flowers. Cave floor chiseling to accommodate the desired grave location and depth is also evident at the site. Thus, grave preparation was a sophisticated planned process, embedded with social and spiritual meanings reflecting a complex preagricultural society undergoing profound changes at the end of the Pleistocene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1302277110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3718103PMC
July 2013

30,000-year-old wild flax fibers.

Science 2009 Sep;325(5946):1359

Institute of Paleobiology, National Museum of Georgia, Tbilisi 380007, Georgia.

A unique finding of wild flax fibers from a series of Upper Paleolithic layers at Dzudzuana Cave, located in the foothills of the Caucasus, Georgia, indicates that prehistoric hunter-gatherers were making cords for hafting stone tools, weaving baskets, or sewing garments. Radiocarbon dates demonstrate that the cave was inhabited intermittently during several periods dated to 32 to 26 thousand years before the present (kyr B.P.), 23 to 19 kyr B.P., and 13 to 11 kyr B.P. Spun, dyed, and knotted flax fibers are common. Apparently, climatic fluctuations recorded in the cave's deposits did not affect the growth of the plants because a certain level of humidity was sustained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1175404DOI Listing
September 2009

Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and bone collagen associated with early pottery at Yuchanyan Cave, Hunan Province, China.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2009 Jun 1;106(24):9595-600. Epub 2009 Jun 1.

Department of Land of Israel Studies, Bar Ilan University, 52900 Ramat Gan, Israel.

Yuchanyan Cave in Daoxian County, Hunan Province (People's Republic of China), yielded fragmentary remains of 2 or more ceramic vessels, in addition to large amounts of ash, a rich animal bone assemblage, cobble and flake artifacts, bone tools, and shell tools. The artifacts indicate that the cave was a Late Paleolithic foragers' camp. Here we report on the radiocarbon ages of the sediments based on analyses of charcoal and bone collagen. The best-preserved charcoal and bone samples were identified by prescreening in the field and laboratory. The dates range from around 21,000 to 13,800 cal BP. We show that the age of the ancient pottery ranges between 18,300 and 15,430 cal BP. Charcoal and bone collagen samples located above and below one of the fragments produced dates of around 18,000. These ceramic potsherds therefore provide some of the earliest evidence for pottery making in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0900539106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2689310PMC
June 2009

Abstracts of the 6th FECS Conference 1998 Lectures.

Authors:
F S Rowland D R Blake B R Larsen A Lindskog P J Peterson W P Williams T J Wallington M J Pilling N Carslaw D J Creasey D E Heard P Jacobs J Lee A C Lewis J B McQuaid W R Stockwell H Frank P Sacco V Cocheo E Lynge A Andersen R Nilsson L Barlow E Pukkala R Nordlinder P Boffetta P Grandjean P Heikkil L G Hürte R Jakobsson I Lundberg B Moen T Partanen T Riise A Borowiak E De Saeger K G Schnitzler G Gravenhorst H W Jacobi S Moelders G Lammel G Busch F O Beese F J Dentener J Feichter K Fraedrich G J Roelofs R Friedrich S Reis F Voehringer D Simpson N Moussiopoulos P Sahm P M Tourlou R Salmons D Papameletiou J M Maqueda P B Suhr W Bell C Paton-Walsh P T Woods R H Partridge J Slemr F Slemr N Schmidbauer A R Ravishankara M E Jenkin G de Leeuw A M van Eijk A I Flossmann W Wobrock P G Mestayer B Tranchant E Ljungström R Karlsson S E Larsen M Roemer P J Builtjes B Koffi E N Koffi E De Saeger H Ro-Poulsen T N Mikkelsen P Hummelshøj M F Hovmand B R Simoneit A van der Meulen M B Meyer T Berndt O Böge F Stratmann G R Cass R M Harrison J P Shi T Hoffmann B Warscheid R Bandur U Marggraf W Nigge R Kamens M Jang M Strommen C J Chien K Leach M Ammann M Kalberer F Arens V Lavanchy H W Gâggeler U Baltensperger J A Davies R A Cox S G Alonso R P Pastor G A Argüello H Willner T Berndt O Böge V I Bogillo V A Pokrovskiy O V Kuraev P F Gozhyk E Bolzacchini M Bruschi P Fantucci S Meinardi M Orlandi B Rindone E Bolzacchini B Bohn B Rindone M Bruschi C Zetzsch C Brussol M Duane B Larsen P Carlier D Kotzias A B Caracena A M Aznar E G Ferradás C S Christensen H Skov P Hummelshøj N O Jensen C Lohse V Cocheo P Sacco C Chatzis V Cocheo P Sacco C Boaretto F Quaglio L Zaratin D Pagani L Cocheo V Cocheo A M Asnar A Baldan P P Ballesta C Boaretto A B Caracena E G Ferradas N Gonzalez-Flesca E Goelen A B Hansen P Sacco E De Saeger H Skov V Consonni P Gramatica A Santagostino P Galvani E Bolzacchini V Consonni P Gramatica R Todeschini G Dippel H Reinhardt R Zellner K Dämmer G Bednarek M Breil R Zellner A Febo I Allegrini C Giliberti C Perrino P G Fogg H Geiger I Barnes K H Becker T Maurer F Geyskens R Bormans M Lambrechts E Goelen M Giese H Frank M Glasius P Hornung J K Jacobsen H S Klausen K C Klitgaard C K Møller A P Petersen L S Petersen S Wessel T S Hansen C Lohse E Boaretto J Heinemeier M Glasius D Di Bella M Lahaniati A Calogirou N R Jensen J Hjorth D Kotzias B R Larsen N Gonzalez-Flesca A Cicolella M Bates E Bastin M A Gurbanov K M Akhmedly V S Balayev K F Haselmann R Ketola F Laturnus F R Lauritsen C Grøn H Herrmann B Ervens A Reese T Umschlag F Wicktor R Zellner H Herrmann T Umschlag K Müller E Bolzacchini S Meinardi B Rindone M E Jenkin G D Hayman N O Jensen M Courtney P Hummelshøj C S Christensen B R Larsen M S Johnson F Hegelund B Nelander F Kirchner B Klotz I Barnes S Sørensen K H Becker T Etzkorn U Platt K Wirtz M Martín-Reviejo F Laturnus E Martinez B Cabañas A Aranda P Martín S Salgado D Rodriguez P Masclet J L Jaffrezo R Hillamo A Mellouki S Le Calvé G Le Bras J Moriarty S O'Donnell J Wenger H Sidebottom M T Mingarrol S Cosin R P Pastor S G Alonso M J Sanz I Bravo D Gonzalez M A Pérez I Mustafaev S Mammadova J Noda M Hallquist S Langer E Ljungström K Nohara S Kutsuna T Ibusuki M Oehme S Kölliker S Brombacher L Merz R P Pastor S G Alonso A Q Cabezas J Peeters L Vereecken J El Yazal H U Pfeffer L Breuer J Platz O J Nielsen J Sehested T J Wallington J C Ball M D Hurley A M Straccia W F Schneider M P Pérez-Casany I Nebot-Gil J Sánchez-Marín E Putz G Folberth G Pfister L Weissflog N P Elansky S Sørensen I Barnes K H Becker M Shao A C Heiden D Kley P Rockel J Wildt G V Silva M T Vasconcelos E O Fernandes A M Santos H Skov A Hansen P Løfstrøm G Lorenzen J R Stabel P Wolkoff T Pedersen A B Strom H Skov O Hertel F P Jensen J Hjorth B Galle S Wallin J Theloke H G Libuda F Zabel M Touaty B Bonsang M Ullerstam S Langer E Ljungström J Wenger A Bonard M Manning S Nolan N O'Sullivan H Sidebottom J Wenger E Collins J Moriarty S O'Donnell H Sidebottom J Wenger E Collins J Moriarty S O'Donnell H Sidebottom J Wenger H Sidebottom P Chadwick B O'Leary J Treacy P Wolkoff P A Clausen C K Wilkins K S Hougaard G D Nielsen V Zilinskis G Jansons A Peksens A Lazdins Y V Arinci N Erdöl E Ekinci H Okutan I Manlafalioglu E B Bakeas P A Siskos L G Viras V N Smirnioudi J W Bottenheim T Biesenthal W Gong P Makar V Delmas T Menard V Tatry J Moussafir D Thomas A Coppalle T Ellermann O Hertel H Skov L Frohn O H Manscher J Friis R Girgzdiene A Girgzdys N A Gurevich K Gårdfeldt S Langer C Hermans A C Vandaele M Carleer S Fally R Colin P F Bernath A Jenouvrier B Coquart M F Mérienne O Hertel L Frohn H Skov T Ellermann H Huntrieser H Schlager C Feigl K Kemp F Palmgren S Kiilsholm A Rasmussen J H Sørensen O Klemm H Lange R W Larsen N W Larsen F Nicolaisen G O Sørensen J A Beukes P B Larsen S S Jensen J Fenger G de Leeuw G Kunz L Cohen H Schlünzen F Muller M Schulz S Tamm G Geernaert O Hertel B Pedersen L L Geernaert S Lund E Vignati T Jickells L Spokes C Matei O A Jinga D C Jinga R Moliner C Braekman-Danheux A Fontana I Suelves T Thieman S Vassilev H Skov O Hertel Z Zlatev J Brandt A Bastrup-Birk T Ellermann L Frohn A C Vandaele C Hermans M Carleer A Tsouli R Colin A M Windsperger K Turi O Dworak C Zellweger E Weingartner R Rüttimann P Hofer U Baltensperger A Ziv E Iakovleva F Palmgren R Berkovicz H Skov A Alastuey X Querol A Chaves A Lopez-Soler C Ruiz J M Andrees I Allegrini A Febo M Giusto M Angeloni P Di Filippo F D'Innocenzio L Lepore A Marconi M Y Arshinov B D Belan D K Davydov V K Kovaleskii A P Plotinov E V Pokrovskii T K Sklyadneva G N Tolmachev M Y Arshinov B D Belan T K Sklyadneva W Behnke M Elend U Krüger C Zetzsch B D Belan M Y Arshinov D K Davydov V K Kovalevskii A P Plotnikov E V Pokrovskii T M Rasskazchikova T K Sklyadneva G N Tolmachev B D Belan M Y Arshinov D V Simonenkov G N Tolmachev M Bilde P M Aker C Börensen U Kirchner V Scheer R Vogt T Ellermann L L Geernaert S C Pryor R J Barthelmie A Feilberg T Nielsen R M Kamens M C Freitas A P Marques M A Reis L C Alves N N Ilyinskikh I N Ilyinskikh E N Ilyinskikh K Johansen P Stavnsbjerg P Gabrielsson F Bak E Andersen H Autrup R Kamens M Jang M Strommen K Leach U Kirchner V Scheer C Börensen R Vogt K Igor G Svjatoslav B Anatoliy I L Komov A A Istchenko M G Lourenço D Mactavish A Sirois P Masclet J L Jaffrezo A van der Meulen A Milukaite V Morkunas P Jurgutis A Mikelinskiene T Nielsen A Feilberg M L Binderup M Pineda J M Palacios E Garcia C Cilleruelo R Moliner O B Popovitcheva M E Trukhin N M Persiantseva Y Buriko A M Starik B Demirdjian J Suzanne T U Probst B Rietz Z B Alfassi V A Pokrovskiy R Zenobi V M Bogatyr'ov V M Gun'ko X Querol A Alastuey A Lopez-Soler E Mantilla F Plana B Artiño A Rauterberg-Wulff G W Israël T A Rocha A C Duarte A Röhrl G Lammel G Spindler K Müller H Herrmann M R Strommen E Vignati G de Leeuw R Berkowicz

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 1998 ;5(3):119-96

Department of Chemistry, University of California, Irvine, 92697, California, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02986409DOI Listing
October 2012