Publications by authors named "E Bartholomeus Kuettner"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Crystal structure of cleaved vaspin (serpinA12).

Biol Chem 2016 Jan;397(2):111-23

The adipokine vaspin (serpinA12) is mainly expressed in white adipose tissue and exhibits various beneficial effects on obesity-related processes. Kallikrein 7 is the only known target protease of vaspin and is inhibited by the classical serpin inhibitory mechanism involving a cleavage of the reactive center loop between P1 (M378) and P1' (E379). Here, we present the X-ray structure of vaspin, cleaved between M378 and E379. We provide a comprehensive analysis of differences between the uncleaved and cleaved forms in the shutter, breach, and hinge regions with relation to common molecular features underlying the serpin inhibitory mode. Furthermore, we point out differences towards other serpins and provide novel data underlining the remarkable stability of vaspin. We speculate that the previously reported FKGx1Wx2x3 motif in the breach region may play a decisive role in determining the reactive center loop configuration in the native vaspin state and might contribute to the high thermostability of vaspin. Thus, this structure may provide a basis for future mutational studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/hsz-2015-0229DOI Listing
January 2016

Analysis of a rare functional truncating mutation rs61757459 in vaspin (SERPINA12) on circulating vaspin levels.

J Mol Med (Berl) 2013 Nov 12;91(11):1285-92. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

Department of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Unlabelled: A recent genome-wide association study suggests that genetic variation within the vaspin gene might contribute to the variability in circulating serum visceral adipose tissue-derived serine protease inhibitor (vaspin) concentrations. Here, we analyzed the functional consequences of the rare variant rs61757459 predicting a premature stop codon and its impact on circulating serum vaspin concentrations. In order to identify genetic variation, we sequenced the vaspin gene in 48 nonrelated Caucasian subjects. Rs61757459 was subsequently genotyped in three metabolically well-characterized German cohorts (N = 4,019). We addressed the impact of rs61757459 on the crystal structure of vaspin and investigated its effects on vaspin expression in vivo as well as in vitro using various cell lines (Escherichia coli, HEK293). Along with previously reported common genetic variants, sequencing of vaspin revealed a rare variant (rs61757459; minor allele frequency: 1 %) which predicts a premature stop codon p.R211X. Heterozygous carriers of this mutation had lower circulating vaspin levels when compared with noncarriers. In silico structure analysis of the truncated vaspin, which was estimated to be 24.5 kDa, suggested misfolding and potential instability due to the absence of core structural domains. Indeed, the truncated protein was detected after recombinant expression in E. coli and in lysate, but not in supernatant of HEK293 cells. We conclude that rs61757459 is a functional mutation that results in a truncated protein whose instability likely results in reduced serum vaspin levels.

Key Message: A rare variant (rs61757459) in vaspin coding for the stop codon p.R211X is related to lower circulating vaspin concentrations. Structure analysis suggests misfolding and instability due to the absence of core structural domains. The truncated protein is detectable after recombinant expression in E. coli and in lysate, but not in supernatant of HEK293 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-013-1062-9DOI Listing
November 2013

In vivo phosphorylation and in vitro autophosphorylation-inactivation of Kluyveromyces lactis hexokinase KlHxk1.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2013 May 10;435(2):313-8. Epub 2013 Apr 10.

Institute of Physiological Chemistry, Carl Gustav Carus Medical Faculty, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

The bifunctional hexokinase KlHxk1 is a key component of glucose-dependent signal transduction in Kluyveromyces lactis. KlHxk1 is phosphorylated in vivo and undergoes ATP-dependent autophosphorylation-inactivation in vitro. This study identifies serine-15 as the site of in vivo phosphorylation and serine-157 as the autophosphorylation-inactivation site. X-ray crystallography of the in vivo phosphorylated enzyme indicates the existence of a ring-shaped symmetrical homodimer carrying two phosphoserine-15 residues. In contrast, small-angle X-ray scattering and equilibrium sedimentation analyses reveal the existence of monomeric phosphoserine-15 KlHxk1 in solution. While phosphorylation at serine-15 and concomitant homodimer dissociation are likely to be involved in glucose signalling, mechanism and putative physiological significance of KlHxk1 inactivation by autophosphorylation at serine-157 remain to be established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2013.03.121DOI Listing
May 2013

Vaspin inhibits kallikrein 7 by serpin mechanism.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2013 Jul 31;70(14):2569-83. Epub 2013 Jan 31.

Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biosciences, Pharmacy and Psychology, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstraße 34, Leipzig, Germany.

The molecular target of the adipokine vaspin (visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin; serpinA12) and its mode of action are unknown. Here, we provide the vaspin crystal structure and identify human kallikrein 7 (hK7) as a first protease target of vaspin inhibited by classical serpin mechanism with high specificity in vitro. We detect vaspin-hK7 complexes in human plasma and find co-expression of both proteins in murine pancreatic β-cells. We further demonstrate that hK7 cleaves human insulin in the A- and B-chain. Vaspin treatment of isolated pancreatic islets leads to increased insulin concentration in the media upon glucose stimulation without influencing insulin secretion. By application of vaspin and generated inactive mutants, we find the significantly improved glucose tolerance in C57BL/6NTac and db/db mice treated with recombinant vaspin fully dependent on the vaspin serpin activity and not related to vaspin-mediated changes in insulin sensitivity as determined by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. Improved glucose metabolism could be mediated by increased insulin plasma concentrations 150 min after a glucose challenge in db/db mice, supporting the hypothesis that vaspin may inhibit insulin degradation by hK7 in the circulation. In conclusion, we demonstrate the inhibitory serpin nature and the first protease target of the adipose tissue-derived serpin vaspin, and our findings suggest hK7 inhibition by vaspin as an underlying physiological mechanism for its compensatory actions on obesity-induced insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00018-013-1258-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3689916PMC
July 2013

Crystal structure of hexokinase KlHxk1 of Kluyveromyces lactis: a molecular basis for understanding the control of yeast hexokinase functions via covalent modification and oligomerization.

J Biol Chem 2010 Dec 12;285(52):41019-33. Epub 2010 Oct 12.

Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Crystal structures of the unique hexokinase KlHxk1 of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis were determined using eight independent crystal forms. In five crystal forms, a symmetrical ring-shaped homodimer was observed, corresponding to the physiological dimer existing in solution as shown by small-angle x-ray scattering. The dimer has a head-to-tail arrangement such that the small domain of one subunit interacts with the large domain of the other subunit. Dimer formation requires favorable interactions of the 15 N-terminal amino acids that are part of the large domain with amino acids of the small domain of the opposite subunit, respectively. The head-to-tail arrangement involving both domains of the two KlHxk1 subunits is appropriate to explain the reduced activity of the homodimer as compared with the monomeric enzyme and the influence of substrates and products on dimer formation and dissociation. In particular, the structure of the symmetrical KlHxk1 dimer serves to explain why phosphorylation of conserved residue Ser-15 may cause electrostatic repulsions with nearby negatively charged residues of the adjacent subunit, thereby inducing a dissociation of the homologous dimeric hexokinases KlHxk1 and ScHxk2. Two complex structures of KlHxk1 with bound glucose provide a molecular model of substrate binding to the open conformation and the subsequent classical domain closure motion of yeast hexokinases. The entirety of the novel data extends the current concept of glucose signaling in yeast and complements the induced-fit model by integrating the events of N-terminal phosphorylation and dissociation of homodimeric yeast hexokinases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M110.185850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3003401PMC
December 2010

Molecular architecture and structural basis of allosteric regulation of eukaryotic phosphofructokinases.

FASEB J 2011 Jan 10;25(1):89-98. Epub 2010 Sep 10.

Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Eukaryotic ATP-dependent 6-phosphofructokinases (Pfks) differ from their bacterial counterparts in a much more complex structural organization and allosteric regulation. Pichia pastoris Pfk (PpPfk) is, with ∼ 1 MDa, the most complex and probably largest eukaryotic Pfk. We have determined the crystal structure of full-length PpPfk to 3.05 Å resolution in the T state. PpPfk forms a (αβγ)(4) dodecamer of D(2) symmetry with dimensions of 161 × 157 × 233 Å mainly via interactions of the α chains. The N-terminal domains of the α and β chains have folds that are distantly related to glyoxalase I, but the active sites are no longer functional. Interestingly, these domains located at the 2 distal ends of this protein along the long 2-fold axis form a (αβ)(2) dimer as does the core Pfk domains; however, the domains are swapped across the tetramerization interface. In PpPfk, the unique γ subunit participates in oligomerization of the αβ chains. This modulator protein was acquired from an ancient S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferase. The identification of novel ATP binding sites, which do not correspond to the bacterial catalytic or effector binding sites, point to marked structural and functional differences between bacterial and eukaryotic Pfks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.10-163865DOI Listing
January 2011

Structure and function of the abasic site specificity pocket of an AP endonuclease from Archaeoglobus fulgidus.

DNA Repair (Amst) 2009 Feb 5;8(2):219-31. Epub 2008 Dec 5.

Institute of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology, Pharmacy and Psychology, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

The major AP endonuclease in Escherichia coli Exonuclease III (ExoIII) is frequently used in gene technology due to its strong exonucleolytic activity. A thermostabilized variant of ExoIII or a homologous enzyme from thermophilic organisms could be most useful for further applications. For this purpose we characterized a nuclease from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus (Af_Exo), which shares 33% overall sequence identity and 55% similarity to ExoIII. The gene coding for this thermostable enzyme was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified protein shows a strong Mg(2+)-dependent nicking activity at AP-sites, nicking of undamaged double-stranded (ds) DNA and a weak exonucleolytic activity. A V217G variant of the enzyme was crystallized with decamer ds-DNA molecule, and the three-dimensional structure was determined to 1.7A resolution. Besides our goal to find or produce a thermostable exonuclease, the structural and catalytic data of Af_Exo and a series of mutant proteins, based on the crystal structure, provide new insight into the mechanism of abasic site recognition and repair. Each of the hydrophobic residues Phe 200, Trp 215 and Val 217, forming a binding pocket for the abasic deoxyribose in Af_Exo, were mutated to glycine or serine. By expanding the size of the binding pocket the unspecific endonucleolytic activity is increased. Thus, size and flexibility of the mostly hydrophobic binding pocket have a significant influence on AP-site specificity. We suggest that its tight fitting to the flipped-out deoxyribose allows for a preferred competent binding of abasic sites. In a larger or more flexible pocket however, intact nucleotides more easily bind in a catalytically competent conformation, resulting in loss of specificity. Moreover, with mutations of Phe 200 and Trp 215 we induced a strong exonucleolytic activity on undamaged DNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2008.10.009DOI Listing
February 2009

Active-site mobility revealed by the crystal structure of arylmalonate decarboxylase from Bordetella bronchiseptica.

J Mol Biol 2008 Mar 5;377(2):386-94. Epub 2008 Jan 5.

Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Arylmalonate decarboxylase (AMDase) from Bordetella bronchiseptica catalyzes the enantioselective decarboxylation of arylmethylmalonates without the need for an organic cofactor or metal ion. The decarboxylation reaction is of interest for the synthesis of fine chemicals. As basis for an analysis of the catalytic mechanism of AMDase and for a rational enzyme design, we determined the X-ray structure of the enzyme up to 1.9 A resolution. Like the distantly related aspartate or glutamate racemases, AMDase has an aspartate transcarbamoylase fold consisting of two alpha/beta domains related by a pseudo dyad. However, the domain orientation of AMDase differs by about 30 degrees from that of the glutamate racemases, and also significant differences in active-site structures are observed. In the crystals, four independent subunits showing different conformations of active-site loops are present. This finding is likely to reflect the active-site mobility necessary for catalytic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2007.12.069DOI Listing
March 2008

Cosubstrate-induced dynamics of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida.

FEBS J 2007 Nov;274(21):5767-79

Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

D-3-Hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida belongs to the family of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases. We have determined X-ray structures of the D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida, which was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli, in three different crystal forms to resolutions between 1.9 and 2.1 A. The so-called substrate-binding loop (residues 187-210) was partially disordered in several subunits, in both the presence and absence of NAD(+). However, in two subunits, this loop was completely defined in an open conformation in the apoenzyme and in a closed conformation in the complex structure with NAD(+). Structural comparisons indicated that the loop moves as a rigid body by about 46 degrees . However, the two small alpha-helices (alphaFG1 and alphaFG2) of the loop also re-orientated slightly during the conformational change. Probably, the interactions of Val185, Thr187 and Leu189 with the cosubstrate induced the conformational change. A model of the binding mode of the substrate D-3-hydroxybutyrate indicated that the loop in the closed conformation, as a result of NAD(+) binding, is positioned competent for catalysis. Gln193 is the only residue of the substrate-binding loop that interacts directly with the substrate. A translation, libration and screw (TLS) analysis of the rigid body movement of the loop in the crystal showed significant librational displacements, describing the coordinated movement of the substrate-binding loop in the crystal. NAD(+) binding increased the flexibility of the substrate-binding loop and shifted the equilibrium between the open and closed forms towards the closed form. The finding that all NAD(+) -bound subunits are present in the closed form and all NAD(+) -free subunits in the open form indicates that the loop closure is induced by cosubstrate binding alone. This mechanism may contribute to the sequential binding of cosubstrate followed by substrate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2007.06102.xDOI Listing
November 2007

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of hexokinase KlHxk1 from Kluyveromyces lactis.

Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 2007 May 20;63(Pt 5):430-3. Epub 2007 Apr 20.

Biotechnologisch-Biomedizinisches Zentrum, Institut für Bioanalytische Chemie, Fakultät für Chemie und Mineralogie, Universität Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Glucose acts as both a carbon source and a hormone-like regulator of gene expression in eukaryotic organisms from yeast to man. Phosphorylation of glucose is executed by hexokinases, which represent a class of multifunctional enzymes that, in addition to their contribution to the uptake and initiation of metabolism of glucose, fructose and mannose, are involved in glucose signalling. The genome of the budding yeast Kluyveromyces lactis encodes a single hexokinase (KlHxk1) and a single glucokinase (KlGlk1). KlHxk1 exists in a monomer-homodimer equilibrium which is presumed to play a role in metabolic regulation. In order to evaluate the physiological significance of KlHxk1 dimerization on a molecular level, the enzyme was crystallized and subjected to X-ray structure analysis. Crystallization employing ammonium sulfate, diammonium phosphate or polyethylene glycol 6000 at pH values of 8.0-9.5 gave seven different crystal forms of KlHxk1. Crystallographic data to 1.66 A resolution were obtained using synchrotron radiation. Structure determination of KlHxk1 in various packing environments will reveal the full architecture of the homodimeric enzyme and complete our mechanistic understanding of the catalytic and regulatory functions of the enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1744309107018271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2335009PMC
May 2007

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray characterization of two thermostable DNA nucleases.

Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun 2006 Dec 30;62(Pt 12):1290-3. Epub 2006 Nov 30.

Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Institute for Bioanalytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, University of Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Temperature-tolerant organisms are an important source to enhance the stability of enzymes used in biotechnological processes. The DNA-cleaving enzyme exonuclease III from Escherichia coli is used in several applications in gene technology. A thermostable variant could expand the applicability of the enzyme in these methods. Two homologous nucleases from Archaeoglobus fulgidus (ExoAf) and Methanothermobacter thermoautrophicus (ExoMt) were studied for this purpose. Both enzymes were crystallized in different space groups using (poly)ethylene glycols, 2,4-methyl pentandiol, dioxane, ethanol or 2-propanol as precipitants. The addition of a 10-mer DNA oligonucleotide was important to obtain monoclinic crystals of ExoAf and ExoMt that diffracted to resolutions better than 2 A using synchrotron radiation. The crystal structures of the homologous proteins can serve as templates for genetic engineering of the E. coli exonuclease III and will aid in understanding the different catalytic properties of the enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1744309106050548DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2225370PMC
December 2006

The active principle of garlic at atomic resolution.

J Biol Chem 2002 Nov 15;277(48):46402-7. Epub 2002 Sep 15.

Department of Structural Biology and Crystallography, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Beutenbergstrasse 11, D-07745 Jena, Germany.

Despite the fact that many cultures around the world value and utilize garlic as a fundamental component of their cuisine as well as of their medicine cabinets, relatively little is known about the plant's protein configuration that is responsible for the specific properties of garlic. Here, we report the three-dimensional structure of the garlic enzyme alliinase at 1.5 A resolution. Alliinase constitutes the major protein component in garlic bulbs, and it is able to cleave carbon-sulfur bonds. The active enzyme is a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent homodimeric glycoprotein and belongs to the class I family of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. In addition, it contains a novel epidermal growth factor-like domain that makes it unique among all pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M208669200DOI Listing
November 2002

Purification, characterization, and crystallization of alliinase from garlic.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2002 Jun;402(2):192-200

Department of Structural Biology and Crystallography, Institute of Molecular Biotechnology, Beutenbergstrasse 11, D-07745 Jena, Germany.

Glycosylated dimeric alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) was purified to homogeneity from its natural source, garlic. With 660 units/mg, the specific enzymatic activity of the pure enzyme is the highest reported to date. Based on both CD spectroscopy data and sequence-derived secondary structure prediction, the alpha-helix content of alliinase was estimated to be about 30%. Comparisons of all available amino acid sequences of alliinases revealed a common cysteine pattern of the type C-x18-19-C-x-C-x2-C-x5-C-x6-C in the N-terminal part of the sequences. This pattern is conserved in alliinases but absent in other pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. It suggests the presence of an epidermal growth factor-like domain in the three-dimensional structures of alliinases, making them unique among the various families of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. Well-ordered three-dimensional crystals of garlic alliinase were obtained in four different forms. The best diffraction was observed with crystal form IV (space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), a=68.4, b=101.1, c=155.7 A) grown from an ammonium sulfate solution. These crystals diffract to at least 1.5 A resolution at a synchrotron source and are suitable for structure determination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0003-9861(02)00088-7DOI Listing
June 2002