Publications by authors named "E B Gareth Jones"

5,291 Publications

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Tacrolimus protects against age-associated microstructural changes in the beagle brain.

J Neurosci 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of California, Irvine, USA - 92697.

The overexpression of calcineurin leads to astrocyte hyperactivation, neuronal death, and inflammation, which are characteristics often associated with pathological aging and Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, prevents age-associated microstructural atrophy, which we measured using higher-order diffusion MRI, in the middle-aged beagle brain (n = 30, male and female). We find that tacrolimus reduces hippocampal (p = 0.001) and parahippocampal (p = 0.002) neurite density index (NDI), as well as protects against an age-associated increase in the parahippocampal (p = 0.007) orientation dispersion index (ODI). Tacrolimus also protects against an age-related decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) in the prefrontal cortex (p<0.0001). We also show that these microstructural alterations precede cognitive decline and gross atrophy. These results support the idea that calcineurin inhibitors may have the potential to prevent aging-related pathology if administered at middle-age.Hyperactive calcineurin signaling causes neuroinflammation and other neurobiological changes often associated with pathological aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Controlling the expression of calcineurin before gross cognitive deficits are observable might serve as a promising avenue for preventing AD pathology. In this study, we show that administration of the calcineurin inhibitor, tacrolimus, over one year prevents age and AD-associated microstructural changes in the hippocampus, parahippocampal cortex, and prefrontal cortex of the middle-aged beagle brain, with no noticeable adverse effects. Tacrolimus is already FDA-approved for use in humans to prevent solid organ transplant rejection, and our results bolster the promise of this drug to prevent AD and aging-related pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0361-21.2021DOI Listing
May 2021

The impact of moral injury on the wellbeing of UK military veterans.

BMC Psychol 2021 May 5;9(1):73. Epub 2021 May 5.

King's Centre for Military Health Research, Institute of Psychology, Psychiatry and Neuroscience, King's College London, 10 Cutcombe Road, London, SE5 9RJ, UK.

Background: Experiences of potentially morally injurious events (PMIEs) have been found to negatively impact the mental health of US personnel/veterans, yet little is known about the effect of PMIEs on the mental health of the UK Armed Forces (AF). This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between PMIEs and the mental health outcomes of UK AF veterans.

Method: Assessments of PMIE exposure and self-report measures of common mental disorders were administered using an online questionnaire to 204 UK veterans. Subjects were classified as having experienced a morally injurious event (n = 66), a non-morally injurious traumatic event (n = 57), a 'mixed' event (n = 31), or no event (n = 50).

Results: Potentially morally injurious experiences were associated with adverse mental health outcomes, including likely anxiety disorders and suicidal ideation, compared to those who reported no event exposure. The likelihood of meeting criteria for probable PTSD was greatest in those who had experienced a non-morally injurious trauma. No statistically significant association between alcohol misuse and experiencing a PMIE or traumatic event was observed.

Conclusions: The results provide preliminary evidence that potentially morally injurious experiences are associated with adverse mental health outcomes in UK AF veterans. Further work is needed to better understand the interplay between morally injurious events and threat-based trauma in order to design effective pathways for prevention and intervention for people exposed to highly challenging events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-021-00578-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8097892PMC
May 2021

Cytologic, histopathologic, and clinical features of granulomatous colitis in a French Bulldog.

Vet Clin Pathol 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Comparative, Diagnostic, & Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

A young French Bulldog was presented with clinical signs of chronic gastrointestinal disease, unresponsive to medical therapies. Parasite screenings and abdominal ultrasound failed to identify the etiology of the clinical signs. Cytologic evaluation of a rectal scraping sample diagnosed presumptive granulomatous colitis (GC) based on the presence of numerous macrophages with characteristic abundant, pink, granular cytoplasm, which showed an intense pink color when stained with periodic acid-Schiff. Tissue biopsy samples and Escherichia coli fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis confirmed the cytologic diagnosis. The cytologic, histopathologic, and clinical features and staining properties of GC in a French Bulldog are reported. Rectal scraping should be considered a part of the diagnostic evaluation in patients with suspected GC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12944DOI Listing
May 2021

Gastrointestinal Computed Tomography Findings in Chronic Granulomatous Disease with Subgroup Clinicopathologic Analysis.

Dig Dis Sci 2021 May 1. Epub 2021 May 1.

Abdominal Imaging, Division of Diagnostic Radiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency which can lead to gastrointestinal (GI) complications including inflammatory bowel disease. Radiographic findings in this cohort have not been well described.

Aims: To describe the frequency and spectrum of gastrointestinal abnormalities seen on computed tomography (CT) in patients with CGD and determine whether radiography was predictive of endoscopic or histopathologic inflammatory findings.

Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 141 consecutive CGD patients seen at the National Institutes of Health between 1988 and 2011. All corresponding CTs were reviewed for gastrointestinal abnormalities including wall thickening. Endoscopic and histopathologic findings were reviewed in subjects with documented endoscopy within 30 days of an imaging study. Findings were compared between patients with and without wall thickening on CT to determine whether bowel wall thickening was predictive of endoscopic or histologic inflammatory findings.

Results: Two hundred and ninety-two CTs were reviewed. GI wall thickening was present on CT in 61% of patients (n = 86). Among a subgroup of 20 patients who underwent endoscopy at the time of their imaging, there was a statistically significant correlation between radiographic gastrointestinal wall thickening and endoscopic inflammation in the same intestinal segment (p = 0.035). Additionally, there was a significant correlation between radiographic gastrointestinal wall thickening and inflammatory features on histopathology (p = 0.02).

Conclusions: GI abnormalities are commonly observed on CT in CGD patients. Bowel wall thickening correlates with endoscopic and histopathologic evidence of inflammation. These findings may be used to better facilitate directed endoscopic assessment and histopathologic sampling in patients with CGD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-06978-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical Issues-May 2021.

Authors:
Emily Jones

AORN J 2021 May;113(5):515-522

Surgical technologists inserting urinary catheters Key words: surgical technologist (ST), urinary catheter insertion, catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), task delegation, competency. Assisting the anesthesia professionals with cricoid pressure Key words: cricoid pressure, Sellick maneuver, airway, induction, aspiration. Perioperative care of the patient with a corn food allergy Key words: corn allergy, dextrose, anaphylaxis, derivatives, food allergy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/aorn.13386DOI Listing
May 2021