Publications by authors named "Dylan Thibault"

84 Publications

Congenitally Corrected Transposition Cardiac Surgery: Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database Analysis.

Ann Thorac Surg 2022 Apr 14. Epub 2022 Apr 14.

Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background: Congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) has many management strategies, with the emergence of anatomic repair increasing the available surgical options. Contemporary surgical practices have not been described in multicenter analyses. This study describes the distribution of heart surgery in patients with ccTGA and defines contemporary outcomes in a large multicenter cohort.

Methods: Index cardiovascular operations in patients with primary or fundamental diagnosis of ccTGA were identified in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database from 2010 to 2019. Operations of interest were combined into mutually exclusive groups designating overall ccTGA management strategies. Outcomes were defined with standard Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database definitions. Pearson χ and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical comparisons.

Results: One hundred one centers performed 985 index operations, with anatomic repair the most common approach. Twenty-six centers performed more than 10 operations. Atrial switch plus Rastelli operations had the highest rate of operative mortality (8.4%) and major complications (38.2%). Heart transplant operations had the longest postoperative length of stay among survivors (18 days [interquartile range, 13.5-26]).

Conclusions: Patients with ccTGA remain a challenging cohort, with significant diversity in the operations used and a substantial burden of operative mortality and morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2022.03.063DOI Listing
April 2022

Population-Based Study of Nonelective Postpartum Readmissions in Women With Stroke, Migraine, Multiple Sclerosis, and Myasthenia Gravis.

Neurology 2022 04 15;98(15):e1545-e1554. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

From the Department of Neurology (B.M.D., K.A.D., A.W.W.), Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (B.M.D., D.T., A.W.W.), Department of Neurology, Translational Center of Excellence for Neuroepidemiology and Neurology Outcomes Research, School of Medicine (B.M.D., D.T., A.W.W.), and Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics (B.M.D., A.W.W.), University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; and Department of Neurological Sciences (B.M.D.), University of Vermont Medical Center, Burlington.

Objective: To compare maternal obstetric complications and nonelective readmissions in women with common neurologic comorbidities (WWN) vs women without neurologic disorders.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of index characteristics and acute postpartum, nonelective rehospitalizations from the 2015-2017 National Readmissions Database using ICD-10 codes. Wald χ testing compared baseline demographic, hospital, and clinical characteristics and postpartum complications between WWN (including previous stroke, migraine, multiple sclerosis [MS], and myasthenia gravis [MG]) and controls. Multivariable logistic regression models examined odds of postpartum complications and nonelective readmissions within 30 and 90 days for each neurologic comorbidity compared to controls (α = 0.05).

Results: A total of 7,612 women with previous stroke, 83,430 women with migraine, 6,760 women with MS, 843 women with MG, and 8,136,335 controls met the criteria for index admission after viable infant delivery. WWN were more likely than controls to have inpatient diagnoses of edema, proteinuria, or hypertensive disorders and to have received maternal care for poor fetal growth. The adjusted odds of a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention severe maternal morbidity indicator were greater for women with previous stroke (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 8.53, 95% CI 7.24-10.06), migraine (AOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.85-2.26), and MG (AOR 4.45, 95% CI 2.45-8.08) (all < 0.0001). Readmission rates at 30 and 90 days for WWN were higher than for controls (30 days: previous stroke 2.9%, migraine 1.7%, MS 1.8%, MG 4.3%, controls 1.1%; 90 days: previous stroke 3.7%, migraine 2.5%, MS 5.1%, MG 6.0%, controls 1.6%). Women with MG had the highest adjusted odds of readmission (30 days: AOR 3.96, 95% CI 2.37-6.65, < 0.0001; 90 days: AOR 3.30, 95% CI 1.88-5.78, < 0.0001).

Discussion: WWN may be at higher risk of severe maternal morbidity at the time of index delivery and postpartum readmission. More real-world evidence is needed to develop research infrastructure and create efficacious interventions to optimize maternal-fetal outcomes in WWN, especially for women with previous stroke or MG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000200007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9012272PMC
April 2022

Pediatric Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in the United States: A National Inpatient Analysis.

Top Spinal Cord Inj Rehabil 2022 19;28(1):1-12. Epub 2022 Jan 19.

Collaboration for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CORE), Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI) is a debilitating neurological condition often associated with lifelong disability. Despite this, there are limited data on pediatric tSCI epidemiology in the United States.

Objectives: Our primary objective was to estimate tSCI hospitalization rates among children, including by age, sex, and race. Secondary objectives were to characterize tSCI hospitalizations and examine associations between sociodemographic characteristics and tSCI etiology.

Methods: We used the 2016 Kids' Inpatient Database to examine tSCI hospitalizations among children (<21 years). Descriptive statistics were used to report individual and care setting characteristics for initial tSCI hospitalizations. We used Census Bureau data to estimate tSCI hospitalization rates (number of pediatric tSCI hospitalizations / number of US children) and logistic regression modeling to assess associations between documented sociodemographic characteristics and injury etiology.

Results: There were 1.48 tSCI admissions per 100,000 children; highest rates of hospitalization involved older (15-20 years), male, and Black children. Hospitalization involving male (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.43; 95% CI, 0.33-0.58) or Black (AOR 0.37; 95% CI, 0.25-0.55) children were less likely to involve a motor traffic accident. Hospitalizations of Black children were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis of tSCI resulting from a firearm incident (AOR 18.97; 95% CI, 11.50-31.28) or assault (AOR 11.76; 95% CI, 6.75-20.50) compared with hospitalizations of White children.

Conclusion: Older, male, and Black children are disproportionately burdened by tSCI. Implementation of broad health policies over time may be most effective in reducing pediatric tSCI hospitalizations and preventable injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.46292/sci21-00047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8791421PMC
February 2022

Conversion to Thoracotomy During Thoracoscopic vs Robotic Lobectomy: Predictors and Outcomes.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Dec 16. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Surgery, St Luke's University Health Network, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

Background: Conversion to thoracotomy during minimally invasive lobectomy for lung cancer is occasionally necessary. Differences between video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and robotic-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (RATS) lobectomy conversion have not been described.

Methods: We queried The Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2018. Patients with prior thoracic operations and metastatic disease were excluded. Univariable comparisons with χ and Kruskal-Wallis tests and multivariable logistic regression modeling were performed.

Results: There were 27,695 minimally invasive lobectomies from 269 centers. Conversion to thoracotomy occurred in 11.0% of VATS and 6.0% of RATS (P < .001). Conversion was associated with increased mortality (P < .001), major complications (P < .001), and intraoperative (P < .001) and postoperative (P < .001) blood transfusions. Conversion from RATS occurred emergently (P < .001) and for vascular injury (P < .001) more frequently than from VATS, but there was no difference in overall major complications or mortality. Mortality after conversion was 3.1% for RATS and 2.2% for VATS (P = .24). Clinical cancer stage II or III (P < .001), preoperative chemotherapy (P = .003), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P = .006), body mass index (P < .001), and left-sided resection (P = .0002) independently predicted VATS conversion. For RATS clinical stage III (P = .037), left-sided resection (P = .041), and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P = .002) predicted conversion. Lower volume centers had increased rates of conversion (P < .001) in both groups.

Conclusions: Conversion from minimally invasive to open lobectomy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Conversion occurs more frequently during VATS compared with RATS, albeit less often emergently, and with similar rates of overall mortality and major complications. Predictors, urgency, and reasons for conversion differ between RATS and VATS lobectomy and may assist in patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.10.067DOI Listing
December 2021

Optimal circulatory arrest temperature for aortic hemiarch replacement with antegrade brain perfusion.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Nov 12. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pa; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Heart and Vascular Institute, Pittsburgh, Pa. Electronic address:

Objective: This study sought to identify the optimal temperature for moderate hypothermic circulatory arrest in patients undergoing elective hemiarch replacement with antegrade brain perfusion.

Methods: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons adult cardiac surgery database was queried for elective hemiarch replacements using antegrade brain perfusion for aneurysmal disease (2014-2019). Generalized estimating equations and restricted cubic splines were used to determine the risk-adjusted relationships between temperature as a continuous variable and outcomes.

Results: Elective hemiarch replacement with antegrade brain perfusion occurred in 3898 patients at 374 centers with a median nadir temperature of 24.9 °C (first quartile, third quartile = 22.0 °C, 27.5 °C) and median circulatory arrest time of 19 minutes (first quartile, third quartile = 14.0 minutes, 27.0 minutes). After adjustment for comorbidities, circulatory arrest time, and individual surgeon, patients cooled between 25 and 28 °C had an early survival advantage compared with 24 °C, whereas those cooled between 21 and 23 °C had higher risks of mortality compared with 24 °C. A nadir temperature of 27 °C was associated with the lowest risk-adjusted odds of mortality (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.91). A nadir temperature of 21 °C had the highest risk of mortality (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.73). Risk of experiencing a major morbidity was elevated in patients cooled between 21 and 23 °C, with the highest risk occurring in patients cooled to 21 °C (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.24).

Conclusions: For patients with aneurysmal disease undergoing elective hemiarch with antegrade brain perfusion, circulatory arrest with a nadir temperature of 27 °C confers the greatest early survival benefit and smallest risk of postoperative morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2021.09.068DOI Listing
November 2021

Aortic Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis: Analysis of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Dec 4. Epub 2021 Dec 4.

Department of Surgery, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Background: This study sought to characterize the current US experience of aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) compared with native valve endocarditis (NVE).

Methods: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database was queried for entries of active aortic infective endocarditis (IE). Two analyses were performed: (1) trends of surgical volume and operative mortality (2011-2019); and (2) descriptive and risk-adjusted comparisons between PVE and NVE (2014-2019) using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: From 2011 to 2019, there was a yearly increase in the proportion of PVE (20.9% to 25.9%; P < .001) with a concurrent decrease in operative mortality (PVE, 22.5% to 10.4%; P < .001; NVE, 10.9% to 8.5%; P < .001). From 2014 to 2019, active aortic IE was identified in 9768 patients (NVE, 6842; PVE, 2926). Aortic root abscess (50.1% vs 25.2%; P < .001), aortic root replacement (50.1% vs 12.8%; P < .001), homograft implantation (27.2% vs 4.1%; P < .001), and operative mortality (12.2% vs 6.4%; P < .001) were higher in PVE. After risk adjustment, PVE (odds ratio [OR], 1.5; 95% CI,1.16-1.94; P < .01), aortic root replacement (OR, 1.49; 95% CI,1.15-1.92; P < .001), Staphylococcus aureus (OR, 1.5; 95% CI,1.23-1.82; P < .001), and unplanned revascularization (OR, 5.83; 95% CI,4.12-8.23; P < .001) or mitral valve surgery (OR, 2.29; 95% CI,1.5-3.51; P < .001) correlated with a higher operative mortality, whereas prosthesis type (P = .68) was not an independent predictor.

Conclusions: IE in the United States has risen over the past decade. However, operative mortality has decreased for both PVE and NVE. PVE, extension of IE requiring aortic root replacement, and additional unplanned surgical interventions carry an elevated mortality risk. Prosthesis selection did not affect operative mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.10.045DOI Listing
December 2021

Outcomes of carotid artery stenting in patients with radiation arteritis compared with those with atherosclerotic disease.

J Vasc Surg 2022 04 30;75(4):1286-1292. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WVa.

Objective: Head and neck malignancies are often treated with radiotherapy (RT). Nearly 80% of patients who have undergone RT will develop carotid radiation arteritis to some degree and 29% will develop stenosis >50%. Surgery in a radiated neck has higher rates of complications, and carotid artery stenting (CAS) has become the primary therapy. The outcomes for CAS in patients with radiation arteritis have not been rigorously evaluated. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the differences in perioperative outcomes, restenosis rates, the need for reintervention, and freedom from mortality between RT patients and patients with atherosclerotic disease who had undergone CAS.

Methods: The national Vascular Quality Initiative CAS dataset from 2016 to 2019 comprised the sample for analyses (n = 7343). The primary independent variable was previous head and/or neck RT. The primary endpoint was the interval to mortality. The secondary endpoints were the cumulative incidence of restenosis (>50% and >70% by duplex ultrasound) and reintervention. We also examined the following secondary perioperative endpoints: myocardial infarction, in-hospital mortality (death before discharge), neurologic events, ipsilateral stroke, and contralateral stroke. Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess for mortality, and cumulative incidence function estimates were used for the nonfatal endpoints.

Results: Of the 7218 patients, 1199 (17%) had undergone prior RT. We found a significant difference in the 3-year estimates of mortality for those with and without prior RT (9.4% and 7.5%, respectively; P = .03). Furthermore, on adjusted analysis, we observed a 58% increase in the risk of mortality for those with prior RT (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.21). We did not observe any differences in the risk of perioperative complications (myocardial infarction, in-hospital mortality, ipsilateral or contralateral stroke), restenosis (>50% or >70%), or reintervention for the prior RT group compared with those without RT.

Conclusions: The CAS patients with RT had significantly greater mortality at all time points compared with those without RT, even after adjusting for other covariates. No significant difference was found in the incidence of perioperative complications, reintervention, or restenosis between the two groups. The present study is unique because of the large sample size and length of follow-up. The results suggest that for this high-risk group, CAS provides the same patency as it does for atherosclerotic carotid stenosis and avoids potentially morbid cranial nerve injury and wound healing complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.11.058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8940670PMC
April 2022

Impact of to Coding Transition on Prevalence Trends in Neurology.

Neurol Clin Pract 2021 Oct;11(5):e612-e619

Department of Neurology and Translational Center of Excellence for Neuroepidemiology and Neurology Outcomes Research (AGH, DPT), Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Departments of Neurology and Population Health Science and Policy (LB), Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York; and Departments of Neurology and of Biostatics and Epidemiology and Translational Center of Excellence for Neuroepidemiology and Neurology Outcomes Research (AWW), Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Objective: To determine the effect of () to () coding transition on the point prevalence and longitudinal trends of 16 neurologic diagnoses.

Methods: We used 2014-2017 data from the National Inpatient Sample to identify hospitalizations with one of 16 common neurologic diagnoses. We used published codes to identify hospitalizations from January 1, 2014, to September 30, 2015, and used the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's MapIt tool to convert them to equivalent codes for October 1, 2015-December 31, 2017. We compared the prevalence of each diagnosis before vs after the ICD coding transition using logistic regression and used interrupted time series regression to model the longitudinal change in disease prevalence across time.

Results: The average monthly prevalence of subarachnoid hemorrhage was stable before the coding transition (average monthly increase of 4.32 admissions, 99.7% confidence interval [CI]: -8.38 to 17.01) but increased after the coding transition (average monthly increase of 24.32 admissions, 99.7% CI: 15.71-32.93). Otherwise, there were no significant differences in the longitudinal rate of change in disease prevalence over time between and . Six of 16 neurologic diagnoses (37.5%) experienced significant changes in cross-sectional prevalence during the coding transition, most notably for status epilepticus (odds ratio 0.30, 99.7% CI: 0.26-0.34).

Conclusions: The transition from to coding affects prevalence estimates for status epilepticus and other neurologic disorders, a potential source of bias for future longitudinal neurologic studies. Studies should limit to 1 coding system or use interrupted time series models to adjust for changes in coding patterns until new neurology-specific ICD-9 to ICD-10 conversion maps can be developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000001046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8610531PMC
October 2021

Association of Volume and Outcomes in 234 556 Patients Undergoing Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Nov 14. Epub 2021 Nov 14.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Background: The relationship between institutional volume and operative mortality after surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) remains unclear.

Methods: From January 2013 to June 2018, 234 556 patients underwent isolated SAVR (n = 144 177) or SAVR with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (n = 90 379) within the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database. The association between annualized SAVR volume (group 1 [1-25 SAVRs], group 2 [26-50 SAVRs], group 3 [51-100 SAVRs], and group 4 [>100 SAVRs]) and operative mortality and composite major morbidity or mortality was assessed. Random effects models were used to evaluate whether historical (2013-2015) SAVR volume or risk-adjusted outcomes explained future (2016-2018) risk-adjusted outcomes.

Results: The annualized median number of SAVRs per site was 35 (interquartile range, 22-59; isolated aortic valve replacement [AVR], 20; AVR with CABG, 13). Among isolated SAVR cases, the mean operative mortality and composite morbidity or mortality were 1.5% and 9.7%, respectively, at the highest-volume sites (group 4), with significantly higher rates among progressively lower-volume groups (P trend < .001). After adjustment, lower-volume centers had increased odds of operative mortality (group 1 vs group 4 [reference]: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for SAVR, 2.24 [95% CI, 1.91-2.64]; AOR for SAVR with CABG, 1.96 [95% CI, 1.67-2.30]) and major morbidity or mortality (AOR for SAVR, 1.53 [95% CI, 1.39-1.69]; AOR for SAVR with CABG, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.32-1.61]) compared with the highest-volume institutions. Substantial variation in outcomes was observed across hospitals within each volume category, and prior outcomes explained a greater proportion of hospital operative outcomes than did prior volume.

Conclusions: Operative outcomes after SAVR with or without CABG is inversely associated with institutional procedure volumes; however, prior outcomes are more predictive of future outcomes than is prior volume. Given the excellent outcomes observed at many lower-volume hospitals, procedural outcomes may be preferable to procedural volumes as a quality metric.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.06.095DOI Listing
November 2021

Anesthetic choice for arteriovenous access creation: A National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry analysis.

J Vasc Access 2021 Sep 21:11297298211045495. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Background: We sought to evaluate differences in primary anesthetic type used in arteriovenous access creation with the hypothesis that administration of regional anesthesia and monitored anesthesia care (MAC) with local anesthesia as the primary anesthetic has increased over time.

Methods: National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry data were retrospectively evaluated. Covariates were selected a priori within multivariate models to determine predictors of anesthetic type in adults who underwent elective arteriovenous access creation between 2010 and 2018.

Results: A total of 144,392 patients met criteria; 90,741 (62.8%) received general anesthesia. The use of regional anesthesia and MAC decreased over time (8.0%-6.8%, 36.8%-27.8%, respectively; both  < 0.0001). Patients who underwent regional anesthesia were more likely to have ASA physical status >III and to reside in rural areas (52.3% and 12.9%, respectively; both  < 0.0001). Patients who underwent MAC were more likely to be older, male, receive care outside the South, and reside in urban areas (median age 65, 56.8%, 68.1%, and 70.8%, respectively; all  < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that being male, having an ASA physical status >III, and each 5-year increase in age resulted in increased odds of receiving alternatives to general anesthesia (regional anesthesia adjusted odds ratios (AORs) 1.06, 1.12, and 1.26, MAC AORs 1.09, 1.2, and 1.1, respectively; all  < 0.0001). Treatment in the Midwest, South, or West was associated with decreased odds of receiving alternatives to general anesthesia compared to the Northeast (regional anesthesia AORs 0.28, 0.38, and 0.03, all  < 0.0001; MAC 0.76, 0.13, and 0.43, respectively; all  < 0.05).

Conclusions: Use of regional anesthesia and MAC with local anesthesia for arteriovenous access creation has decreased over time with general anesthesia remaining the primary anesthetic type. Anesthetic choice, however, varies with patient characteristics and geography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/11297298211045495DOI Listing
September 2021

Staffing in a Level 1 Trauma Center: Quantifying Capacity for Preparedness.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2021 Sep 15:1-7. Epub 2021 Sep 15.

Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.

Objective: We sought to determine who is involved in the care of a trauma patient.

Methods: We recorded hospital personnel involved in 24 adult Priority 1 trauma patient admissions for 12 h or until patient demise. Hospital personnel were delineated by professional background and role.

Results: We cataloged 19 males and 5 females with a median age of 50-y-old (interquartile range [IQR], 35.5-67.5). The average number of hospital personnel involved was 79.71 (standard deviation, 17.62; standard error 3.6). A median of 51.2% (IQR, 43.4%-59.8%) of personnel were first involved within hour 1. More personnel were involved in direct versus indirect care (median 54.5 [IQR, 47.5-67.0] vs 25.0 [IQR, 22.0-30.5]; P < 0.0001). Median number of health-care professionals and auxiliary staff were 74.5 (IQR, 63.5-90.5) and 6.0 (IQR, 5.0-7.0), respectively. More personnel were first involved in hospital locations external to the emergency department (median, 53.0 [IQR, 41.5-63.0] vs 27.5 [IQR, 24.0-30.0]; P < 0.0001). No differences existed in total personnel by Injury Severity Score (P = 0.1266), day (P = 0.7270), or time of admission (P = 0.2098).

Conclusions: A large number of hospital personnel with varying job responsibilities respond to severe trauma. These data may guide hospital staffing and disaster preparedness policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2021.269DOI Listing
September 2021

Opportunities for diabetes and peripheral artery disease-related lower limb amputation prevention in an Appalachian state: A longitudinal analysis.

Prev Med Rep 2021 Sep 23;23:101505. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

West Virginia University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, United States.

Lower extremity amputation due to peripheral artery disease (PAD) and diabetes (DM) is a life-altering event that identifies disparities in access to healthcare and management of disease. West Virginia (WV), a highly rural state, is an ideal location to study these disparities. The WVU longitudinal health system database was used to identify 1) risk factors for amputation, 2) how disease management affects the risk of amputation, and 3) whether the event of amputation is associated with a change in HbA1c and LDL levels. Adults (≥18 years) with diagnoses of DM and/or PAD between 2011 and 2016 were analyzed. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed on patients with lab information for both HbA1c and LDL while adjusting for patient factors to examine associations with amputations. In patients who underwent amputation, we compared laboratory values before and after using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. 50,276 patients were evaluated, 369 (7.3/1000) underwent amputation. On multivariable analyses, Male sex and Self-pay insurance had higher odds for amputation. Compared to patients with DM alone, PAD patients had 12.3 times higher odds of amputation, while patients with DM and PAD had 51.8 times higher odds of amputation compared to DM alone. We found significant associations between odds of amputation and HbA1c (OR 1.31,CI = 1.15-1.48), but not LDL. Following amputation, we identified significant decreases in lab values for HbA1c and LDL. These findings highlight the importance of medical optimization and patient education and suggest that an amputation event may provide an important opportunity for changes in disease management and patient behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2021.101505DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339221PMC
September 2021

Sex Differences in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Techniques: A Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database Analysis.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Jul 16. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Female patients with coronary artery disease have inferior outcomes compared with male patients, including higher mortality after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). We aimed to evaluate the association of female sex with the use of guideline-concordant CABG revascularization techniques.

Methods: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database was queried for adult patients who underwent first-time isolated CABG in the United States from 2011 to 2019. The association between female sex and the odds of (1) receiving a left internal mammary artery graft for revascularization of the left anterior descending artery, (2) undergoing complete revascularization, and (3) undergoing multiarterial grafting was assessed, adjusting for procedural anatomy.

Results: Among 1,212,487 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 75% were male (n = 911,178) and 25% were female (n = 301,309). Female sex was associated with lower unadjusted rates of revascularization with an internal mammary artery graft (93.9% vs 95.9%, P < .001), bilateral internal mammary artery graft (2.9% vs 5.6%, P < .001), or radial artery graft (3.2% vs 5.6%, P < .001). After adjustment, female patients had lower odds than males of receiving a left internal mammary artery graft to the left anterior descending artery (adjusted odds ratio 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 0.83; P < .001), undergoing complete revascularization (adjusted odds ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.83 to 0.90; P < .001), and undergoing multiarterial grafting (adjusted odds ratio 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 0.81; P < .001).

Conclusions: Female sex was associated with 14% to 22% lower odds of undergoing guideline-concordant revascularization including left internal mammary artery to left anterior descending artery grafting, multiarterial grafting, and complete revascularization. Further investigation is necessary to determine why revascularization approaches differ by sex and to what degree sex disparities in coronary artery disease outcomes are due to surgical approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.06.039DOI Listing
July 2021

Utilization and Outcomes of the Nikaidoh, Rastelli, and REV Procedures: An Analysis of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Division of Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background: Aortic root translocation (Nikaidoh), Rastelli, and réparation à l'etage ventriculaire (REV) are repair options for transposition of the great arteries (TGA) with ventricular septal defects and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (VSD-LVOTO) or double outlet right ventricle TGA type (DORV-TGA).

Methods: This retrospective study using The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database evaluates surgical procedure utilization and outcomes of patients undergoing repair of TGA-VSD-LVOTO and DORV-TGA with a Nikaidoh, Rastelli, or REV procedure.

Results: A total of 293 patients underwent repair at 82 centers (January 2010 to June 2019). Most patients underwent a Rastelli (n = 165, 56.3%) or a Nikaidoh (n = 119, 40.6%) operation; only 3.1% (n = 9) underwent a REV. High-volume centers performed the majority of the repairs. Fewer Nikaidoh than Rastelli patients had prior cardiac operations (n = 57 [48.7%] vs n = 102 [63.0%]; P = .004). Nikaidohs had longer median cardiopulmonary bypass time (227 [interquartile range (IQR), 167-299] minutes vs 175 [IQR, 133-225] minutes; P < .001) and median aortic cross-clamp times (131 [IQR, 91-175] minutes vs 105 [IQR, 82-141] minutes; P = .0015). Operative mortality was 3.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0%-7.0%; n = 5) for Rastelli, 4.4% (95% CI, 1.4%-9.9%; n = 5) for Nikaidoh, and 11.1% (95% CI, 0.3%-48.3%, n = 1) for REV. The rates of cardiac arrest, unplanned reoperation, mechanical circulatory support, prolonged ventilation, and permanent pacemaker placement were higher in the Nikaidoh population but with 95% CIs overlapping those of the other procedures.

Conclusions: Rastelli and Nikaidoh procedures are the prevalent repair strategies for patients with DORV-TGA and TGA-VSD-LVOTO. Most are performed at high-volume institutions, and early outcomes are similar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.06.019DOI Listing
July 2021

Low continuation of antipsychotic therapy in Parkinson disease - intolerance, ineffectiveness, or inertia?

BMC Neurol 2021 Jun 24;21(1):240. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, 423 Guardian Drive, Blockley Hall 829, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Background: Antipsychotics are used in Parkinson disease (PD) to treat psychosis, mood, and behavioral disturbances. Commonly used antipsychotics differ substantially in their potential to worsen motor symptoms through dopaminergic receptor blockade. Recent real-world data on the use and continuation of antipsychotic therapy in PD are lacking. The objectives of this study are to (1) examine the continuation of overall and initial antipsychotic therapy in individuals with PD and (2) determine whether continuation varies by drug dopamine receptor blocking activity.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using U.S. commercially insured individuals in Optum 2001-2019. Adults aged 40 years or older with PD initiating antipsychotic therapy, with continuous insurance coverage for at least 6 months following drug initiation, were included. Exposure to pimavanserin, quetiapine, clozapine, aripiprazole, risperidone, or olanzapine was identified based on pharmacy claims. Six-month continuation of overall and initial antipsychotic therapy was estimated by time to complete discontinuation or switching to a different antipsychotic. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated factors associated with discontinuation.

Results: Overall, 38.6% of 3566 PD patients in our sample discontinued antipsychotic therapy after the first prescription, 61.4% continued with overall treatment within 6 months of initiation. Clozapine use was too rare to include in statistical analyses. Overall therapy discontinuation was more likely for those who initiated medications with known dopamine-receptor blocking activity (adjusted hazard ratios 1.76 [95% confidence interval 1.40-2.20] for quetiapine, 2.15 [1.61-2.86] for aripiprazole, 2.12 [1.66-2.72] for risperidone, and 2.07 [1.60-2.67] for olanzapine), compared with serotonin receptor-specific pimavanserin. Initial antipsychotic therapy discontinuation also associated with greater dopamine-receptor blocking activity medication use - adjusted hazard ratios 1.57 (1.28-1.94), 1.88 (1.43-2.46), 2.00 (1.59-2.52) and 2.03 (1.60-2.58) for quetiapine, aripiprazole, risperidone, and olanzapine, respectively, compared with pimavanserin. Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: Over one-third of individuals with PD discontinued antipsychotic therapy, especially if the initial drug has greater dopamine-receptor blocking activity. Understanding the drivers of antipsychotic discontinuation, including ineffectiveness, potentially inappropriate use, clinician inertia, patient adherence and adverse effects, is needed to inform clinical management of psychosis in PD and appropriate antipsychotic use in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02265-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8223332PMC
June 2021

Readmission Following Hospitalization for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Nationwide Study.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury, Canada (Mr Kelly and Dr Crispo); Departments of Neurology/Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics/and Neurology Translational Center of Excellence for Neuroepidemiology and Neurological Outcomes Research, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (Messrs Thibault and Tam and Dr Willis); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia (Messrs Thibault and Tam and Dr Willis); Collaboration for Outcomes Research and Evaluation, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (Ms Liu and Drs Cragg and Crispo); and International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (Ms Liu and Dr Cragg).

Objective: To determine whether sociodemographic and clinical factors were associated with nonelective readmission within 30 days of hospitalization for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Secondary objectives were to examine the effects of TBI severity on readmission and characterize primary reasons for readmission.

Setting: Hospitalized patients in the United States, using the 2014 Nationwide Readmission Database.

Participants: All patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of TBI between January 1, 2014, and November 30, 2014. We excluded patients (1) with a missing or invalid length of stay or admission date, (2) who were nonresidents, and 3) who died during their index hospitalization.

Design: Observational study; cohort study.

Main Measures: Survey weighting was used to compute national estimates of TBI hospitalization and nonelective 30-day readmission. Associations between sociodemographic and clinical factors with readmission were assessed using unconditional logistic regression with and without adjustment for suspected confounders.

Results: There were 135 542 individuals who were hospitalized for TBI; 8.9% of patients were readmitted within 30 days of discharge. Age (strongest association for 65-74 years vs 18-24 years: adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.57; 95% CI: 2.02-3.27), documentation of a fall (AOR, 1.24; 95% CI: 1.13-1.35), and intentional self-injury (AOR, 3.13; 95% CI: 1.88-5.21) at the index admission were positively associated with readmission. Conversely, history of a motor vehicle (AOR, 0.69; 95% CI: 0.62-0.78) or cycling (AOR, 0.56; 95% CI: 0.40-0.77) accident was negatively associated with readmission. Females were also less likely to be readmitted following hospitalization for a TBI (AOR, 0.87; 95% CI: 0.82-0.92).

Conclusions: Many sociodemographic and clinical factors were found to be associated with acute readmission following hospitalizations for TBI. Future studies are needed to determine the extent to which readmissions following TBI hospitalizations are preventable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000699DOI Listing
June 2021

Evolving Cost-Quality Relationship in Pediatric Heart Surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2022 03 8;113(3):866-873. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Background: For the more than 40,000 children in the United States undergoing congenital heart surgery annually, the relationship between hospital quality and costs remains unclear. Prior studies report conflicting results and clinical outcomes have continued to improve over time. We examined a large contemporary cohort, aiming to better inform ongoing initiatives seeking to optimize health care value in this population.

Methods: Clinical information (The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Database) was merged with standardized cost data (Pediatric Health Information Systems) for children undergoing heart surgery from 2010 to 2015. In-hospital cost variability was analyzed using Bayesian hierarchical models adjusted for case-mix. Quality metrics examined included in-hospital mortality, postoperative complications, postoperative length of stay (PLOS), and a composite.

Results: Overall, 32 hospitals (n = 45,315 patients) were included. Median adjusted cost per case varied across hospitals from $67,700 to $51,200 in the high vs low cost tertile (ratio 1.32; 95% credible interval, 1.29 to 1.35), and all quality metrics also varied across hospitals. Across cost tertiles, there were no significant differences in the quality metrics examined, with the exception of PLOS. The PLOS findings were driven by high-risk The Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery categories 4 and 5 cases (adjusted median length of stay 16.8 vs 14.9 days in high vs low cost tertile [ratio 1.13, 1.05 to 1.24]), and intensive care unit PLOS.

Conclusions: Contemporary congenital heart surgery costs vary across hospitals but were not associated with most quality metrics examined, highlighting that performance in one area does not necessarily convey to others. Cost variability was associated with PLOS, particularly related to intensive care unit PLOS and high-risk cases. Care processes influencing PLOS may provide targets for value-based initiatives in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.05.050DOI Listing
March 2022

Transesophageal Echocardiography in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 07 3;78(2):112-122. Epub 2021 May 3.

Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USA.

Background: The impact of utilization of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) at the time of isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on clinical decision making and associated outcomes is not well understood.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the association of TEE with post-CABG mortality and changes to the operative plan.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of planned isolated CABG patients from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database between January 1, 2011, and June 30, 2019, was performed. The exposure variable of interest was use of intraoperative TEE during CABG compared with no TEE. The primary outcome was operative mortality. The association of TEE with unplanned valve surgery was also assessed.

Results: Of 1,255,860 planned isolated CABG procedures across 1218 centers, 676,803 (53.9%) had intraoperative TEE. The percentage of patients receiving intraoperative TEE increased over time from 39.9% in 2011 to 62.1% in 2019 (p trend <0.0001). CABG patients undergoing intraoperative TEE had lower odds of mortality (adjusted odds ratio: 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.91 to 0.99; p = 0.025), with heterogeneity across STS risk groups (p interaction = 0.015). TEE was associated with increased odds of unplanned valve procedure in lieu of planned isolated CABG (adjusted odds ratio: 4.98; 95% confidence interval: 3.98 to 6.22; p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Intraoperative TEE usage during planned isolated CABG is associated with lower operative mortality, particularly in higher-risk patients, as well as greater odds of unplanned valve procedure. These findings support usage of TEE to improve outcomes for isolated CABG for high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8876254PMC
July 2021

Multiple sclerosis hospitalizations among users of oral disease-modifying therapies.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Jul 20;52:102944. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Neurology Translational Center for Excellence for Neuroepidemiology and Neurological Outcomes Research, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Philadelphia, PA, USA; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Oral disease-modifying therapies, namely dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod and teriflunomide, have become standard treatments for multiple sclerosis. Clinical trials demonstrated a reduction in annual relapse rate, but real-world data is lacking, particularly in older adults. The objective of our study is to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of oral disease-modifying therapies among individuals with multiple sclerosis.

Methods: We used Optum Clinformatics Data Mart, a large dataset representative of commercially insured individuals in the United States, to conduct a retrospective cohort study of adult users of three oral disease-modifying therapies from September 2010 through September 2015. The therapies of interest included dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, and fingolimod. Hospitalization for multiple sclerosis, an approximation of the clinical trial endpoint for relapse, was the study outcome. Cox proportional hazards models were built to evaluate the association of demographic and clinical factors with multiple sclerosis hospitalization. A subgroup analysis was performed on individuals ages 55 years or older.

Results: We identified 1,823, 318, and 1,156 users of dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, and fingolimod that met our inclusion criteria, respectively. Rates of hospitalizations for multiple sclerosis were low among these 3,297 persons (1,041 ages 55+): 36/1,000 patient-years for dimethyl fumarate, 43/1,000 for teriflunomide, and 45/1,000 for fingolimod. Multiple sclerosis hospitalization was associated with therapy switching (adjusted hazard ratio 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.57-2.84), minority (1.44, 1.10-1.89), and history of relapse in the year preceding oral therapy initiation (5.25, 3.89-7.09).

Conclusion: Oral disease-modifying therapies are comparably effective for the outcome of multiple sclerosis hospitalization, even in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.102944DOI Listing
July 2021

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2021 Adult Cardiac Surgery Risk Models for Multiple Valve Operations.

Ann Thorac Surg 2022 Feb 5;113(2):511-518. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Quality Measurement Task Force has developed risk models and composite performance measures for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR), isolated mitral valve replacement or repair (MVRR), AVR+CABG, and MVRR+CABG. To further enhance its portfolio of risk-adjusted performance metrics, STS has developed new risk models for multiple valve operations ± CABG procedures.

Methods: Using July 2011 to June 2019 STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database data, risk models for AVR+MVRR (n = 31,968) and AVR+MVRR+CABG (n = 12,650) were developed with the following endpoints: Operative Mortality, major morbidity (any 1 or more of the following: cardiac reoperation, deep sternal wound infection/mediastinitis, stroke, prolonged ventilation, and renal failure), and combined mortality and/or major morbidity. Data were divided into development (July 2011 to June 2017; n = 35,109) and validation (July 2017 to June 2019; n = 9509) samples. Predictors were selected by assessing model performance and clinical face validity of full and progressively more parsimonious models. Performance of the resulting models was evaluated by assessing discrimination and calibration.

Results: C-statistics for the overall population of multiple valve ± CABG procedures were 0.7086, 0.6734, and 0.6840 for mortality, morbidity, and combined mortality and/or morbidity in the development sample, and 0.6953, 0.6561, and 0.6634 for the same outcomes, respectively, in the validation sample.

Conclusions: New STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database risk models have been developed for multiple valve ± CABG operations, and these models will be used in subsequent STS performance metrics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.03.089DOI Listing
February 2022

Hospital Magnet Status Associates With Inpatient Safety in Parkinson Disease.

J Neurosci Nurs 2021 Jun;53(3):116-122

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Persons with Parkinson disease (PD) have complex care needs that may benefit from enhanced nursing care provided in Magnet-designated hospitals. Our primary objective was to determine whether an association exists between hospital Magnet status and patient safety events for PD inpatients in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality databases from 2000 to 2010. Parkinson disease diagnosis and demographic variables were retrieved, along with Magnet designation and other hospital characteristics. Inpatient mortality and preventable adverse events in hospitals with and without Magnet status were then compared using relevant Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality patient safety indicators. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2010, 493 760 hospitalizations among PD patients were identified. Of those, 40 121 (8.1%) occurred at one of 389 Magnet hospitals. When comparing PD patients in Magnet versus non-Magnet hospitals, demographic characteristics were similar. Multivariate regression models adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics identified a 21% reduction in mortality among PD inpatients in Magnet hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.85). PD inpatients in Magnet hospitals also had a lower odds of experiencing any patient safety indicator (AOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68-0.79), pressure ulcers (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.55-0.67), death from a low mortality condition (AOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68-0.79), and a higher odds of postoperative bleeding (AOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.04-2.04). CONCLUSIONS: PD patients had a reduced risk of inpatient mortality and several nursing-sensitive patient safety events, highlighting the possible benefits of Magnet status on inpatient safety in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JNN.0000000000000582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106621PMC
June 2021

Incremental effect of complications on mortality and hospital costs in adult ECMO patients.

Perfusion 2021 Mar 26:2676591211005697. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a resource-intense modality whose usage is expanding rapidly. It is a costly endeavor and best conducted in a multidisciplinary setting. There is a growing impetus to mitigate the mortality and costs associated with ECMO. We sought to examine the impact of complications on mortality and hospital costs in patients on ECMO.

Methods: Using the NIS database, we performed multivariable logistic regression to assess the influence of complications on the primary outcome, in-hospital mortality. Similarly, we performed multivariable survey linear regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the complications on hospital costs.

Results: Of the 12,637 patients supported using ECMO between 2004 and 2013, 9836 (78%) developed at least one complication. The three most common complications were acute kidney injury (32.8%), bloodstream infection (31.8%), and bleeding (27.8%). An ECMO hospitalization with no complications was associated with median costs of $53,470, a single complication with costs of $97,560, two complications with costs of $139,035, and three complication with costs of $162,284. A single complication was associated with a 165% increase in odds of mortality. Two or three complications resulted in 375% or 627% higher odds of mortality, respectively. Having one, two, or three complications was associated with 24%, 38%, or 38% increase in median costs respectively (Figure 1). Complications associated with the highest median costs were central line-associated bloodstream infection $217,751; liver failure $176,201; bloodstream infection $169,529.

Conclusion: In-hospital mortality and costs increase with each incremental complication in patients on ECMO. Accurate prediction and mitigation of complications is likely to improve outcomes and cost.
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March 2021

A nationwide analysis of maternal morbidity and acute postpartum readmissions in women with epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 04 8;117:107874. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Neurology, Translational Center of Excellence for Neuroepidemiology and Neurology Outcomes Research, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, PA, USA; Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare maternal delivery hospitalization characteristics and postpartum outcomes in women with epilepsy (WWE) versus women without common neurological comorbidities.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of index characterizations and short-term postpartum rehospitalizations after viable delivery within the 2015-2017 National Readmissions Database using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes. Wald chi-squared testing compared baseline demographic, hospital and clinical characteristics and postpartum complications between WWE and controls. Multivariable logistic regression models examined odds of nonelective readmissions within 30 and 90 days for WWE compared to controls (alpha = 0.05).

Results: A total of 38,518 WWE and 8,136,335 controls had a qualifying index admission for delivery. Baseline differences were most pronounced in Medicare/Medicaid insurance (WWE: 58.2%, controls: 43%, p < 0.0001), alcohol/substance abuse (WWE: 8.3%, controls: 2.5%, p < 0.0001), psychotic disorders (WWE: 1.2%, controls 0.1%, p < 0.0001), and mood disorder (WWE: 15.5%, controls: 3.7%, p < 0.0001). At the time of delivery, WWE were more likely to have edema, proteinuria, and hypertensive disorders (WWE: 19%, controls: 12.9%, p < 0.0001); a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (WWE: 1%, controls: 0.4%, p < 0.0001); preterm labor (WWE: 7.3%, controls: 4.8%, p < 0.0001), or presence of any Center for Disease Control severe maternal morbidity indicator (WWE: 3.2%, controls: 0.6%, p < 0.0001; AOR 5.16, 95% CI 4.70-5.67, p < 0.0001). A higher proportion of WWE were readmitted within 30 days (WWE: 2.4%, controls: 1.1%) and 90 days (WWE: 3.7%, controls: 1.6%). After adjusting for covariates, the odds of postpartum nonelective readmissions within 30 days (AOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.66-2.08, p-value <0.0001) and 90 days (AOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.83-2.28, p-value <0.0001) were higher in WWE versus controls.

Interpretation: Women with epilepsy experienced critical obstetric complications and a higher risk of severe maternal morbidity indicators at the time of delivery. Although relatively low, nonelective short-term readmissions after delivery were higher in WWE than women without epilepsy or other common neurological comorbidities. Further research is needed to address multidisciplinary care inconsistencies, improve maternal outcomes, and provide evidence-based guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.107874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035274PMC
April 2021

Updating an Empirically Based Tool for Analyzing Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality.

World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2021 Mar;12(2):246-281

Duke Clinical Research Institute, 12277Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Objectives: STAT Mortality Categories (developed 2009) stratify congenital heart surgery procedures into groups of increasing mortality risk to characterize case mix of congenital heart surgery providers. This update of the STAT Mortality Score and Categories is empirically based for all procedures and reflects contemporary outcomes.

Methods: Cardiovascular surgical operations in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (January 1, 2010 - June 30, 2017) were analyzed. In this STAT 2020 Update of the STAT Mortality Score and Categories, the risk associated with a specific combination of procedures was estimated under the assumption that risk is determined by the highest risk individual component procedure. Operations composed of multiple component procedures were eligible for unique STAT Scores when the statistically estimated mortality risk differed from that of the highest risk component procedure. Bayesian modeling accounted for small denominators. Risk estimates were rescaled to STAT 2020 Scores between 0.1 and 5.0. STAT 2020 Category assignment was designed to minimize within-category variation and maximize between-category variation.

Results: Among 161,351 operations at 110 centers (19,090 distinct procedure combinations), 235 types of single or multiple component operations received unique STAT 2020 Scores. Assignment to Categories resulted in the following distribution: STAT 2020 Category 1 includes 59 procedure codes with model-based estimated mortality 0.2% to 1.3%; Category 2 includes 73 procedure codes with mortality estimates 1.4% to 2.9%; Category 3 includes 46 procedure codes with mortality estimates 3.0% to 6.8%; Category 4 includes 37 procedure codes with mortality estimates 6.9% to 13.0%; and Category 5 includes 17 procedure codes with mortality estimates 13.5% to 38.7%. The number of procedure codes with empirically derived Scores has grown by 58% (235 in STAT 2020 vs 148 in STAT 2009). Of the 148 procedure codes with empirically derived Scores in 2009, approximately one-half have changed STAT Category relative to 2009 metrics. The New STAT 2020 Scores and Categories demonstrated good discrimination for predicting mortality in an independent validation sample (July 1, 2017-June 30, 2019; sample size 46,933 operations at 108 centers) with C-statistic = 0.791 for STAT 2020 Score and 0.779 for STAT 2020 Category.

Conclusions: The updated STAT metrics reflect contemporary practice and outcomes. New empirically based STAT 2020 Scores and Category designations are assigned to a larger set of procedure codes, while accounting for risk associated with multiple component operations. Updating STAT metrics based on contemporary outcomes facilitates accurate assessment of case mix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2150135121991528DOI Listing
March 2021

Anesthetic Choice for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: A National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry Analysis.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 09 5;35(9):2600-2606. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV. Electronic address:

Objective: The authors evaluated the type of anesthesia administered in atrial fibrillation ablation, hypothesizing that monitored anesthesia care is used less frequently than general anesthesia.

Design: A retrospective study.

Setting: National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry data, which are multi-institutional from across the United States.

Participants: Adult patients who underwent elective atrial fibrillation ablation between 2013 and 2018.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry data were evaluated, and covariates were selected a priori within multivariate models to assess for predictors of anesthetic type. A total of 54,321 patients underwent atrial fibrillation ablation; 3,251 (6.0%) received monitored anesthesia care. Patients who received monitored anesthesia care were more likely to be >80 years old (12.4% v 4.9%; p < 0.0001), female (36.1% v 34.3%; p < 0.0001), have American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status >III (17.28% v 10.48%; p < 0.0001), and reside in urban areas (62.23% v 53.37%; p < 0.0001). They received care in the Northeast (17.6% v 10.1%; p < 0.0001) at low-volume centers (median 224 v 284 procedures; p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that each five-year increase in age, being female, and having an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status >III resulted in a 7% (p < 0.0001), 9% (p = 0.032), and 200% (p < 0.0001) increased odds of receiving monitored anesthesia care, respectively. Requiring additional ablation of atria or of a second arrhythmia and residing outside the Northeast resulted in a decreased odds of monitored anesthesia care (adjusted odds ratio 0.24 [p=0.002] and < 0.5 [p < 0.03], respectively). For each 50 cases performed annually at a center, the odds decreased by 5% (p = 0.005).

Conclusions: General anesthesia is the most common type of anesthesia administered for atrial fibrillation ablation. The type of anesthesia administered, however, varies with patient, procedural, and hospital characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2020.12.046DOI Listing
September 2021

Complications after Ravitch versus Nuss repair of pectus excavatum: A Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) General Thoracic Surgery Database analysis.

Surgery 2021 06 22;169(6):1493-1499. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: There are conflicting reports in the literature comparing outcomes after open Ravitch and minimally invasive Nuss procedures for pectus excavatum repair, and there is relatively little data available comparing the outcomes of these procedures performed by thoracic surgeons.

Methods: The 2010 to 2018 Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database was queried for patients age 12 or greater undergoing open or minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum. Patients were stratified by operative approach. Multivariable logistic regression was performed with a composite outcome of 30-day complications.

Results: A total of 1,767 patients met inclusion criteria, including 1,017 and 750 patients who underwent minimally invasive pectus repair and open repair, respectively. Open repair patients were more likely to be American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class III or greater (24% vs 14%; P < .001), have a history of prior cardiothoracic surgery (26% vs 14%; P < .001), and require longer operations (median 268 vs 185 minutes; P < .001). Open repair patients were more likely to require greater than 6 days of hospitalization (18% vs 7%; P < .001), undergo transfusion (7% vs 2%; P < .001), and be readmitted (8% vs 5%; P = .004). After adjustment, open repair was not associated with an increased risk of a composite of postoperative complications (odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.67-1.46). This finding persisted after propensity score matching (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.74-1.67).

Conclusion: Pectus excavatum repair procedure type was not associated with the risk of postoperative complications after adjustment. Further investigation is necessary to determine the impact of pectus excavatum repair type on recurrence and patient reported outcomes, including satisfaction, quality of life, and pain control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.12.023DOI Listing
June 2021

Tracheal surgery for airway anomalies associated with increased mortality in pediatric patients undergoing heart surgery: Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database analysis.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Mar 27;161(3):1112-1121.e7. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Objectives: Airway anomalies are common in children with cardiac disease but with an unquantified impact on outcomes. We sought to define the association between airway anomalies and tracheal surgery with cardiac surgery outcomes using the Society of Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

Methods: Index cardiac operations in children aged less than 18 years (January 2010 to September 2018) were identified from the Society of Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Patients were divided on the basis of reported diagnosis of an airway anomaly and subdivided on the basis of tracheal lesion and tracheal surgery. Multivariable analysis evaluated associations between airway disease and outcomes controlling for covariates from the Society of Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Database Mortality Risk Model.

Results: Of 198,674 index cardiovascular operations, 6861 (3.4%) were performed in patients with airway anomalies, including 428 patients (0.2%) who also underwent tracheal operations during the same hospitalization. Patients with airway anomalies underwent more complex cardiac operations (45% vs 36% Society of Thoracic Surgeons/European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality category ≥3 procedures) and had a higher prevalence of preoperative risk factors (73% vs 39%; both P < .001). In multivariable analysis, patients with airway anomalies had increased odds of major morbidity and tracheostomy (P < .001). Operative mortality was also increased in patients with airway anomalies, except those with malacia. Tracheal surgery within the same hospitalization increased the odds of operative mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 3.9; P < .0001), major morbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 3.7; P < .0001), and tracheostomy (adjusted odds ratio, 16.7; P < .0001).

Conclusions: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery and tracheal surgery are at significantly higher risk of morbidity and mortality than patients receiving cardiac surgery alone. Most of those with unoperated airway anomalies have higher morbidity and mortality, which makes it an important preoperative consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.10.149DOI Listing
March 2021

Trends in the Surgical Treatment of Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome in the United States.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 12 1;3(12):e2029669. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: Optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) and cerebrospinal fluid shunting are sometimes used to treat pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS), but their use patterns are unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the frequency of surgical PTCS treatment in the United States and to compare patients undergoing ONSF with those treated with shunting.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a retrospective longitudinal cross-sectional study. Inpatient data were obtained from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), and outpatient surgical center data were obtained from the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Included in the analysis were 10 720 patients aged 18 to 65 years with a diagnosis code for PTCS, excluding venous thrombosis and other causes of intracranial hypertension. Time trends were explored and logistic regression was used to measure differences according to age, race/ethnicity, sex, Elixhauser comorbidity index, and other patient and hospital characteristics. Data analysis was performed from March 31 to October 7, 2020.

Exposure: Treatment for PTCS, excluding venous thrombosis and other causes of intracranial hypertension.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Annual number of PTCS-related admissions, ONSFs, and shunt procedures from 2002-2016. Patient and hospital-level characteristics of patients with PTCS undergoing ONSF or shunting were compared.

Results: Between 2010 and 2016, 297 ONSFs were performed and 10 423 shunts were placed as treatment for PTCS. The procedures were most commonly performed in individuals aged 26 to 35 years (39.4%), and 9920 (92.4%) of the surgically treated patients were women. ONSF was more common among younger patients (eg, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for patients ≥46 years vs those 18-25 years, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08-0.61) and in Black, Hispanic, or other minority populations (AOR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30) and less common in the South (AOR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.88) and West (AOR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04-0.58) compared with the Northeast. Total PTCS-related hospitalizations increased from 6081 (95% CI, 5137-7025) in 2002 to 18 020 (95% CI, 16 607-19 433) in 2016. Shunting increased from 2002 to 2011 and subsequently plateaued and declined. ONSF was used much less frequently, and use has not increased. No instances of outpatient ONSF or shunting for PTCS were recorded in the NSAS or NHAMCS databases.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study's findings suggest that shunting is more common than ONSF and that the use gap has widened as shunting has increased. However, because overall PTCS-related hospitalizations have increased even more rapidly, the percentage of inpatients with PTCS undergoing surgery has decreased. These trends may reflect changes in medical treatment practices and outcomes or growing limitations in access to ophthalmic surgical expertise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.29669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739135PMC
December 2020

Factors Associated With Successful Postoperative Day One Discharge After Anatomic Lung Resection.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 07 12;112(1):221-227. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Division of Thoracic and Esophageal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: There are no criteria to estimate the risk of early discharge after anatomic lung resection. We hypothesized that demographic, clinical, and surgical variables could be used to predict successful postoperative day 1 (POD1) discharge after anatomic lung resection.

Methods: Patients with POD1 discharge after anatomic lung resection were identified in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons database from 2012 to 2018. Discharges were categorized as successful based on freedom from complications, readmission, or death. A multivariable model identified variables from univariate analysis and was further optimized using stepwise selection. This model was used to create a risk score of success.

Results: Among 62,785 patients who underwent anatomic lung resection, 2480 (3.9%) were discharged on POD1. Of the 2480 patients, 2129 (85.8%) had successful discharge and 351 (14.2%) had failed discharge due to postoperative complication (282; 11.3%), readmission (151; 6.1%), or death (9; 0.4%). In univariable analysis, successful POD1 discharge was associated with younger age, female sex, video-assisted thoracic surgery, higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide, shorter operating room times, and lower rates of comorbidities. A risk model for successful discharge incorporated sex, age, body mass index, operative lobe, Zubrod score, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, video-assisted thoracic surgery approach, and operating room time. Using this model, a risk score created, and derived estimated proportion of successful POD1 discharge varied from 75.6% to 92.9%.

Conclusions: Demographic, clinical, and surgical variables are associated with successful POD1 discharge. This analysis suggests that a combination of demographic factors is associated with failed early discharge, and this understanding can be used in conjunction with clinical judgment to facilitate decisions regarding appropriateness of POD1 discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.07.059DOI Listing
July 2021

Neurodegenerative disease is associated with increased incidence of epilepsy: a population based study of older adults.

Age Ageing 2021 01;50(1):205-212

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objective: To determine the incidence of epilepsy among Medicare beneficiaries with a new diagnosis of Alzheimer dementia (AD) or Parkinson disease (PD).

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries with an incident diagnosis of AD or PD in the year 2009. The 5-year incidence of epilepsy was examined by sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities and neurodegenerative disease status. Cox regression models examined the association of neurodegenerative disease with incident epilepsy, adjusting for demographic characteristics and medical comorbidities.

Results: We identified 178,593 individuals with incident AD and 104,157 individuals with incident PD among 34,054,293 Medicare beneficiaries with complete data in 2009. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 4.45% (7,956) of AD patients and 4.81% (5,010) of PD patients between 2009 and 2014, approximately twice as frequently as in the control sample. Minority race/ethnicity was associated with increased risk of incident epilepsy. Among individuals with AD and PD, stroke was associated with increased epilepsy risk. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with increased epilepsy risk for individuals with PD. Depression was also associated with incident epilepsy (AD adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.23 (1.17-1.29), PD AHR: 1.45 (1.37-1.54)). In PD only, a history of hip fracture (AHR, 1.35 (1.17-1.57)) and diabetes (AHR, 1.11 (1.05-1.18) were also associated with increased risk of epilepsy.

Conclusion: Incident epilepsy is more frequently diagnosed among neurodegenerative disease patients, particularly when preceded by a diagnosis of depression, TBI or stroke. Further studies into the differences in epilepsy risk between these two populations may help elucidate different mechanisms of epileptogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946790PMC
January 2021
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