Publications by authors named "Dylan Thibault"

66 Publications

Utilization and outcomes of transesophageal echocardiography in 1.3 million CABG procedures.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Division of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida.

Background: Utilization of intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) at time of isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), impact on clinical decision making and associated outcomes are not well understood.

Objective: To determine the association of TEE with post-CABG mortality and changes to the operative plan.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of planned isolated CABG patients from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database between January 1, 2011 and June 30, 2019. The exposure variable of interest was use of intraoperative TEE during CABG, compared to no TEE. The primary outcome was operative mortality. We also assessed the association of TEE with unplanned valve surgery.

Results: Of 1,255,860 planned isolated CABG procedures across 1218 centers, 676,803 (53.9%) had intra-operative TEE. The proportion of patients receiving intra-operative TEE increased over time from 39.9% in 2011 to 62.1% in 2019 (Ptrend<0.0001). CABG patients undergoing intra-operative TEE had lower odds of mortality (adjusted OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91-0.99, P=0.025), with heterogeneity across STS risk groups (Pinteraction 0.015). TEE was associated with increased odds of unplanned valve procedure in lieu of planned isolated CABG (adjusted OR 4.98, 95% CI 3.98-6.22, P<0.0001) CONCLUSION: Intra-operative TEE usage during planned isolated CABG is associated with lower operative mortality, particularly in higher risk patients, as well as greater odds of unplanned valve procedure. Our findings support usage of TEE to improve outcomes for isolated CABG for high risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2021.04.064DOI Listing
April 2021

Multiple sclerosis hospitalizations among users of oral disease-modifying therapies.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2021 Apr 20;52:102944. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Neurology Translational Center for Excellence for Neuroepidemiology and Neurological Outcomes Research, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Philadelphia, PA, USA; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Oral disease-modifying therapies, namely dimethyl fumarate, fingolimod and teriflunomide, have become standard treatments for multiple sclerosis. Clinical trials demonstrated a reduction in annual relapse rate, but real-world data is lacking, particularly in older adults. The objective of our study is to evaluate the real-world effectiveness of oral disease-modifying therapies among individuals with multiple sclerosis.

Methods: We used Optum Clinformatics Data Mart, a large dataset representative of commercially insured individuals in the United States, to conduct a retrospective cohort study of adult users of three oral disease-modifying therapies from September 2010 through September 2015. The therapies of interest included dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, and fingolimod. Hospitalization for multiple sclerosis, an approximation of the clinical trial endpoint for relapse, was the study outcome. Cox proportional hazards models were built to evaluate the association of demographic and clinical factors with multiple sclerosis hospitalization. A subgroup analysis was performed on individuals ages 55 years or older.

Results: We identified 1,823, 318, and 1,156 users of dimethyl fumarate, teriflunomide, and fingolimod that met our inclusion criteria, respectively. Rates of hospitalizations for multiple sclerosis were low among these 3,297 persons (1,041 ages 55+): 36/1,000 patient-years for dimethyl fumarate, 43/1,000 for teriflunomide, and 45/1,000 for fingolimod. Multiple sclerosis hospitalization was associated with therapy switching (adjusted hazard ratio 2.21, 95% confidence interval 1.57-2.84), minority (1.44, 1.10-1.89), and history of relapse in the year preceding oral therapy initiation (5.25, 3.89-7.09).

Conclusion: Oral disease-modifying therapies are comparably effective for the outcome of multiple sclerosis hospitalization, even in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2021.102944DOI Listing
April 2021

Society of Thoracic Surgeons 2021 Adult Cardiac Surgery Risk Models for Multiple Valve Operations.

Ann Thorac Surg 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: The STS Quality Measurement Task Force has developed risk models and composite performance measures for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG), isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR), isolated mitral valve replacement or repair (MVRR), AVR+CABG, and MVRR+CABG. To further enhance its portfolio of risk-adjusted performance metrics, STS has developed new risk models for multiple valve operations +/- CABG procedures.

Methods: Using July 2011 to June 2019 STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database (ACSD) data, risk models for AVR+MVRR (n=31,968) and AVR+MVRR+CABG (n=12,650) were developed with the following endpoints: operative mortality, major morbidity (any one or more of the following: cardiac reoperation; deep sternal wound infection/mediastinitis; stroke; prolonged ventilation; and renal failure), and combined mortality and/or major morbidity. Data were divided into development (July 2011 - June 2017, n=35,109) and validation (July 2017 - June 2019, n=9,509) samples. Predictors were selected by assessing model performance and clinical face validity of full and progressively more parsimonious models. Performance of the resulting models was evaluated by assessing discrimination and calibration.

Results: C-statistics for the overall population of multiple valve +/- CABG procedures were 0.7086, 0.6734, and 0.6840 for mortality, morbidity, and combined mortality and/or morbidity in the development sample, and 0.6953, 0.6561, and 0.6634 for the same outcomes, respectively, in the validation sample.

Conclusions: New STS-ACSD risk models have been developed for multiple valve +/- CABG operations, and these models will be used in subsequent STS performance metrics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.03.089DOI Listing
April 2021

Hospital Magnet Status Associates With Inpatient Safety in Parkinson Disease.

J Neurosci Nurs 2021 Jun;53(3):116-122

Abstract: BACKGROUND: Persons with Parkinson disease (PD) have complex care needs that may benefit from enhanced nursing care provided in Magnet-designated hospitals. Our primary objective was to determine whether an association exists between hospital Magnet status and patient safety events for PD inpatients in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample and Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality databases from 2000 to 2010. Parkinson disease diagnosis and demographic variables were retrieved, along with Magnet designation and other hospital characteristics. Inpatient mortality and preventable adverse events in hospitals with and without Magnet status were then compared using relevant Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality patient safety indicators. RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2010, 493 760 hospitalizations among PD patients were identified. Of those, 40 121 (8.1%) occurred at one of 389 Magnet hospitals. When comparing PD patients in Magnet versus non-Magnet hospitals, demographic characteristics were similar. Multivariate regression models adjusting for patient and hospital characteristics identified a 21% reduction in mortality among PD inpatients in Magnet hospitals (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74-0.85). PD inpatients in Magnet hospitals also had a lower odds of experiencing any patient safety indicator (AOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68-0.79), pressure ulcers (AOR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.55-0.67), death from a low mortality condition (AOR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.68-0.79), and a higher odds of postoperative bleeding (AOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.04-2.04). CONCLUSIONS: PD patients had a reduced risk of inpatient mortality and several nursing-sensitive patient safety events, highlighting the possible benefits of Magnet status on inpatient safety in PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JNN.0000000000000582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106621PMC
June 2021

Incremental effect of complications on mortality and hospital costs in adult ECMO patients.

Perfusion 2021 Mar 26:2676591211005697. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, USA.

Introduction: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a resource-intense modality whose usage is expanding rapidly. It is a costly endeavor and best conducted in a multidisciplinary setting. There is a growing impetus to mitigate the mortality and costs associated with ECMO. We sought to examine the impact of complications on mortality and hospital costs in patients on ECMO.

Methods: Using the NIS database, we performed multivariable logistic regression to assess the influence of complications on the primary outcome, in-hospital mortality. Similarly, we performed multivariable survey linear regression analysis to evaluate the effect of the complications on hospital costs.

Results: Of the 12,637 patients supported using ECMO between 2004 and 2013, 9836 (78%) developed at least one complication. The three most common complications were acute kidney injury (32.8%), bloodstream infection (31.8%), and bleeding (27.8%). An ECMO hospitalization with no complications was associated with median costs of $53,470, a single complication with costs of $97,560, two complications with costs of $139,035, and three complication with costs of $162,284. A single complication was associated with a 165% increase in odds of mortality. Two or three complications resulted in 375% or 627% higher odds of mortality, respectively. Having one, two, or three complications was associated with 24%, 38%, or 38% increase in median costs respectively (Figure 1). Complications associated with the highest median costs were central line-associated bloodstream infection $217,751; liver failure $176,201; bloodstream infection $169,529.

Conclusion: In-hospital mortality and costs increase with each incremental complication in patients on ECMO. Accurate prediction and mitigation of complications is likely to improve outcomes and cost.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02676591211005697DOI Listing
March 2021

A nationwide analysis of maternal morbidity and acute postpartum readmissions in women with epilepsy.

Epilepsy Behav 2021 04 8;117:107874. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Neurology, Translational Center of Excellence for Neuroepidemiology and Neurology Outcomes Research, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Pennsylvania, PA, USA; Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare maternal delivery hospitalization characteristics and postpartum outcomes in women with epilepsy (WWE) versus women without common neurological comorbidities.

Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of index characterizations and short-term postpartum rehospitalizations after viable delivery within the 2015-2017 National Readmissions Database using International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes. Wald chi-squared testing compared baseline demographic, hospital and clinical characteristics and postpartum complications between WWE and controls. Multivariable logistic regression models examined odds of nonelective readmissions within 30 and 90 days for WWE compared to controls (alpha = 0.05).

Results: A total of 38,518 WWE and 8,136,335 controls had a qualifying index admission for delivery. Baseline differences were most pronounced in Medicare/Medicaid insurance (WWE: 58.2%, controls: 43%, p < 0.0001), alcohol/substance abuse (WWE: 8.3%, controls: 2.5%, p < 0.0001), psychotic disorders (WWE: 1.2%, controls 0.1%, p < 0.0001), and mood disorder (WWE: 15.5%, controls: 3.7%, p < 0.0001). At the time of delivery, WWE were more likely to have edema, proteinuria, and hypertensive disorders (WWE: 19%, controls: 12.9%, p < 0.0001); a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (WWE: 1%, controls: 0.4%, p < 0.0001); preterm labor (WWE: 7.3%, controls: 4.8%, p < 0.0001), or presence of any Center for Disease Control severe maternal morbidity indicator (WWE: 3.2%, controls: 0.6%, p < 0.0001; AOR 5.16, 95% CI 4.70-5.67, p < 0.0001). A higher proportion of WWE were readmitted within 30 days (WWE: 2.4%, controls: 1.1%) and 90 days (WWE: 3.7%, controls: 1.6%). After adjusting for covariates, the odds of postpartum nonelective readmissions within 30 days (AOR 1.86, 95% CI 1.66-2.08, p-value <0.0001) and 90 days (AOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.83-2.28, p-value <0.0001) were higher in WWE versus controls.

Interpretation: Women with epilepsy experienced critical obstetric complications and a higher risk of severe maternal morbidity indicators at the time of delivery. Although relatively low, nonelective short-term readmissions after delivery were higher in WWE than women without epilepsy or other common neurological comorbidities. Further research is needed to address multidisciplinary care inconsistencies, improve maternal outcomes, and provide evidence-based guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2021.107874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035274PMC
April 2021

Updating an Empirically Based Tool for Analyzing Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality.

World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2021 Mar;12(2):246-281

Duke Clinical Research Institute, 12277Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

Objectives: STAT Mortality Categories (developed 2009) stratify congenital heart surgery procedures into groups of increasing mortality risk to characterize case mix of congenital heart surgery providers. This update of the STAT Mortality Score and Categories is empirically based for all procedures and reflects contemporary outcomes.

Methods: Cardiovascular surgical operations in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (January 1, 2010 - June 30, 2017) were analyzed. In this STAT 2020 Update of the STAT Mortality Score and Categories, the risk associated with a specific combination of procedures was estimated under the assumption that risk is determined by the highest risk individual component procedure. Operations composed of multiple component procedures were eligible for unique STAT Scores when the statistically estimated mortality risk differed from that of the highest risk component procedure. Bayesian modeling accounted for small denominators. Risk estimates were rescaled to STAT 2020 Scores between 0.1 and 5.0. STAT 2020 Category assignment was designed to minimize within-category variation and maximize between-category variation.

Results: Among 161,351 operations at 110 centers (19,090 distinct procedure combinations), 235 types of single or multiple component operations received unique STAT 2020 Scores. Assignment to Categories resulted in the following distribution: STAT 2020 Category 1 includes 59 procedure codes with model-based estimated mortality 0.2% to 1.3%; Category 2 includes 73 procedure codes with mortality estimates 1.4% to 2.9%; Category 3 includes 46 procedure codes with mortality estimates 3.0% to 6.8%; Category 4 includes 37 procedure codes with mortality estimates 6.9% to 13.0%; and Category 5 includes 17 procedure codes with mortality estimates 13.5% to 38.7%. The number of procedure codes with empirically derived Scores has grown by 58% (235 in STAT 2020 vs 148 in STAT 2009). Of the 148 procedure codes with empirically derived Scores in 2009, approximately one-half have changed STAT Category relative to 2009 metrics. The New STAT 2020 Scores and Categories demonstrated good discrimination for predicting mortality in an independent validation sample (July 1, 2017-June 30, 2019; sample size 46,933 operations at 108 centers) with C-statistic = 0.791 for STAT 2020 Score and 0.779 for STAT 2020 Category.

Conclusions: The updated STAT metrics reflect contemporary practice and outcomes. New empirically based STAT 2020 Scores and Category designations are assigned to a larger set of procedure codes, while accounting for risk associated with multiple component operations. Updating STAT metrics based on contemporary outcomes facilitates accurate assessment of case mix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2150135121991528DOI Listing
March 2021

Anesthetic Choice for Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: A National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry Analysis.

J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2021 Jan 5. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV. Electronic address:

Objective: The authors evaluated the type of anesthesia administered in atrial fibrillation ablation, hypothesizing that monitored anesthesia care is used less frequently than general anesthesia.

Design: A retrospective study.

Setting: National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry data, which are multi-institutional from across the United States.

Participants: Adult patients who underwent elective atrial fibrillation ablation between 2013 and 2018.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry data were evaluated, and covariates were selected a priori within multivariate models to assess for predictors of anesthetic type. A total of 54,321 patients underwent atrial fibrillation ablation; 3,251 (6.0%) received monitored anesthesia care. Patients who received monitored anesthesia care were more likely to be >80 years old (12.4% v 4.9%; p < 0.0001), female (36.1% v 34.3%; p < 0.0001), have American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status >III (17.28% v 10.48%; p < 0.0001), and reside in urban areas (62.23% v 53.37%; p < 0.0001). They received care in the Northeast (17.6% v 10.1%; p < 0.0001) at low-volume centers (median 224 v 284 procedures; p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis revealed that each five-year increase in age, being female, and having an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status >III resulted in a 7% (p < 0.0001), 9% (p = 0.032), and 200% (p < 0.0001) increased odds of receiving monitored anesthesia care, respectively. Requiring additional ablation of atria or of a second arrhythmia and residing outside the Northeast resulted in a decreased odds of monitored anesthesia care (adjusted odds ratio 0.24 [p=0.002] and < 0.5 [p < 0.03], respectively). For each 50 cases performed annually at a center, the odds decreased by 5% (p = 0.005).

Conclusions: General anesthesia is the most common type of anesthesia administered for atrial fibrillation ablation. The type of anesthesia administered, however, varies with patient, procedural, and hospital characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2020.12.046DOI Listing
January 2021

Complications after Ravitch versus Nuss repair of pectus excavatum: A Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) General Thoracic Surgery Database analysis.

Surgery 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Division of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: There are conflicting reports in the literature comparing outcomes after open Ravitch and minimally invasive Nuss procedures for pectus excavatum repair, and there is relatively little data available comparing the outcomes of these procedures performed by thoracic surgeons.

Methods: The 2010 to 2018 Society of Thoracic Surgeons General Thoracic Surgery Database was queried for patients age 12 or greater undergoing open or minimally invasive repair of pectus excavatum. Patients were stratified by operative approach. Multivariable logistic regression was performed with a composite outcome of 30-day complications.

Results: A total of 1,767 patients met inclusion criteria, including 1,017 and 750 patients who underwent minimally invasive pectus repair and open repair, respectively. Open repair patients were more likely to be American Society of Anesthesiologists class III or greater (24% vs 14%; P < .001), have a history of prior cardiothoracic surgery (26% vs 14%; P < .001), and require longer operations (median 268 vs 185 minutes; P < .001). Open repair patients were more likely to require greater than 6 days of hospitalization (18% vs 7%; P < .001), undergo transfusion (7% vs 2%; P < .001), and be readmitted (8% vs 5%; P = .004). After adjustment, open repair was not associated with an increased risk of a composite of postoperative complications (odds ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.67-1.46). This finding persisted after propensity score matching (odds ratio 1.11, 95% confidence interval 0.74-1.67).

Conclusion: Pectus excavatum repair procedure type was not associated with the risk of postoperative complications after adjustment. Further investigation is necessary to determine the impact of pectus excavatum repair type on recurrence and patient reported outcomes, including satisfaction, quality of life, and pain control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.12.023DOI Listing
January 2021

Tracheal surgery for airway anomalies associated with increased mortality in pediatric patients undergoing heart surgery: Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database analysis.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2021 Mar 27;161(3):1112-1121.e7. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Objectives: Airway anomalies are common in children with cardiac disease but with an unquantified impact on outcomes. We sought to define the association between airway anomalies and tracheal surgery with cardiac surgery outcomes using the Society of Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Database.

Methods: Index cardiac operations in children aged less than 18 years (January 2010 to September 2018) were identified from the Society of Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Database. Patients were divided on the basis of reported diagnosis of an airway anomaly and subdivided on the basis of tracheal lesion and tracheal surgery. Multivariable analysis evaluated associations between airway disease and outcomes controlling for covariates from the Society of Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Database Mortality Risk Model.

Results: Of 198,674 index cardiovascular operations, 6861 (3.4%) were performed in patients with airway anomalies, including 428 patients (0.2%) who also underwent tracheal operations during the same hospitalization. Patients with airway anomalies underwent more complex cardiac operations (45% vs 36% Society of Thoracic Surgeons/European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality category ≥3 procedures) and had a higher prevalence of preoperative risk factors (73% vs 39%; both P < .001). In multivariable analysis, patients with airway anomalies had increased odds of major morbidity and tracheostomy (P < .001). Operative mortality was also increased in patients with airway anomalies, except those with malacia. Tracheal surgery within the same hospitalization increased the odds of operative mortality (adjusted odds ratio, 3.9; P < .0001), major morbidity (adjusted odds ratio, 3.7; P < .0001), and tracheostomy (adjusted odds ratio, 16.7; P < .0001).

Conclusions: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery and tracheal surgery are at significantly higher risk of morbidity and mortality than patients receiving cardiac surgery alone. Most of those with unoperated airway anomalies have higher morbidity and mortality, which makes it an important preoperative consideration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2020.10.149DOI Listing
March 2021

Trends in the Surgical Treatment of Pseudotumor Cerebri Syndrome in the United States.

JAMA Netw Open 2020 12 1;3(12):e2029669. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: Optic nerve sheath fenestration (ONSF) and cerebrospinal fluid shunting are sometimes used to treat pseudotumor cerebri syndrome (PTCS), but their use patterns are unknown.

Objectives: To investigate the frequency of surgical PTCS treatment in the United States and to compare patients undergoing ONSF with those treated with shunting.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a retrospective longitudinal cross-sectional study. Inpatient data were obtained from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS), and outpatient surgical center data were obtained from the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS) and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). Included in the analysis were 10 720 patients aged 18 to 65 years with a diagnosis code for PTCS, excluding venous thrombosis and other causes of intracranial hypertension. Time trends were explored and logistic regression was used to measure differences according to age, race/ethnicity, sex, Elixhauser comorbidity index, and other patient and hospital characteristics. Data analysis was performed from March 31 to October 7, 2020.

Exposure: Treatment for PTCS, excluding venous thrombosis and other causes of intracranial hypertension.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Annual number of PTCS-related admissions, ONSFs, and shunt procedures from 2002-2016. Patient and hospital-level characteristics of patients with PTCS undergoing ONSF or shunting were compared.

Results: Between 2010 and 2016, 297 ONSFs were performed and 10 423 shunts were placed as treatment for PTCS. The procedures were most commonly performed in individuals aged 26 to 35 years (39.4%), and 9920 (92.4%) of the surgically treated patients were women. ONSF was more common among younger patients (eg, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for patients ≥46 years vs those 18-25 years, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08-0.61) and in Black, Hispanic, or other minority populations (AOR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.31-4.30) and less common in the South (AOR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13-0.88) and West (AOR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.04-0.58) compared with the Northeast. Total PTCS-related hospitalizations increased from 6081 (95% CI, 5137-7025) in 2002 to 18 020 (95% CI, 16 607-19 433) in 2016. Shunting increased from 2002 to 2011 and subsequently plateaued and declined. ONSF was used much less frequently, and use has not increased. No instances of outpatient ONSF or shunting for PTCS were recorded in the NSAS or NHAMCS databases.

Conclusions And Relevance: This study's findings suggest that shunting is more common than ONSF and that the use gap has widened as shunting has increased. However, because overall PTCS-related hospitalizations have increased even more rapidly, the percentage of inpatients with PTCS undergoing surgery has decreased. These trends may reflect changes in medical treatment practices and outcomes or growing limitations in access to ophthalmic surgical expertise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.29669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7739135PMC
December 2020

Factors Associated With Successful Postoperative Day One Discharge After Anatomic Lung Resection.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 Oct 12. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Division of Thoracic and Esophageal Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: There are no criteria to estimate the risk of early discharge after anatomic lung resection. We hypothesized that demographic, clinical, and surgical variables could be used to predict successful postoperative day 1 (POD1) discharge after anatomic lung resection.

Methods: Patients with POD1 discharge after anatomic lung resection were identified in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons database from 2012 to 2018. Discharges were categorized as successful based on freedom from complications, readmission, or death. A multivariable model identified variables from univariate analysis and was further optimized using stepwise selection. This model was used to create a risk score of success.

Results: Among 62,785 patients who underwent anatomic lung resection, 2480 (3.9%) were discharged on POD1. Of the 2480 patients, 2129 (85.8%) had successful discharge and 351 (14.2%) had failed discharge due to postoperative complication (282; 11.3%), readmission (151; 6.1%), or death (9; 0.4%). In univariable analysis, successful POD1 discharge was associated with younger age, female sex, video-assisted thoracic surgery, higher forced expiratory volume in 1 second and diffusion capacity of lung for carbon monoxide, shorter operating room times, and lower rates of comorbidities. A risk model for successful discharge incorporated sex, age, body mass index, operative lobe, Zubrod score, American Society of Anesthesiologists class, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, video-assisted thoracic surgery approach, and operating room time. Using this model, a risk score created, and derived estimated proportion of successful POD1 discharge varied from 75.6% to 92.9%.

Conclusions: Demographic, clinical, and surgical variables are associated with successful POD1 discharge. This analysis suggests that a combination of demographic factors is associated with failed early discharge, and this understanding can be used in conjunction with clinical judgment to facilitate decisions regarding appropriateness of POD1 discharge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.07.059DOI Listing
October 2020

Neurodegenerative disease is associated with increased incidence of epilepsy: a population based study of older adults.

Age Ageing 2021 01;50(1):205-212

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objective: To determine the incidence of epilepsy among Medicare beneficiaries with a new diagnosis of Alzheimer dementia (AD) or Parkinson disease (PD).

Methods: Retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries with an incident diagnosis of AD or PD in the year 2009. The 5-year incidence of epilepsy was examined by sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidities and neurodegenerative disease status. Cox regression models examined the association of neurodegenerative disease with incident epilepsy, adjusting for demographic characteristics and medical comorbidities.

Results: We identified 178,593 individuals with incident AD and 104,157 individuals with incident PD among 34,054,293 Medicare beneficiaries with complete data in 2009. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 4.45% (7,956) of AD patients and 4.81% (5,010) of PD patients between 2009 and 2014, approximately twice as frequently as in the control sample. Minority race/ethnicity was associated with increased risk of incident epilepsy. Among individuals with AD and PD, stroke was associated with increased epilepsy risk. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) was associated with increased epilepsy risk for individuals with PD. Depression was also associated with incident epilepsy (AD adjusted hazard ratio (AHR): 1.23 (1.17-1.29), PD AHR: 1.45 (1.37-1.54)). In PD only, a history of hip fracture (AHR, 1.35 (1.17-1.57)) and diabetes (AHR, 1.11 (1.05-1.18) were also associated with increased risk of epilepsy.

Conclusion: Incident epilepsy is more frequently diagnosed among neurodegenerative disease patients, particularly when preceded by a diagnosis of depression, TBI or stroke. Further studies into the differences in epilepsy risk between these two populations may help elucidate different mechanisms of epileptogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa194DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7946790PMC
January 2021

National Variation in Congenital Heart Surgery Outcomes.

Circulation 2020 Oct 5;142(14):1351-1360. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, MA (J.E.M.).

Background: Optimal strategies to improve national congenital heart surgery outcomes and reduce variability across hospitals remain unclear. Many policy and quality improvement efforts have focused primarily on higher-risk patients and mortality alone. Improving our understanding of both morbidity and mortality and current variation across the spectrum of complexity would better inform future efforts.

Methods: Hospitals participating in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database (2014-2017) were included. Case mix-adjusted operative mortality, major complications, and postoperative length of stay were evaluated using Bayesian models. Hospital variation was quantified by the interdecile ratio (IDR, upper versus lower 10%) and 95% credible intervals (CrIs). Stratified analyses were performed by risk group (Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery [STAT] category) and simulations evaluated the potential impact of reductions in variation.

Results: A total of 102 hospitals (n=84 407) were included, representing ≈85% of US congenital heart programs. STAT category 1 to 3 (lower risk) operations comprised 74% of cases. All outcomes varied significantly across hospitals: adjusted mortality by 3-fold (upper versus lower decile 5.0% versus 1.6%, IDR 3.1 [95% CrI 2.5-3.7]), mean length of stay by 1.8-fold (19.2 versus 10.5 days, IDR 1.8 [95% CrI 1.8-1.9]), and major complications by >3-fold (23.5% versus 7.0%, IDR 3.4 [95% CrI 3.0-3.8]). The degree of variation was similar or greater for low- versus high-risk cases across outcomes, eg, ≈3-fold mortality variation across hospitals for STAT 1 to 3 (IDR 3.0 [95% CrI 2.1-4.2]) and STAT 4 or 5 (IDR 3.1 [95% CrI 2.4-3.9]) cases. High-volume hospitals had less variability across outcomes and risk categories. Simulations suggested potential reductions in deaths (n=282), major complications (n=1539), and length of stay (101 183 days) over the 4-year study period if all hospitals were to perform at the current median or better, with 37% to 60% of the improvement related to the STAT 1 to 3 (lower risk) group across outcomes.

Conclusions: We demonstrate significant hospital variation in morbidity and mortality after congenital heart surgery. Contrary to traditional thinking, a substantial portion of potential improvements that could be realized on a national scale were related to variability among lower-risk cases. These findings suggest modifications to our current approaches to optimize care and outcomes in this population are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.046962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539149PMC
October 2020

Vascular Complications Increase Hospital Charges and Mortality in Adult Patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in the United States.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Sep 23. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) who suffer vascular complications frequently accrue additional procedures and costs. We sought to evaluate the effect of ECMO-related vascular complications on hospital charges and in-hospital mortality. Adult discharges involving ECMO from 2004 to 2013 in the National Inpatient Sample were examined. There were 12,636 patients in the cohort. Vascular complications, focusing on arterial complications were identified using ICD-9-CM diagnosis and procedure codes. A multivariable survey linear regression model using median hospital charges was used to model the effect of vascular complications on charges. We used multivariable survey logistic regression to evaluate the effect of vascular complications on in-hospital mortality. Of the 12,636 patients examined, 6467 (51.2%) had ECMO-related vascular complications. Median charges in patients with vascular complications were $ 477,363 (interquartile range: 258,660-875,823) and were $ 282,298 (interquartile range: 130,030-578,027) without vascular complications. On multivariable analysis, patients with vascular complications had 24% higher median charges than patients without vascular complications (Ratio: 1.24; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.33; P < 0.0001) and 34% higher odds of experiencing in-hospital mortality than patients without vascular complications (adjusted odds ratio: 1.34; 95% CI:1.08-1.66; P = 0.009). Vascular complications occur in over half of ECMO patients and are associated with an increased risk of high hospital charges and in-hospital mortality. These findings support the need for identification and modification of risk factors for ECMO-related vascular complications. Furthermore, the standardization of protocols using evidence-based measures to mitigate vascular complications may improve overall ECMO outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semtcvs.2020.09.025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985037PMC
September 2020

Does hospitalization for thromboembolism improve oral anticoagulant adherence in patients with atrial fibrillation?

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2020 Nov - Dec;60(6):986-992.e2. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Background: It is not known how medication adherence changes after hospitalization for a sentinel thromboembolic event.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalization for ischemic stroke or thromboembolism on postdischarge adherence to oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Methods: We conducted a quasi-experimental pre-post observational study using a large U.S. commercial insurance health care claims database. Adult patients with atrial fibrillation taking oral anticoagulants with a random hospitalization for a nonbleeding-related reason occurring after the first observed oral anticoagulant prescription fill, with no other admissions within the preceding and following 6 months, were identified in Optum Clinformatics (Eden Prairie, MN) from 2009 to 2016. Adherence was estimated by the proportion of days covered within 6 and 12 months before and after hospitalization. Difference-in-difference analysis using a generalized linear model was employed to compare pre- and post-hospitalization proportions of days covered (PDCs) by reasons for hospitalization (i.e., ischemic stroke or thromboembolism vs. other nonbleeding-related reasons), adjusting for imbalanced baseline characteristics.

Results: Of the 21,400 individuals meeting inclusion criteria, 5.4% were hospitalized for ischemic stroke or thromboembolism and 94.6% for other nonbleeding-related reasons. Baseline characteristics were quite similar between groups, except for a few covariables such as age or CHADS-VASc score. Minority race or ethnicity individuals had 0.7% lower overall PDC than whites (P = 0.006). After covariate adjustment, 6-month adherence declined by 1.1% less in individuals hospitalized for ischemic stroke or thromboembolism, compared with other nonbleeding reasons, although the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). Similar results were observed for the 12-month window.

Conclusion: This real-world study suggests that more effective strategies are needed to improve adherence to oral anticoagulant, particularly after a thromboembolic event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2020.08.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Impact of Hospitalization and Medication Switching on Post-discharge Adherence to Oral Anticoagulants in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

Pharmacotherapy 2020 10 21;40(10):1022-1035. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Center for Pharmacoepidemiology Research and Training, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Background: Adherence to chronic medications remains poor in practice. There is limited evidence on how hospitalization affects post-discharge adherence to oral anticoagulants (OACs) in individuals with atrial fibrillation. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of hospitalization and medication switching on post-discharge adherence to OACs in the population with atrial fibrillation.

Methods: A quasi-experimental pre-post observational study was conducted using United States commercial insurance health care claims from the 2009 to 2016 Optum database. Adults with atrial fibrillation taking OACs who had a random hospitalization occurring after the first observed OAC prescription fill and no other admission in the preceding and following 6 months were identified. OAC adherence was estimated by the proportion of days covered within 6 and 12 months before and after hospitalization. Difference-in-difference analysis was employed to compare the pre-hospitalization and post-hospitalization proportion of days covered, stratified by reasons for hospitalization (i.e., bleeding vs non-bleeding-related reasons) and adjusting for imbalanced baseline characteristics between groups. Change in adherence when the OAC was switched at discharge was also examined.

Results: The 22,429 individuals who met study criteria were predominantly male (52.4%), white (77.2%), and older age (median 74 years). A clinically significant hemorrhage was the reason for 1029 (4.5%) of qualifying hospitalizations. After covariate adjustment, there was a reduction in the proportion of days covered after discharge, regardless of admission diagnosis (p<0.0001). The 6-month difference-in-difference analyses revealed that adherence was incrementally reduced by 3.2% (p=0.0003) in the bleeding group compared with the nonbleeding group, whereas switching from warfarin to a direct oral anticoagulant after hospitalization was associated with a smaller reduction by 3.4% in adherence (p=0.0342) compared with other switchers, regardless of the reason for hospitalization. The 12-month difference-in-difference analyses revealed similar results.

Conclusions: Hospitalization is temporally associated with a reduction in adherence to OACs, regardless of reason for hospitalization. More effective strategies are needed to improve OAC adherence, particularly during transition of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/phar.2457DOI Listing
October 2020

Survival and Health Care Use After Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease.

Can J Neurol Sci 2021 May 28;48(3):372-382. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Psychiatry, Queen's University, ICES-Queen's, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Objectives: To compare long-term survival of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with deep brain stimulation (DBS) to matched controls, and examine whether DBS was associated with differences in injurious falls, long-term care, and home care.

Methods: Using administrative health data (Ontario, Canada), we examined DBS outcomes within a cohort of individuals diagnosed with PD between 1997 and 2012. Patients receiving DBS were matched with non-DBS controls by age, sex, PD diagnosis date, time with PD, and a propensity score. Survival between groups was compared using the log-rank test and marginal Cox proportional hazards regression. Cumulative incidence function curves and marginal subdistribution hazard models were used to assess effects of DBS on falls, long-term care admission, and home care use, with death as a competing risk.

Results: There were 260 DBS recipients matched with 551 controls. Patients undergoing DBS did not experience a significant survival advantage compared to controls (log-rank test p = 0.50; HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.65-1.22). Among patients <65 years of age, DBS recipients had a significantly reduced risk of death (HR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.28-0.84). Patients receiving DBS were more likely than controls to receive care for falls (HR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.19-2.05) and home care (HR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.32-1.90), while long-term care admission was similar between groups.

Conclusions: Receiving DBS may increase survival for younger PD patients who undergo DBS. Future studies should examine whether survival benefits may be attributed to effects on PD or the absence of comorbidities that influence mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2020.187DOI Listing
May 2021

Diaphragm Paralysis After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: An STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database Study.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 Aug 5. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Division of Pediatric Cardiac Surgery, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Background: Previous single-center studies of diaphragm paralysis (DP) after pediatric cardiac surgery report incidence of 0.3% to 12.8% and associate DP with respiratory complications, prolonged ventilation and length of stay, and mortality. To better define incidence and associations between DP and various procedures and outcomes, we performed a multicenter study.

Methods: The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Congenital Heart Surgery Database was queried to identify children who experienced DP after cardiac surgery (2010-2018; 126 centers). Baseline characteristics and postoperative outcomes were compared between patients with and without DP as well as between patients who underwent plication and those who did not. Associations between center volume and center rates of DP and use of plication were also explored.

Results: A total of 2214 of 191,463 (1.2%) patients experienced DP. Postoperative DP portended worse outcomes, including mortality (5.6% vs 3.5%; P < .001), major morbidity (37.2% vs 10.7%; P < .001), tracheostomy (7.1% vs 0.9%; P < .001), prolonged mechanical ventilation (38.0% vs 7.8%; P < .001), and 30-day readmission (22.0% vs 10.6%; P < .001). A total of 1105 of 2214 (49.9%) patients with DP underwent plication. Patients who underwent plication were younger, were smaller, had more risk factors, and underwent more complex surgeries. Plication rates varied widely across centers. There was no correlation between center volume and center risk-adjusted rates of DP (r = .05, P = .5), nor frequency of plication (r = .08, P = .4).

Conclusions: DP complicating pediatric heart surgery is rare but portends significantly worse outcomes. One-half of patients underwent plication. Center-level risk-adjusted rates of DP and plication are not associated with case volume. Significant variability in plication practices suggests a target for quality improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.05.175DOI Listing
August 2020

The Evolving Surgical Burden of Fontan Failure: Insights from a Nationwide Surgical Database.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 Aug 4. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina; Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina.

Background: Fontan failure often requires surgical therapy in the form of Fontan revision or heart transplantation. We sought to characterize national trends in the surgical burden of Fontan failure and identify risk factors for adverse outcomes.

Methods: Fontan patients undergoing Fontan revision or transplant from 1/2010-6/2018 were included. We evaluated baseline characteristics and outcomes and used multivariable logistic regression to identify risk factors for operative mortality and composite mortality/major morbidity.

Results: 1135 patients underwent Fontan revision (n=598) or transplant (n=537) at 100 centers. Transplants increased from 34 in 2010 to 76 in 2017, largely due to increase in patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS, 18 in 2010 to 49 in 2017), while Fontan revision decreased (75 in 2010 to 49 in 2017). Transplant patients were younger (median 14yrs vs 18yrs, p< 0.0001), more often had preoperative risk factors (66% vs. 40%, p<0.0001), and more often had HLHS (51% vs 15%, p< 0.0001). Operative mortality and composite major morbidity/mortality were 7.6% and 35% for transplant and 7.1% and 22% for Fontan revision. Multivariable risk factors for mortality included older age (OR 1.08/year, p=0.0065), presence of preoperative risk factors (OR 3.33, p=0.0022), and concomitant pulmonary artery reconstruction (OR 2.7, p=0.0288) for Fontan revision but only older age (OR 1.06/year, p=0.0199) for transplant.

Conclusions: Both transplantation and Fontan revision are associated with high morbidity and mortality. There has been evolution of practices in surgical therapy for Fontan failure, perhaps related to rising prevalence of HLHS staged palliation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.05.174DOI Listing
August 2020

Comorbid disease drives short-term hospitalization outcomes in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Neurol Clin Pract 2020 Jun;10(3):255-264

Department of Neurology (AM, DPT, JAC, AP, AWW), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Department of Neurology Translational Center of Excellence for Neuroepidemiology (DPT, JAC, AWW), Neurological Outcomes and Disparities Research, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; Department of Biostatistics (AWW), Epidemiology and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (AWW), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine; and Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics (AWW), University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

Objective: Readmission is used as a quality indicator and is the primary target outcome for disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for multiple sclerosis (MS). However, data on readmissions for patients with MS are limited.

Methods: Using the US Nationwide Readmissions Database, we performed a retrospective cohort study of adults hospitalized for MS in 2014. Primary study outcomes were within 30- and 90-day readmissions. Descriptive analyses compared patient, clinical, and hospital variables readmission status. Multivariable logistic regression models estimated the associations between these variables and readmission.

Results: Of 16,629 individuals meeting the study criteria, most were women (73.7%), aged 35-54 years (48.0%), and Medicare program participants (36.8%). In total, 49.7% of inpatients with MS had 1-2 comorbid medical conditions and 23.7% had 3 or more. Having 3 or more comorbidity conditions associated with increased adjusted odds of the 30-day readmission (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.92, 1.34-2.74). Anemia (AOR 1.62, 1.22-2.14), rheumatoid arthritis/collagen vascular diseases (AOR 2.20, 1.45-3.33), congestive heart failure (AOR 2.43, 1.39-4.24), chronic pulmonary disease (AOR 1.35, 1.02-1.78), diabetes with complications (AOR 2.27, 1.45-3.56), hypertension (AOR 1.25, 1.03-1.53), obesity (AOR 1.35, 1.05-1.73), and renal failure (AOR 1.68, 1.06-2.67) were associated with the 30-day readmission. Medicare insurance and nonroutine discharge were also associated with readmission, whereas patient characteristics (sex, age, and socioeconomic status) were not. The most frequent (26.7%) reason for readmission was multiple sclerosis. Ninety-day analyses produced similar findings.

Conclusions: Comorbid diseases were associated with the readmission for persons with multiple sclerosis. Evaluations of the real-world effectiveness for DMTs in reducing hospitalizations in patients with MS may need to consider comorbid disease burden and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/CPJ.0000000000000838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292556PMC
June 2020

Parkinson Disease Associated Differences in Elective Orthopedic Surgery Outcomes: A National Readmissions Database Analysis.

J Parkinsons Dis 2020 ;10(4):1577-1586

Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Advances in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) have allowed for improvements in mortality and quality survival, making the management of comorbid conditions of aging, such as osteoarthritis, crucial.

Objective: To determine the extent to which PD impacts hospitalization outcomes after an elective orthopedic procedure.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study used data from the National Readmissions Database and included adults ages 40 and above with and without PD. Primary outcomes included length of stay of the index admission, discharge disposition and 30-day readmission. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of readmission for PD patients compared to non-PD. Clinical conditions associated with readmission were compared between the two groups.

Results: A total of 4,781 subjects with PD and 947,475 subjects without PD met inclusion criteria. Length of stay (LOS) during the index admission was longer for PD patients. PD patients were much more likely to be discharged to inpatient post-acute care (49.3% vs 26.2%) while non-PD subjects were more likely to be discharged home with (31.9% [PD] vs 44.8% [non-PD]) or without home health (18.7% [PD] vs 28.9% [non-PD]). A total of 271 PD patients (5.66%) and 28,079 non-PD patients (2.96%) were readmitted within 30 days following surgery. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, expected payer, comorbidities, index admission LOS, year and discharge disposition, PD subjects were 31% more likely to be readmitted than non-PD subjects (AOR 1.31, 1.07-1.62).

Conclusions: Parkinson's disease patients were readmitted more often than non-PD patients, although the rate of readmission was still low.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JPD-201992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683077PMC
January 2020

Unplanned Readmissions of Children With Epilepsy in the United States.

Pediatr Neurol 2020 07 7;108:93-98. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Pediatric Neurology Health Services Research Group, Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Translational Center of Excellence for Neuroepidemiology and Neurology Outcomes Research, Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Background: The burden and characteristics of unplanned readmission after epilepsy-related discharge in children in the United States is not known.

Methods: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of children aged one to 17 years discharged after a nonelective hospitalization for epilepsy, sampled from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's 2013 and 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to examine the characteristics of initial hospitalization and risk factors for readmission.

Results: A total of 42,873 admissions for unique patients were identified, with 4470 (10.4%) leading to readmission within 30 days. The most common readmission diagnosis was epilepsy (24.9%). Neurodevelopmental diagnoses including cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, and developmental delay were associated with increased odds of readmission. Longer hospitalization, gastrostomy, and tracheostomy were also associated with readmission, but continuous electroencephalography use was not. Children insured by Medicare had a readmission rate of 34.4%, whereas there were no associations of readmission with other sociodemographic characteristics such as neighborhood, income, and sex.

Conclusions: Seizures are among the most frequent reasons for hospitalization in children. Establishing a benchmark readmission rate for pediatric epilepsy of 10.4% may be useful to health systems designing quality improvement efforts. Clinical factors were more strongly associated with readmission than demographic characteristics. Interventions to reduce pediatric epilepsy readmissions may have the highest yield when targeting children with neurodevelopmental comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2020.01.010DOI Listing
July 2020

Self-reported vision and hallucinations in older adults: results from two longitudinal US health surveys.

Age Ageing 2020 08;49(5):843-849

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Vision loss may be a risk factor for hallucinations, but this has not been studied at the population level.

Methods: To determine the association between self-reported vision loss and hallucinations in a large community-based sample of older adults, we performed a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of two large, nationally representative US health surveys: the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Visual impairment and hallucinations were self- or proxy-reported. Multivariate single and mixed effects logistic regression models were built to examine whether visual impairment and history of cataract surgery were associated with hallucinations.

Results: In NHATS (n = 1520), hallucinations were more prevalent in those who reported difficulty reading newspaper print (OR 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32-2.39) or recognising someone across the street (OR 2.48, 95% CI: 1.86-3.31) after adjusting for confounders. In HRS (n = 3682), a similar association was observed for overall (OR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.08-1.60), distance (OR 1.61, 95% CI: 1.32-1.96) and near eyesight difficulties (OR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.25-1.85). In neither sample was there a significant association between cataract surgery and hallucinations after adjusting for covariates.

Conclusions: Visual dysfunction is associated with increased odds of hallucinations in the older US adult population. This suggests that the prevention and treatment of vision loss may potentially reduce the prevalence of hallucinations in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7444669PMC
August 2020

Association of postoperative complications and outcomes following coronary artery bypass grafting.

Am Heart J 2020 04 8;222:220-228. Epub 2020 Feb 8.

Department of Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: The long-term effects of postoperative complications following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) are unknown.

Methods: Medicare-linked records from the Society of Thoracic Surgeons Adult Cardiac Surgery Database were queried for isolated CABG records from 2007 through 2012. Unadjusted and adjusted associations between individual postoperative complications and both mortality and all-cause rehospitalization were evaluated to 7 years using Cox proportional-hazards models and cumulative incidence functions. Because of nonproportional hazards, associations are presented as early (0 to 90 days) and late (90 days to 7 years).

Results: Of the 294,533 isolated CABG patients who had records linked to Medicare for long-term follow-up (median age, 73 years; 30% female), 120,721 (41%) experienced at least 1 of the complications of interest, including new-onset atrial fibrillation (30.0%), prolonged ventilation (12.3%), renal failure (4.5%), reoperation (3.5%), stroke (1.9%), and sternal wound infection (0.4%). Each of the 6 postoperative complications was associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality and rehospitalization to 7 years despite adjustment for baseline characteristics and the presence of multiple complications. Although the predominant effect of postoperative complications was observed in the first 90 days, the increased risk-adjusted hazard for death and rehospitalization continued through 7 years.

Conclusions: Postoperative complications are associated with an increased risk of both early and late mortality and all-cause rehospitalization, particularly during the "value" window within 90 days of CABG. These findings underscore the need to develop avoidance strategies as well as cost-adjustment methods for each of these complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2020.02.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085463PMC
April 2020

Estimating Resource Utilization in Congenital Heart Surgery.

Ann Thorac Surg 2020 09 24;110(3):962-968. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Saint Petersburg, Florida.

Background: Optimal methods to assess resource utilization in congenital heart surgery remain unclear. We compared traditional cost-to-charge ratio methods with newer standardized cost methods that aim to more directly assess resources consumed.

Methods: Clinical data from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database were linked with resource use data from the Pediatric Health Information Systems Database (2010 to 2015). Standardized cost methods specific to the congenital heart surgery population were developed and compared with cost-to-charge ratio methods. Resource use in the overall population and variability across hospitals were described using hierarchical mixed effect models adjusting for case-mix.

Results: Overall, 43 hospitals (65,331 patients) were included. There were minimal population-level differences in the distribution of resource use as estimated by the two methods. At the hospital level, there was less apparent variability in resource use across centers with the standardized cost vs cost-to-charge ratio method, overall (coefficient of variation 20% vs 25%) and across complexity (The Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery [STAT]) categories. When hospitals were categorized into tertiles by resource use, 33% changed classification depending on which resource use method was used (26% by one tertile and 7% by two tertiles).

Conclusions: In this first evaluation of standardized cost methodology in the congenital heart population, we found minimal differences vs traditional methods at the population level. At the hospital level, the magnitude of variation in resource use was less with standardized cost methods, and approximately one third of centers changed resource use categories depending on the methodology used. Because of these differences, care should be taken in future studies and in benchmarking and reporting efforts in selecting optimal methodology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.01.013DOI Listing
September 2020

The effect of rurality on the risk of primary amputation is amplified by race.

J Vasc Surg 2020 09 19;72(3):1011-1017. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV.

Objective: Primary amputation (ie, without attempted revascularization) is a devastating complication of peripheral artery disease. Racial disparities in primary amputation have been described; however, rural disparities have not been well investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of rurality on risk of primary amputation and to explore the effect of race on this relationship.

Methods: The national Vascular Quality Initiative amputation data set was used for analyses (N = 6795). The outcome of interest was primary amputation. Independent variables were race/ethnicity (non-Latinx whites vs nonwhites) and rural residence. Multivariable logistic regression examined impact of rurality and race/ethnicity on primary amputation after adjustment for relevant covariates and included an interaction for race/ethnicity by rural status.

Results: Primary amputation occurred in 49% of patients overall (n = 3332), in 47% of rural vs 49% of urban patients (P = .322), and in 46% of whites vs 53% of nonwhites (P < .001). On multivariable analysis, nonwhites had a 21% higher odds of undergoing primary amputation overall (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-1.39). On subgroup analysis, rural nonwhites had two times higher odds of undergoing primary amputation than rural whites (AOR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.53-2.78) and a 52% higher odds of undergoing primary amputation than urban nonwhites (AOR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.19-1.94). In the urban setting, nonwhites had a 21% higher odds of undergoing primary amputation than urban whites (AOR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.05-1.39).

Conclusions: In these analyses, rurality was associated with greater odds for primary amputation in nonwhite patients but not in white patients. The effect of race on primary amputation was significant in both urban and rural settings; however, the effect was significantly stronger in rural settings. These findings suggest that race/ethnicity has a compounding effect on rural health disparities and that strategies to improve health of rural communities need to consider the particular needs of nonwhite residents to reduce disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.10.090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404623PMC
September 2020

A contemporary analysis of goiters undergoing surgery in the United States.

Am J Surg 2020 08 8;220(2):341-348. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital. Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Philadelphia University and Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: We identified disparities and at-risk populations among patients with goiters undergoing thyroidectomy.

Materials And Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database was queried for patients with goiter who underwent thyroidectomy between 2009 and 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with goiters undergoing thyroidectomy.

Results: The study consisted of 103,678 patients with thyroidectomy and a goiter diagnosis, which included: simple goiter (n = 7,692, 7.42%), nodular goiter (n = 73,524, 70.92%), thyrotoxicosis (n = 14,043, 13.54%), thyroiditis (n = 1,248, 1.20%), and thyroid cancer (n = 7,169, 6.92%). Factors associated with operation for simple goiter included age >65 years (AOR 1.43 [1.15-1.79]), black race (AOR 1.35 [1.14-1.58]), and being uninsured (AOR 2.13 [1.52-2.98]). Patients with cancerous goiters undergoing thyroidectomy were less likely to be Black (AOR 0.38 [0.31-0.48]) or uninsured (AOR 0.25 [0.07-0.89]).

Discussion: Understanding disparities within populations undergoing thyroidectomy for goiter may allow for targeted efforts to more effectively treat goiters nationwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2020.01.005DOI Listing
August 2020

Acute readmission following deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson's disease: A nationwide analysis.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2020 01 19;70:96-102. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery is an efficacious, underutilized treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD). Studies of DBS post-operative outcomes are often restricted to data from a single center and consider DBS in isolation. National estimates of DBS readmission and post-operative outcomes are needed, as are comparisons to commonly performed surgeries.

Methods: This study used datasets from the 2013 and 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD). Our sample was restricted to PD patients discharged alive after hospitalization for DBS surgery. Descriptive analyses examined patient, clinical, hospital and index hospitalization characteristics. The all-cause, non-elective 30-day readmission rate after DBS was calculated, and logistic regression models were built to examine factors associated with readmission. Readmission rates for the most common surgical procedures were calculated and compared to DBS.

Results: There were 6058 DBS surgeries for PD in our sample, most often involving a male aged 65 and older, who lived in a high socioeconomic status zip code. DBS patients had an average of four comorbidities. With respect to outcomes, the majority of patients were discharged home (95.3%). Non-elective readmission was rare (4.9%), and was associated with socioeconomic status, comorbidity burden, and teaching hospital status. Much higher acute, non-elective readmission rates were observed for common procedures such as upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (16.2%), colonoscopy (14.0%), and cardiac defibrillator and pacemaker procedures (11.1%).

Conclusion: Short-term hospitalization outcomes after DBS are generally favorable. Socioeconomic disparities in DBS use persist. Additional efforts may be needed to improve provider referrals for and patient access to DBS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2019.11.023DOI Listing
January 2020

Readmissions after hospital care for meningitis in the United States.

Am J Infect Control 2020 07 18;48(7):798-804. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Informatics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA; Translational Center of Excellence for Neuroepidemiology and Neurological Outcomes Research, Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: Our objectives were to (1) characterize patient and clinical characteristics of adults hospitalized with meningitis; (2) describe meningitis hospitalization outcomes, including 30- and 90-day readmissions; and (3) determine whether clinical, patient, or index hospitalization characteristics are associated with readmission and readmission outcomes.

Methods: This retrospective study of the 2014 National Readmissions Database extracted data on hospitalized adults with a principal diagnosis of meningitis and examined hospitalization outcomes using descriptive statistics. Logistic regression models were built to determine whether characteristics were associated with 30- or 90-day readmissions.

Results: For the 30-day readmission analyses, 18,883 adults qualified. Meningitis hospitalizations commonly involved adults 25 to 54 years of age who were insured by private carriers. The readmission rates were 7.0% at 30 days and 11.4% at 90 days. Readmission was associated with greater comorbidity burden (2 conditions: adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.60, range 1.24-2.08; 3 conditions: AOR = 1.92, range 1.43-2.58; 4+ conditions: AOR = 2.68, range 2.04-3.51 vs 0 or 1 condition), public insurance (Medicare: AOR = 1.85, range 1.30-2.62; Medicaid: AOR = 1.48, range 1.16-1.90 vs private insurance), and medical error (AOR = 1.43, range 1.07-1.91). Readmissions were most often for meningitis, septicemia, or medical complications.

Conclusions: Readmission after hospitalization for meningitis is associated with both fixed and modifiable factors. More research is needed to determine which post-meningitis readmissions are preventable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2019.10.025DOI Listing
July 2020