Publications by authors named "Dyanne Rampling"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tumor to normal single-cell mRNA comparisons reveal a pan-neuroblastoma cancer cell.

Sci Adv 2021 Feb 5;7(6). Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Wellcome Sanger Institute, CB10 1SA Hinxton, UK.

Neuroblastoma is a childhood cancer that resembles developmental stages of the neural crest. It is not established what developmental processes neuroblastoma cancer cells represent. Here, we sought to reveal the phenotype of neuroblastoma cancer cells by comparing cancer ( = 19,723) with normal fetal adrenal single-cell transcriptomes ( = 57,972). Our principal finding was that the neuroblastoma cancer cell resembled fetal sympathoblasts, but no other fetal adrenal cell type. The sympathoblastic state was a universal feature of neuroblastoma cells, transcending cell cluster diversity, individual patients, and clinical phenotypes. We substantiated our findings in 650 neuroblastoma bulk transcriptomes and by integrating canonical features of the neuroblastoma genome with transcriptional signals. Overall, our observations indicate that a pan-neuroblastoma cancer cell state exists, which may be attractive for novel immunotherapeutic and targeted avenues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd3311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7864567PMC
February 2021

Antitumor activity without on-target off-tumor toxicity of GD2-chimeric antigen receptor T cells in patients with neuroblastoma.

Sci Transl Med 2020 11;12(571)

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London WC1N 1EH, UK.

The reprogramming of a patient's immune system through genetic modification of the T cell compartment with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has led to durable remissions in chemotherapy-refractory B cell cancers. Targeting of solid cancers by CAR-T cells is dependent on their infiltration and expansion within the tumor microenvironment, and thus far, fewer clinical responses have been reported. Here, we report a phase 1 study (NCT02761915) in which we treated 12 children with relapsed/refractory neuroblastoma with escalating doses of second-generation GD2-directed CAR-T cells and increasing intensity of preparative lymphodepletion. Overall, no patients had objective clinical response at the evaluation point +28 days after CAR-T cell infusion using standard radiological response criteria. However, of the six patients receiving ≥10/meter CAR-T cells after fludarabine/cyclophosphamide conditioning, two experienced grade 2 to 3 cytokine release syndrome, and three demonstrated regression of soft tissue and bone marrow disease. This clinical activity was achieved without on-target off-tumor toxicity. Targeting neuroblastoma with GD2 CAR-T cells appears to be a valid and safe strategy but requires further modification to promote CAR-T cell longevity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abd6169DOI Listing
November 2020

Quantitative assessment of terminal ileum motility on MR enterography in Crohn disease: a feasibility study in children.

Eur Radiol 2021 Feb 24;31(2):775-784. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Department of Radiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Great Ormond Street, London, Wc1N 3JH, UK.

Objectives: Investigate the relationship between quantified terminal ileal (TI) motility and histopathological activity grading, Crohn Disease MRI Index (CDMI) and faecal calprotectin.

Methods: Retrospective review of children with Crohn disease or unclassified inflammatory bowel disease, who underwent MR enterography. Dynamic imaging for 25 patients (median age 12, range 5 to 16) was analysed with a validated motility algorithm. The TI motility score was derived. The primary reference standard was TI Endoscopic biopsy Assessment of Inflammatory Activity (eAIS) within 40 days of the MR enterography. Secondary reference standards: (1) the Crohn Disease MRI Index (CDMI) and (2) faecal calprotectin levels.

Results: MR enterography median motility score was 0.17 a.u. (IQR 0.12 to 0.25; range 0.05 to 0.55), and median CDMI was 3 (IQR 0 to 5.5). Forty-three percent of patients had active disease (eAIS > 0) with a median eAIS score of 0 (IQR 0 to 2; range 0 to 5). The correlation between eAIS and motility was r = - 0.58 (p = 0.004, N = 23). Between CDMI and motility, r = - 0.42 (p = 0.037, N = 25). Motility score was lower in active disease (median 0.12 vs 0.21, p = 0.020) while CDMI was higher (median 5 vs 1, p = 0.04). In a subset of 12 patients with faecal calprotectin within 3 months of MR enterography, correlation with motility was r = - 0.27 (p = 0.4).

Conclusions: Quantified terminal ileum motility decreases with increasing histopathological abnormality in children with Crohn disease, reproducing findings in adults. TI motility showed a negative correlation with an MRI activity score but not with faecal calprotectin levels.

Key Points: • It is feasible to perform MRI quantified bowel motility assessment in children using free-breathing techniques. • Bowel motility in children with Crohn disease decreases as the extent of intestinal inflammation increases. • Quantified intestinal motility may be a candidate biomarker for treatment efficacy in children with Crohn disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-020-07084-1DOI Listing
February 2021

Embryonal precursors of Wilms tumor.

Science 2019 12;366(6470):1247-1251

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.

Adult cancers often arise from premalignant clonal expansions. Whether the same is true of childhood tumors has been unclear. To investigate whether Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma; a childhood kidney cancer) develops from a premalignant background, we examined the phylogenetic relationship between tumors and corresponding normal tissues. In 14 of 23 cases studied (61%), we found premalignant clonal expansions in morphologically normal kidney tissues that preceded tumor development. These clonal expansions were defined by somatic mutations shared between tumor and normal tissues but absent from blood cells. We also found hypermethylation of the locus, a known driver of Wilms tumor development, in 58% of the expansions. Phylogenetic analyses of bilateral tumors indicated that clonal expansions can evolve before the divergence of left and right kidney primordia. These findings reveal embryonal precursors from which unilateral and multifocal cancers develop.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aax1323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6914378PMC
December 2019

Correction of both immunodeficiency and hypoparathyroidism by thymus transplantation in complete DiGeorge syndrome.

Am J Transplant 2020 05 6;20(5):1447-1450. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, UCL Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London, UK.

Combined immune deficiency due to athymia in patients with complete DiGeorge syndrome can be corrected by allogeneic thymus transplantation. Hypoparathyroidism is a frequent concomitant clinical problem in these patients, which persists after thymus transplantation. Cotransplantation of allogeneic thymus and parental parathyroid tissue has been attempted but does not achieve durable correction of the patients' hypoparathyroidism due to parathyroid graft rejection. Surprisingly, we observed correction of hypoparathyroidism in one patient after thymus transplantation. Immunohistochemical analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed the presence of allogeneic parathyroid tissue in the patient's thymus transplant biopsy. Despite a lack of HLA-matching between thymus donor and recipient, the reconstituted immune system displays tolerance toward the thymus donor. Therefore we expect this patient's hypoparathyroidism to be permanently cured. It is recognised that ectopic parathyroid tissue is not infrequently found in the thymus. If such thymuses could be identified, we propose that their use would offer a compelling approach to achieving lasting correction of both immunodeficiency and hypoparathyroidism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15668DOI Listing
May 2020

Spatiotemporal immune zonation of the human kidney.

Science 2019 09;365(6460):1461-1466

Molecular Immunity Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK.

Tissue-resident immune cells are important for organ homeostasis and defense. The epithelium may contribute to these functions directly or by cross-talk with immune cells. We used single-cell RNA sequencing to resolve the spatiotemporal immune topology of the human kidney. We reveal anatomically defined expression patterns of immune genes within the epithelial compartment, with antimicrobial peptide transcripts evident in pelvic epithelium in the mature, but not fetal, kidney. A network of tissue-resident myeloid and lymphoid immune cells was evident in both fetal and mature kidney, with postnatal acquisition of transcriptional programs that promote infection-defense capabilities. Epithelial-immune cross-talk orchestrated localization of antibacterial macrophages and neutrophils to the regions of the kidney most susceptible to infection. Overall, our study provides a global overview of how the immune landscape of the human kidney is zonated to counter the dominant immunological challenge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aat5031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7343525PMC
September 2019

Generation and Clinical Application of Gene-Modified Autologous Epidermal Sheets in Netherton Syndrome: Lessons Learned from a Phase 1 Trial.

Hum Gene Ther 2019 09 5;30(9):1067-1078. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Programme, UCL GOS Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.

Netherton syndrome (NS) is a rare autosomal recessive skin disorder caused by mutations in . It is a debilitating condition with notable mortality in the early years of life. There is no curative treatment. We undertook a nonrandomized, open-label, feasibility, and safety study using autologous keratinocytes transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding under the control of the human involucrin promoter. Six NS subjects were recruited, and gene-modified epithelial sheets were successfully generated in three of five subjects. The sheets exhibited expression of correctly sized lympho-epithelial Kazal-type-related inhibitor (LEKTI) protein after modification. One subject was grafted with a 20 cm gene-modified graft on the left anterior thigh without any adverse complications and was monitored by serial sampling for 12 months. Recovery within the graft area was compared against an area outside by morphology, proviral copy number and expression of the encoded protein, LEKTI, and its downstream target kallikrein 5, which exhibited transient functional correction. The study confirmed the feasibility of generating lentiviral gene-modified epidermal sheets for inherited skin diseases such as NS, but sustained LEKTI expression is likely to require the identification, targeting, and engraftment of long-lived keratinocyte stem cell populations for durable therapeutic effects. Important learning points for the application of gene-modified epidermal sheets are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/hum.2019.049DOI Listing
September 2019

The presence of Y674/Y675 phosphorylated NTRK1 via TP53 repression of PTPN6 expression as a potential prognostic marker in neuroblastoma.

Hum Pathol 2019 04 27;86:182-192. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Developmental Biology and Cancer Program, UCL, Great Ormond Street Institute of Child Health, London WC1N 1EH, UK. Electronic address:

The tumor suppressor TP53 promotes nerve growth factor receptor (NTRK1) -Y674/Y675 phosphorylation (NTRK1-pY674/pY675) via repression of the NTRK1 phosphatase PTPN6 in a ligand-independent manner, resulting in suppression of breast cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, NTRK1-pY674/pY675 together with low levels of PTPN6 and TP53 expression is associated with favorable disease-free survival of breast cancer patients. We determined whether in neuroblastoma this protein expression pattern impacts relapse-free survival (RFS). NTRK1-pY674/pY675, PTPN6, and TP53 expression was assessed in 98 neuroblastoma samples by immunohistochemistry. Association between expression levels and RFS was investigated by multivariate and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Mutant or wild-type TP53 was identified by sequencing tumor DNA. Tumors expressing NTRK1-pY674/pY675 and low or undetectable levels of PTPN6 and TP53 were significantly associated with 5-year RFS (P = .014) when the dataset was stratified by MYCN amplification, segmental chromosomal abnormalities and histology. Similar results were observed with tumors expressing wild-type TP53, NTRK1-pY674/pY675 and low or undetectable levels of PTPN6. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a significant correlation (P = .004), with a 50% probability of RFS (median survival 4.73 years) when present compared with 19.51% (median survival 11.63 months) when absent. Similar results were seen with non-amplified MYCN or unfavorable/undifferentiating samples and tumors from patients aged 18 months or less. Importantly, NTRK1-pY674/pY675 is an independent predictor of improved RFS. These results strongly suggest that NTRK1-pY674/pY675 together with wild-type TP53 and undetectable or low levels of PTPN6 expression is a potential biomarker of improved RFS of neuroblastoma patients. The predictive value of NTRK1-pY674/pY675 together with wild-type TP53 and low PTPN6 expression could contribute to neuroblastoma patient prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2018.12.003DOI Listing
April 2019

Single-cell transcriptomes from human kidneys reveal the cellular identity of renal tumors.

Science 2018 08;361(6402):594-599

Wellcome Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.

Messenger RNA encodes cellular function and phenotype. In the context of human cancer, it defines the identities of malignant cells and the diversity of tumor tissue. We studied 72,501 single-cell transcriptomes of human renal tumors and normal tissue from fetal, pediatric, and adult kidneys. We matched childhood Wilms tumor with specific fetal cell types, thus providing evidence for the hypothesis that Wilms tumor cells are aberrant fetal cells. In adult renal cell carcinoma, we identified a canonical cancer transcriptome that matched a little-known subtype of proximal convoluted tubular cell. Analyses of the tumor composition defined cancer-associated normal cells and delineated a complex vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling circuit. Our findings reveal the precise cellular identities and compositions of human kidney tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aat1699DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6104812PMC
August 2018

Stem cell transplantation for tetratricopeptide repeat domain 7A deficiency: long-term follow-up.

Blood 2016 09 14;128(9):1306-8. Epub 2016 Jul 14.

Department of Immunology and Bone Marrow Transplantation, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom;

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-01-696385DOI Listing
September 2016

Sirolimus therapy in infants with severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia.

N Engl J Med 2014 Mar;370(12):1131-7

From the Developmental Endocrinology Research Group, Clinical and Molecular Genetics Unit, Institute of Child Health, University College London (S.S., P.S., V.A., K.H.), and the Departments of Paediatric Endocrinology (S.S., P.S., V.A., K.H.) and Histopathology (D.P., M.A.), Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London, and the Institute of Biomedical and Clinical Science, University of Exeter Medical School, Exeter (S.F., S.E.) - all in the United Kingdom; the Department of Pathology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco (S.A.); and the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston (N.T., R.E.B.).

Hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia is the most common cause of severe, persistent neonatal hypoglycemia. The treatment of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia that is unresponsive to diazoxide is subtotal pancreatectomy. We examined the effectiveness of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor sirolimus in four infants with severe hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia that had been unresponsive to maximal doses of diazoxide (20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day) and octreotide (35 μg per kilogram per day). All the patients had a clear glycemic response to sirolimus, although one patient required a small dose of octreotide to maintain normoglycemia. There were no major adverse events during 1 year of follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1310967DOI Listing
March 2014

Insulinoma in childhood: clinical, radiological, molecular and histological aspects of nine patients.

Eur J Endocrinol 2014 May 10;170(5):741-7. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

Pediatric Endocrinology, Royal Manchester Children's Hospital, Manchester M13 9WL, UK.

Background: Insulinomas are a rare cause of hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (HH) in children. The clinical features, investigations, management and histology of these rare pancreatic tumours in children have not been described in a large cohort of patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2012, presenting to two referral centres in the United Kingdom. Clinical, biochemical, imaging (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 6-L-¹⁸F-fluorodihydroxyphenylalanine (¹⁸F-DOPA) PET/CT scanning) and histological data were collected.

Results: Nine children (age range 2-14.5 years) were diagnosed during the study period at Great Ormond Street Hospital (n=5) and Royal Manchester Children's Hospital (n=4). The combination of abdominal MRI scan (7/8) and ¹⁸F-DOPA PET/CT scan (2/4) correctly localised the anatomical location of all insulinomas. Before surgery, diazoxide therapy was used to treat hypoglycaemia, but only four patients responded. After surgical resection of the insulinoma, hypoglycaemia resolved in all patients. The anatomical localisation of the insulinoma in each patient was head (n=4), uncinate process (n=4) and tail (n=2, one second lesion) of the pancreas. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of insulinoma with the presence of sheets and trabeculae of epithelioid and spindle cells staining strongly for insulin and proinsulin, but not for glucagon or somatostatin. Two children were positive for MEN1, one of whom had two separate insulinoma lesions within the pancreas.

Conclusions: We describe a cohort of paediatric insulinoma patients. Although rare, insulinomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of HH, even in very young children. In the absence of a single imaging modality in the preoperative period, localisation of the tumour is achieved by combining imaging techniques, both conventional and functional.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EJE-13-1008DOI Listing
May 2014

Rapid and accurate determination of MYCN copy number and 1p deletion in neuroblastoma by quantitative PCR.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006 Jun;46(7):820-4

Department of Oncology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, Unit of Molecular Haematology and Cancer Biology, Institute of Child Health, London, United Kingdom.

MYCN amplification and 1p36 deletion are adverse prognostic factors in neuroblastoma, and rapid accurate determination of MYCN amplification is essential for risk stratification. MYCN copy number and 1p36 deletion status were determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and real time PCR in a diagnostic pathology laboratory setting on 35 consecutive patients with neuroblastoma. The PCR technique was technically successful in all cases and results were generally available within 24 hr of biopsy. There was no discordance between FISH and PCR results. Real time PCR is a reliable, accurate, and simple technique that can be applied to small neuroblastoma biopsies allowing rapid diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.20311DOI Listing
June 2006

Standardization of the immunocytochemical detection of neuroblastoma cells in bone marrow.

J Histochem Cytochem 2005 Dec 13;53(12):1433-40. Epub 2005 Jun 13.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Ghent University Hospital, Belgium.

Standard cytomorphological examination of bone marrow (BM) aspirates does not appear to be sensitive enough to detect single neuroblastoma cells. The SIOPEN Neuroblastoma Bone Marrow Committee developed a sensitive and reproducible anti-GD2 immunocytochemical assay and introduced morphological and immunocytological criteria for the interpretation of results. Fixed cytospins were incubated with a commercially available anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody and an APAAP kit. Cells fulfilling all morphological and immunocytological criteria were called criteria-positive cells (CPCs). Not convincingly interpretable cells fulfilled some, but not all, criteria, and negative cells displayed only exclusion criteria. The genetic profile of doubtful cells was checked by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Ideally, 3 x 10(6) cells were analyzed to reach a 95% probability of detecting one tumor cell in 1 x 10(6) mononuclear cells. Four quality control rounds were organized to validate the method. A total of 111 quality control samples were analyzed. Two main improvements were achieved: in discordant cases, the range between the lowest and highest reported result was reduced by half, and discordant results were only found in samples with less than 10 CPCs per 1 x 10(6). This article describes the first internationally standardized protocol to detect and quantify rare neuroblastoma cells by immunocytochemistry. This method is an indispensable tool for multicenter studies evaluating the clinical significance of minimal residual disease in neuroblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/jhc.5C6661.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3957549PMC
December 2005

Immunohistochemical findings in embryonal small round cell tumors with molecular diagnostic confirmation.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2005 Mar;13(1):1-5

Department of Paediatric Pathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

The diagnosis of pediatric tumors relies heavily on immunohistochemical staining of small tissue biopsies, since many entities share a "small blue cell" phenotype. More recently, molecular genetic analysis for detection of specific gene fusion products has become available. With the increased use of such molecular techniques, the authors have noted that tumors with proven molecular diagnoses can exhibit unusual patterns of immunohistochemical staining. This study examines pediatric tumors with a "small blue cell" phenotype in which molecular diagnoses were available where applicable. A panel of immunohistochemical stains was performed (S100, CD56, NB84, CD99 [MIC2], Bcl-2, CD117, CD34, desmin, MNF116, and WT1). In the 370 sections from 37 cases, all primitive neuroectodermal tumors, with and without the presence of t(11;22), demonstrated uniform membranous membrane staining with CD99 (MIC2) and focal staining with CD56, NB84, MNF116, and WT1. All rhabdomyosarcomas, both alveolar and embryonal, demonstrated uniform desmin, CD56, and cytoplasmic WT1 immunostaining. Desmoplastic small round cell tumors showed positive cytokeratin staining, with half having "dot-like" cytoplasmic desmin and WT1 positivity; some showed focal positivity for NB84, CD99, and Bcl-2. The "undifferentiated" sarcomas showed the widest range of staining, with no marker staining all cases. Neuroblastomas exhibited uniform strong staining for CD56 and NB84 and marked cytoplasmic Bcl-2 positivity, and some cases showed cytoplasmic WT1 expression. Blastematous Wilms' tumors showed uniform strong membranous staining for CD56, uniform cytoplasmic staining for Bcl-2, and nuclear expression of WT1. Embryonal pediatric malignancies can demonstrate apparently nonspecific expression patterns for several antigens, which may reflect developmental immaturity rather than specific differentiation pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00129039-200503000-00001DOI Listing
March 2005

The nature of colitis in chronic granulomatous disease.

J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2003 May;36(5):623-31

Departments of Gastroenterology, dagger Immunology, and double dagger Histopathology, Institute of Child Health and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK.

Background: Patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) may have gastrointestinal manifestations, commonly colitis. The etiology, prevalence, and inflammatory process of CGD colitis are unclear.

Objectives: To characterize the inflammatory process of CGD colitis and to compare it with other inflammatory bowel disorders.

Methods: Colonic mucosal biopsies from 8 CGD patients were immunostained for eosinophils, neutrophils, macrophages, and adhesion molecules (ICAM; VCAM, E-selectin) and compared with normal and diseased controls (allergic colitis, ulcerative colitis, and melanosis coli). Cell types were counted and expressed as cell/mm2.

Results: The inflammatory infiltrate in CGD colitis differed from the normal controls by an increase in eosinophils (110; 48-176 [median and range] versus 14.5; 3-30; P < 0.005) and macrophages (291.5; 203-480 versus 38.5; 27-64; P < 0.005). There was a paucity of neutrophils compared to ulcerative colitis (10; 0-101 versus 315.5; 78-688; P < 0.005). Expression of HLA-DR was increased in the epithelium and vascular endothelium in CGD compared with normal controls. Patterns of expression of the adhesion molecules differed significantly in CGD from those in other inflammatory bowel diseases: intracellular adhesion molecule-1 was more strongly expressed in the lamina propria, vascular adhesion molecule-1 was more patchily expressed, and E-selectin was present only in the small vessels.

Conclusions: The mechanism of inflammation and profile of inflammatory mediators in CGD colitis differs from that in other inflammatory bowel diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005176-200305000-00006DOI Listing
May 2003